Results for 'environment'

999 found
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  1. The Environment Ontology: Contextualising Biological and Biomedical Entities.Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Norman Morrison, Barry Smith, Christopher J. Mungall & Suzanna E. Lewis - 2013 - Journal of Biomedical Semantics 4 (43):1-9.
    As biological and biomedical research increasingly reference the environmental context of the biological entities under study, the need for formalisation and standardisation of environment descriptors is growing. The Environment Ontology (ENVO) is a community-led, open project which seeks to provide an ontology for specifying a wide range of environments relevant to multiple life science disciplines and, through an open participation model, to accommodate the terminological requirements of all those needing to annotate data using ontology classes. This paper summarises (...)
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  2. Proper Environment and the SEP Account of Biological Function.Michael Bertrand - 2013 - Synthese 190 (9):1503-1517.
    The survival enhancing propensity (SEP) account has a crucial role to play in the analysis of proper function. However, a central feature of the account, its specification of the proper environment to which functions are relativized, is seriously underdeveloped. In this paper, I argue that existent accounts of proper environment fail because they either allow too many or too few characters to count as proper functions. While SEP accounts retain their promise, they are unworkable because of their inability (...)
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  3. Defining the Environment in Organism–Environment Systems.Amanda Corris - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11:1285.
    Enactivism and ecological psychology converge on the relevance of the environment in understanding perception and action. On both views, perceiving organisms are not merely passive receivers of environmental stimuli, but rather form a dynamic relationship with their environments in such a way that shapes how they interact with the world. In this paper, I suggest that while enactivism and ecological psychology enjoy a shared specification of the environment as the cognitive domain, on both accounts, the structure of the (...)
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  4. Adapting the Environment Instead of Oneself.David Kirsh - 1996 - Adaptive Behavior 4 (3-4):415-452.
    This paper examines some of the methods animals and humans have of adapting their environment. Because there are limits on how many different tasks a creature can be designed to do well in, creatures with the capacity to redesign their environments have an adaptive advantage over those who can only passively adapt to existing environmental structures. To clarify environmental redesign I rely on the formal notion of a task environment as a directed graph where the nodes are states (...)
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  5. Ethics, Philosophy and the Environment.Arran Gare - 2018 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 14 (3):219-240.
    Educated people everywhere now acknowledge that ecological destruction is threatening the future of civilization. While philosophers have concerned themselves with environmental problems, they appear to offer little to deal with this crisis. Despite this, I will argue that philosophy, and ethics, are absolutely crucial to overcoming this crisis. Philosophy has to recover its grand ambitions to achieve a comprehensive understanding of nature and the place of humanity within it, and ethics needs to be centrally concerned with the virtues required to (...)
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  6. The Information Environment and Blameworthy Beliefs.Boyd Millar - 2019 - Social Epistemology 33 (6):525-537.
    Thanks to the advent of social media, large numbers of Americans believe outlandish falsehoods that have been widely debunked. Many of us have a tendency to fault the individuals who hold such beliefs. We naturally assume that the individuals who form and maintain such beliefs do so in virtue of having violated some epistemic obligation: perhaps they failed to scrutinize their sources, or failed to seek out the available competing evidence. I maintain that very many ordinary individuals who acquire outlandish (...)
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  7. Does It Matter Where You Read? Situating Narrative in Physical Environment.Anezka Kuzmicova - 2016 - Communication Theory 26 (3):290-308.
    While language use in general is currently being explored as essentially situated in immediate physical environment, narrative reading is primarily regarded as a means of decoupling one’s consciousness from the environment. In order to offer a more diversified view of narrative reading, the article distinguishes between three different roles the environment can play in the reading experience. Next to the traditional notion that environmental stimuli disrupt attention, the article proposes that they can also serve as a prop (...)
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  8. The Theory of the Organism-Environment System: I. Description of the Theory.Timo Jarvilehto - 1998 - Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 33 (4):321-334.
    The theory of the organism-environment system starts with the proposition that in any functional sense organism and environment are inseparable and form only one unitary system. The organism cannot exist without the environment and the environment has descriptive properties only if it is connected to the organism. Although for practical purposes we do separate organism and environment, this common-sense starting point leads in psychological theory to problems which cannot be solved. Therefore, separation of organism and (...)
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  9. THE EFFICIENCY EXTENT OF THE INTERNAL CONTROL ENVIRONMENT IN THE PALESTINIAN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN GAZA STRIP.Tarek M. Ammar, Mazen J. Al Shobaki & Samy S. Abu Naser - 2017 - International Journal of Digital Publication Technology 1 (2):107-126.
