Results for 'signs'

664 found
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  1. Ethical issues in genomics research on neurodevelopmental disorders: a critical interpretive review.Signe Mezinska, L. Gallagher, M. Verbrugge & E. M. Bunnik - 2021 - Human Genomics 16 (15).
    Background Genomic research on neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), particularly involving minors, combines and amplifies existing research ethics issues for biomedical research. We performed a review of the literature on the ethical issues associated with genomic research involving children affected by NDDs as an aid to researchers to better anticipate and address ethical concerns. Results Qualitative thematic analysis of the included articles revealed themes in three main areas: research design and ethics review, inclusion of research participants, and communication of research results. Ethical (...)
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  2. Two Uummarmiutun modals – including a brief comparison with Utkuhikšalingmiutut cognates.Signe Rix Berthelin - 2017 - Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 39.
    The paper is concerned with the meaning of two modal postbases in Uummarmiutun, hungnaq ‘probably’ and ȓukȓau ‘should’. Uummarmiutun is an Inuktut dialect spoken in the Western Arctic. The analyses are founded on knowledge shared by native speakers of Uummarmiutun. Their statements and elaborations are quoted throughout the paper to show how they have explained the meaning nuances of modal expressions in their language. The paper also includes a comparison with cognates in Utkuhikšalingmiutut, which belongs to the eastern part of (...)
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  3. Becoming and being a biobank donor: The role of relationships and ethics.Signe Mezinska, Ilze Mileiko & Jekaterina Kaleja - 2020 - PLoS ONE 11 (15):1-14.
    Relational aspects, such as involvement of donor’s relatives or friends in the decision-making on participation in a research biobank, providing relatives’ health data to researchers, or sharing research findings with relatives should be considered when reflecting on ethical aspects of research biobanks. The aim of this paper is to explore what the role of donor’s relatives and friends is in the process of becoming and being a biobank donor and which ethical issues arise in this context. We performed qualitative analysis (...)
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  4. A practical checklist for return of results from genomic research in the European context.Danya F. Vears, Signe Mežinska, Nina Hallowell, Heidi Beate Hallowell, Bridget Ellul, Therese Haugdahl Nøst, , Berge Solberg, Angeliki Kerasidou, Shona M. Kerr, Michaela Th Mayrhofer, Elizabeth Ormondroyd, Birgitte Wirum Sand & Isabelle Budin-Ljøsne - 2023 - European Journal of Human Genetics 1:1-9.
    An increasing number of European research projects return, or plan to return, individual genomic research results (IRR) to participants. While data access is a data subject’s right under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and many legal and ethical guidelines allow or require participants to receive personal data generated in research, the practice of returning results is not straightforward and raises several practical and ethical issues. Existing guidelines focusing on return of IRR are mostly project-specific, only discuss which results to (...)
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  5. Biobanking and risk assessment: a comprehensive typology of risks for an adaptive risk governance.Kaya Akyüz, Olga Tzortzatou, Łukasz Kozera, Melanie Goisauf, Signe Mezinska, Gauthier Chassang & Michaela Th Mayrhofer - 2021 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 17 (1):1-28.
    Biobanks act as the custodians for the access to and responsible use of human biological samples and related data that have been generously donated by individuals to serve the public interest and scientific advances in the health research realm. Risk assessment has become a daily practice for biobanks and has been discussed from different perspectives. This paper aims to provide a literature review on risk assessment in order to put together a comprehensive typology of diverse risks biobanks could potentially face. (...)
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  6. Health Humanities in Medicina: The Auxiliary Stance.Olaf Dammann, Eugenijus Gefenas & Signe Mezinska - 2022 - Medicina 58 (3):411.
    At the core of medicine is the idea to help fellow human beings by improving or even restoring their health. Let us call this the auxiliary stance of medicine—the motivation of medical intervention by reference to a moral obligation to guide our peers in their attempt to live a healthy and productive life. In parallel, the auxiliary stance is also central to public health, with a focus on prevention and health promotion. Taken together, we can view medicine and public health (...)
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  7.  41
    Ethical and social reflections on the proposed European Health Data Space.Ciara Staunton, Mahsa Shabani, Deborah Mascalzoni, Signe Mezinska & Santa Slokenberga - 2024 - European Journal of Human Genetics 1 (1):1-9.
    The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated the benefits of international data sharing. Data sharing enabled the health care policy makers to make decisions based on real-time data, it enabled the tracking of the virus, and importantly it enabled the development of vaccines that were crucial to mitigating the impact of the virus. This data sharing is not the norm as data sharing needs to navigate complex ethical and legal rules, and in particular, the fragmented application of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). (...)
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  8. Surrogacy relationships: a critical interpretative review.Jenny Gunnarsson Payne, Elzbieta Korolczuk & Signe Mezinska - 2020 - Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences 1:1-9.
    Based on a critical interpretative review of existing qualitative research investigating accounts of ‘lived experience’ of surrogates and intended parents from a relational perspective, this article proposes a typology of surrogacy arrangements. The review is based on the analysis of 39 articles, which