    The purpose of this research is to identify the extent of the efficiency of the internal control environment in the Palestinian higher educational institutions in Gaza Strip from the perspective of employees in the Palestinian universities in Gaza Strip, where researchers used in the study five universities. The researchers adopted in their study the descriptive and analytical approach. The research community consists of administrative employees and academic employees with administrative duties. Senior management or the University Council was excluded. The (...)
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  10. A Semantics for Virtual Environments and the Ontological Status of Virtual Objects.David Leech Anderson - 2009 - APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers 9 (1):15-19.
    Virtual environments engage millions of people and billions of dollars each year. What is the ontological status of the virtual objects that populate those environments? An adequate answer to that question requires a developed semantics for virtual environments. The truth-conditions must be identified for “tree”-sentences when uttered by speakers immersed in a virtual environment (VE). It will be argued that statements about virtual objects have truth-conditions roughly comparable to the verificationist conditions popular amongst some contemporary antirealists. This does not (...)
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  11. Objects and Their Environments: From Aristotle to Ecological Ontology.Barry Smith - 2001 - In Andrew U. Frank, Jonathan Raper & Jean-Paul Cheylan (eds.), The Life and Motion of Socio-Economic Units. London: Taylor & Francis. pp. 79-97.
    What follows is a contribution to the theory of space and of spatial objects. It takes as its starting point the philosophical subfield of ontology, which can be defined as the science of what is: of the various types and categories of objects and relations in all realms of being. More specifically, it begins with ideas set forth by Aristotle in his Categories and Metaphysics, two works which constitute the first great contributions to ontological science. Because Aristotle’s ontological ideas were (...)
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  12.  79
    Business Environment of Enterprise.Sergii Sardak & Movchanenko I. Sardak S. - 2018 - In Imperatives of development of civil society in promoting national competitiveness – 2018: 1st International Scientific and Practical Conference. pp. 108-109.
    Summing up, we note that the business environment has high dynamism, information uncertainty and unpredictability of events and results of their activities, which requires a revision of traditional approaches to the formation of competitive strategies and management in the global economic space.
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  13. Aesthetics and Environment Reconsidered: Reply to Carlson: Articles.Arnold Berleant - 2007 - British Journal of Aesthetics 47 (3):315-318.
    Allen Carlson finds three central problems in my book, Aesthetics and Environment : that it lacks a criterion of the aesthetic itself, that my proposal, aesthetic engagement, is excessively subjective, and that we cannot therefore distinguish between ‘easy’ and ‘serious’ beauty. I respond by uncovering the metaphysical assumptions on which his critique rests and offer more plausible alternatives. I argue, further, that their implications are not only acceptable but fully satisfactory.
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  14. Artificial Beings Worthy of Moral Consideration in Virtual Environments: An Analysis of Ethical Viability.Stefano Gualeni - 2020 - Journal of Virtual Worlds Research 13 (1).
    This article explores whether and under which circumstances it is ethically viable to include artificial beings worthy of moral consideration in virtual environments. In particular, the article focuses on virtual environments such as those in digital games and training simulations – interactive and persistent digital artifacts designed to fulfill specific purposes, such as entertainment, education, training, or persuasion. The article introduces the criteria for moral consideration that serve as a framework for this analysis. Adopting this framework, the article tackles the (...)
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  15.  30
    Extending Environments To Measure Self-Reflection In Reinforcement Learning.Samuel Allen Alexander, Michael Castaneda, Kevin Compher & Oscar Martinez - manuscript
    We consider an extended notion of reinforcement learning in which the environment can simulate the agent and base its outputs on the agent's hypothetical behavior. Since good performance usually requires paying attention to whatever things the environment's outputs are based on, we argue that for an agent to achieve on-average good performance across many such extended environments, it is necessary for the agent to self-reflect. Thus, an agent's self-reflection ability can be numerically estimated by running the agent through (...)
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  16.  54
    Intensity and the Sublime: Paying Attention to Self and Environment in Nature Sports.Leslie A. Howe - 2017 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 13 (1):1-13.
    This paper responds to Kevin Krein’s claim in that the particular value of nature sports over traditional ones is that they offer intensity of sport experience in dynamic interaction between an athlete and natural features. He denies that this intensity is derived from competitive conflict of individuals and denies that nature sport derives its value from internal conflict within the athlete who carries out the activity. This paper responds directly to Krein by analysing ‘intensity’ in sport in terms of the (...)
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  17. The Theory of the Organism-Environment System: IV. The Problem of Mental Activity and Consciousness.Timo Jarvilehto - 2000 - Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 35 (1):35-57.
    The present article is an attempt to bring together the development of mental activity and consciousness in the framework of the organism-environment theory (Jarvilehto, 1998a, 1998b, 1999); the main question is how the development of mental activity and consciousness can be formulated if the starting point is not the separation of man and environment as in traditional cognitive psychology, but a unitary organism-environment system. According to the present formulation, mental activity is conceived as activity of the whole (...)
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  18. Autonomous Cognitive Systems in Real-World Environments: Less Control, More Flexibility and Better Interaction.Vincent C. Müller - 2012 - Cognitive Computation 4 (3):212-215.
    In October 2011, the “2nd European Network for Cognitive Systems, Robotics and Interaction”, EUCogII, held its meeting in Groningen on “Autonomous activity in real-world environments”, organized by Tjeerd Andringa and myself. This is a brief personal report on why we thought autonomy in real-world environments is central for cognitive systems research and what I think I learned about it. --- The theses that crystallized are that a) autonomy is a relative property and a matter of degree, b) increasing autonomy of (...)
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  19.  51
    ENVIRONMENT, SOCIAL ISSUES AND BIODIVERSITY.Ak Verma - 2020 - In Dr A. K. Verma (ed.), ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY. Prayagraj, India: Government P.G. College Saidabad, Prayagraj (U.P.). pp. 9-12.
    Environment is the sum total of conditions in which an organism has to maintain its life process in order to survive. It consists of matter and energy. The interaction of matter and energy forms a system of abiotic (non-living) and biotic (living) components. All organisms including humans are parts of biotic components. Society is a group of people who share a common economic, social and industrial infrastructure or an organization of people who share a common cultural and social background (...)
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  20.  47
    Disentangling Life: Darwin, Selectionism, and the Postgenomic Return of the Environment.Maurizio Meloni - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 62:10-19.
    In this paper, I analyze the disruptive impact of Darwinian selectionism for the century-long tradition in which the environment had a direct causative role in shaping an organism’s traits. In the case of humans, the surrounding environment often determined not only the physical, but also the mental and moral features of individuals and whole populations. With its apparatus of indirect effects, random variations, and a much less harmonious view of nature and adaptation, Darwinian selectionism severed the deep imbrication (...)
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  21. The Relatively Infinite Value of the Environment.Paul Bartha & C. Tyler DesRoches - 2017 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 95 (2):328-353.
    Some environmental ethicists and economists argue that attributing infinite value to the environment is a good way to represent an absolute obligation to protect it. Others argue against modelling the value of the environment in this way: the assignment of infinite value leads to immense technical and philosophical difficulties that undermine the environmentalist project. First, there is a problem of discrimination: saving a large region of habitat is better than saving a small region; yet if both outcomes have (...)
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  22. HCI Model with Learning Mechanism for Cooperative Design in Pervasive Computing Environment.Hong Liu, Bin Hu & Philip Moore - 2015 - Journal of Internet Technology 16.
    This paper presents a human-computer interaction model with a three layers learning mechanism in a pervasive environment. We begin with a discussion around a number of important issues related to human-computer interaction followed by a description of the architecture for a multi-agent cooperative design system for pervasive computing environment. We present our proposed three- layer HCI model and introduce the group formation algorithm, which is predicated on a dynamic sharing niche technology. Finally, we explore the cooperative reinforcement learning (...)
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  23. Characters and Environments.Massimo Pigliucci - 2001 - In G. P. Wagner (ed.), The Character Concept in Evolutionary Biology. Academic Press.
    The concepts of reaction norms and phenotypic plasticity help us better understand what a biological trait is.
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  24. The Theory of the Organism-Environment System: III. Role of Efferent Influences on Receptors in the Formation of Knowledge.Timo Jarvilehto - 1999 - Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 34 (2):90-100.
    The present article is an attempt to give - in the frame of the theory of the organism - environment system - a new interpretation to the role of efferent influences on receptor activity and to the functions of senses in the formation of knowledge. It is argued, on the basis of experimental evidence and theoretical considerations, that the senses are not transmitters of environmental information, but they create a direct connection between the organism and the environment, which (...)
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  25. Universalism and Ethical Values for the Environment.Jasdev Singh Rai, Celia Thorheim, Amarbayasgalan Dorjderem & Darryl Macer - 2010 - UNESCO Bangkok.
    This book discusses a variety of world views that we can find to describe human relationships with the environment, and the underlying values in them. It reviews existing international legal instruments discussing some of the ethical values that have been agreed among member states of the United Nations.
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  26. A Framework of Values: Reasons for Conserving Biodiversity and Natural Environments.Pierfrancesco Biasetti - 2016 - Etica & Politica / Ethics & Politics 18 (3):527-545.
    The idea that «natural» environments should be protected is a relatively recent one. This new attitude is reflected in the activities of preservation and restoration of natural environments, ecosystems, flora and wildlife that, when scientifically based, can be defined as conservation. In this paper, we would like to examine the framework of values behind these activities. More specifically, we would like to show that there is no single specific reason that can justify conservation in each of its manifestations It is (...)
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  27. Environments of Intelligence. From Natural Information to Artficial Interaction.Hajo Greif - 2017 - London: Routledge.
    What is the role of the environment, and of the information it provides, in cognition? More specifically, may there be a role for certain artefacts to play in this context? These are questions that motivate "4E" theories of cognition (as being embodied, embedded, extended, enactive). In his take on that family of views, Hajo Greif first defends and refines a concept of information as primarily natural, environmentally embedded in character, which had been eclipsed by information-processing views of cognition. He (...)
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  28. Exchange Relationships and the Environment: The Acceptability of Compensation in the Siting of Waste Disposal Facilities.Edmundo Claro - 2007 - Environmental Values 16 (2):187-208.
    Within siting literature there is strong agreement that compensation for environmental risks is a necessary condition for local acceptance of waste treatment facilities. In-kind compensation is commonly pushed forward as being more effective than financial benefits in reducing local opposition. By forcusing on the siting of a sanitary landfill in Santiago, Chile, this paper explores the performance of both types of compensation and relates the analysis to the notion of social norms of exchange. These are understood as being based on (...)
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  29. The Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain Ontology – Towards an International Information System for Space Data.Robert J. Rovetto - 2016 Sept - In Proceedings of The Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies (AMOS) Conference.
    The orbital space environment is home to natural and artificial satellites, debris, and space weather phenomena. As the population of orbital objects grows so do the potential hazards to astronauts, space infrastructure and spaceflight capability. Orbital debris, in particular, is a universal concern. This and other hazards can be minimized by improving global space situational awareness (SSA). By sharing more data and increasing observational coverage of the space environment we stand to achieve that goal, thereby making spaceflight safer (...)
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  30. Responding with Dao : Early Daoist Ethics and the Environment.Eric Sean Nelson - 2009 - Philosophy East and West 59 (3):pp. 294-316.
    Early Daoism, as articulated in the Daodejing and the Zhuangzi, indirectly addresses environmental issues by intimating a non-reductive naturalistic ethics calling on humans to be open and responsive to the specificities and interconnections of the world and environment to which they belong. "Dao" is not a substantial immanent or transcendent entity but the lived enactment of the intrinsic worth of the "myriad things" and the natural world occurring through how humans address and are addressed by them. Early Daoism potentially (...)
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  31.  10
    Science and the Environment: A New Enlightenment.Nicholas Maxwell - 1997 - Science and Public Affairs (Spring 1997):50-56.
    Nicholas Maxwell believes that while we have developed an excellent way of learning about the nature of the universe, we have so far failed in our attempts to apply this method to create a civilized world.
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  32. Memory, Environment, and the Brain.César Schirmer Dos Santos - 2013 - Filosofia Unisinos 14 (3):204-214.
    In recent decades, investigation of brain injuries associated with amnesia allowed progress in the philosophy and science of memory, but it also paved the way for the hubris of assuming that memory is an exclusively neural phenomenon. Nonetheless, there are methodological and conceptual reasons preventing a reduction of the ecological and contextual phenomenon of memory to a neural phenomenon, since memory is the observed action of an individual before being the simple output of a brain (or, at least, so we (...)
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  33. Theory of Multiple Thinking Environments.Ravi Singh - manuscript
    Theory of multiple thinking environments As there is a physical environment, there exists a psychological environment that governs many psychological processes including our thinking. This psychological environment is unique to each person and is framed in the initial few years since the child is born and represents the native environment of that person. This psychological environment is a collection of all those elements responsible for it to become a source of thought and maintain that thought (...)
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  34.  22
    Enacting Environments: From Umwelts to Institutions.Mog Stapleton - 2022 - In Karyn Lai (ed.), Knowers and Knowledge in East-West Philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham: pp. 159-189.
    What we know is enabled and constrained by what we are. Extended and enactive approaches to cognitive science explore the ways in which our embodiment enables us to relate to the world. On these accounts, rather than being merely represented in the brain, the world and our activity in it plays an on-going role in our perceptual and cognitive processes. In this chapter I outline some of the key influences on extended and enactive philosophy and cognitive science in order to (...)
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  35. Where Am I? The Problem of Bilocation in Virtual Environments.Geert Gooskens - 2010 - Postgraduate Journal of Aesthetics 7 (3):13-24.
    In this paper, I deal with a striking phenomenon that often occurs when we explore the virtual environment of, for example, a video game. Suppose a friend sees me playing a video game and asks ‘Where are you?’ There are two possible answers to this question. I can either refer to my actual location (‘I am in my room’), but I can also refer to my location in the virtual world (‘I am in a space-ship’). Although my friend is (...)
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  36. Toward a Realistic Science of Environments.Barry Smith - 2009 - Ecological Psychology 21 (2):121-130.
    The perceptual psychologist J. J. Gibson embraces a radically externalistic view of mind and action. We have, for Gibson, not a Cartesian mind or soul, with its interior theater of contents and the consequent problem of explaining how this mind or soul and its psychological environment can succeed in grasping physical objects external to itself. Rather, we have a perceiving, acting organism, whose perceptions and actions are always already tuned to the parts and moments, the things and surfaces, of (...)
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  37. The Theory of the Organism-Environment System: II. Significance of Nervous Activity in the Organism-Environment System.Timo Jarvilehto - 1998 - Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 33 (4):335-342.
    The relation between mental processes and brain activity is studied from the point of view of the theory of the organism-environment system. It is argued that the systemic point of view leads to a new kind of definition of the primary tasks of neurophysiology and to a new understanding of the traditional neurophysiological concepts. Neurophysiology is restored to its place as a part of biology: its task is the study of neurons as living units, not as computer chips. Neurons (...)
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  38. The Aesthetics of Natural Environments. [REVIEW]J. Robert Loftis - 2005 - Environmental Ethics 27 (4):429-432.
    This is a very positive review of Carlson, Allen, and Arnold Berleant, ed. 2004. The Aesthetics of Natural Environments. Broadview Press. -/- .
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  39. Talking in the Present, Caring for the Future: Language and Environment.Astghik Mavisakalyan, Yashar Taverdi & Clas Weber - 2018 - Journal of Comparative Economics 46 (4):1370-1387.
    This paper identifies a new source that explains environmental behaviour: the presence of future tense marking in language. We predict that languages that grammatically mark the future affect speakers' intertemporal preferences and thereby reduce their willingness to address environmental problems. We first show that speakers of languages with future tense marking are less likely to adopt environmentally responsible behaviours and to support policies to prevent environmental damage. We then document that this effect holds across countries: future tense marking is an (...)
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  40.  26
    Building Inclusive Environments for All Ages with Citizens.Willeke van Staalduinen, Carina Dantas, Joost Van Hoof & Andrzej Klimczuk - 2021 - In Francisco Melero & Mike Burnard (eds.), Sheldon 3rd Online Conference Meeting: Solutions for ageing well at home, in the community and at work - Proceedings Book. Yecla, Spain: Technical Research Centre of Furniture and Wood of the Region of Murcia. pp. 143–153.
    The paper provides an introduction to the public discourse around the notion of smart healthy inclusive environments. First, the basic ideas are explained and related to citizen participation in the context of implementation of a "society for all ages" concept disseminated by the United Nations. Next, the text discusses selected initiatives of the European Commission in the field of intergenerational programming and policies as well as features of the COST Action NET4Age-Friendly: Smart Healthy Age-Friendly Environments (SHAFE). The following sections are (...)
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  41. Adapting Clinical Ontologies in Real-World Environments.Holger Stenzhorn, Stefan Schulz, Martin Boeker & Barry Smith - 2008 - Journal of Universal Computer Science 14 (22):3767-3780.
    The desideratum of semantic interoperability has been intensively discussed in medical informatics circles in recent years. Originally, experts assumed that this issue could be sufficiently addressed by insisting simply on the application of shared clinical terminologies or clinical information models. However, the use of the term ‘ontology’ has been steadily increasing more recently. We discuss criteria for distinguishing clinical ontologies from clinical terminologies and information models. Then, we briefly present the role clinical ontologies play in two multicentric research projects. Finally, (...)
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  42. Reconciling the Irreconcilable: The Global Economy and the Environment[REVIEW]Deborah C. Poff - 1994 - Journal of Business Ethics 13 (6):439-445.
    This paper focusses on the relationship among structural adjustment policies and practices, the business activities of transnational corporations and what Robert Reich has called the coming irrelevance of corporate nationality. The argument presented is that the force of these combined factors makes environmental sustainability impossible.
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  43. Creating a Warmer Environment for Women in the Mathematical Sciences and in Philosophy.Samantha Brennan & Rob Corless - unknown
    Speaking from our experience as department chairs in fields in which women are traditionally underrepresented, we offer reflections and advice on how one might move beyond the chilly climate and create a warmer environment for women students and faculty members.
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  44.  79
    What is the Environment in Environmental Health Research? Perspectives From the Ethics of Science.David M. Frank - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 88:172-180.
    Environmental health research produces scientific knowledge about environmental hazards crucial for public health and environmental justice movements that seek to prevent or reduce exposure to these hazards. The environment in environmental health research is conceptualized as the range of possible social, biological, chemical, and/or physical hazards or risks to human health, some of which merit study due to factors such as their probability and severity, the feasibility of their remediation, and injustice in their distribution. This paper explores the ethics (...)
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  45.  71
    The Politics of Environments Before the Environment: Biopolitics in the Longue Durée.Maurizio Meloni - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A.
    Our understanding of body–world relations is caught in a curious contradiction. On one side, it is well established that many concepts that describe interaction with the outer world – ‘plasticity’ or ‘metabolism’- or external influences on the body - ‘environment’ or ‘milieu’ – appeared with the rise of modern science. On the other side, although premodern science lacked a unifying term for it, an anxious attentiveness to the power of ‘environmental factors’ in shaping physical and moral traits held sway (...)
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  46.  91
    Surviving Homophobia: Overcoming Evil Environments.Claudia Card - 2018 - In Shlomit Harrosh & Roger Crisp (eds.), Moral Evil in Practical Ethics. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 145-164.
    Thinking of the evils of homophobia and what is needed to survive them requires acknowledging a new category of evil besides the evils of individual deeds, social practices and social structures. That further category is evil social environments. Building on the work of Jeremy Waldron on the harm in hate speech, this chapter extends that account to certain hate crimes that, like the written word, send a lingering social message. The cases of four women survivors of homophobia are then examined (...)
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  47. Establishing and Harmonizing Ontologies in an Interdisciplinary Health Care and Clinical Research Environment.Barry Smith & Mathias Brochhausen - 2008 - Studies in Health, Technology and Informatics 134:219-234.
    Ontologies are being ever more commonly used in biomedical informatics and we provide a survey of some of these uses, and of the relations between ontologies and other terminology resources. In order for ontologies to become truly useful, two objectives must be met. First, ways must be found for the transparent evaluation of ontologies. Second, existing ontologies need to be harmonised. We argue that one key foundation for both ontology evaluation and harmonisation is the adoption of a realist paradigm in (...)
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  48.  79
    Science, Concepts, and the Social Environment.Michael Halewood - unknown
    This paper will suggest that the work of Alfred North Whitehead provides a fruitful resource for understanding the philosophical development and validity of scientific concepts through an analysis of their socio-historical location. The paper will address two key elements of Whitehead's thought. One element is "the bifurcation of nature" and the paper traces the influence that this conceptual compromise has had on philosophy and science through its reinforcement of the division between the natural and the social sciences. The second element (...)
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  49. Cost Benefit Analysis and the Environment.N. Hanley & C. Spash - 1996 - Environmental Values 5 (2):182-183.
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  50.  95
    Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain Ontology.Robert J. Rovetto - 2016 - In Stefano Borgo, Jean-Rémi Bourguet & Adrien Barton (eds.), CEUR workshop proceedings of The Joint Ontology Workshops, with the 9th International Conference of Formal Ontology for Information Systems (FOIS), Early Career Symposium. CEUR Scientific Workshops.
    A short summary paper of my Orbital Space Domain Ontology project (purl.org/space-ontology), originally conceived in 2011. Since then I've sought (without success) opportunities to realize it (either as a PhD or other degree thesis; or in an employment position) toward my original passion of entering the space sector and gaining further space education. Since then persons in the relevant space disciplines have seen the potential in it, and unfortunately some have taken advantage of my ideas yet excluded me from work. (...)
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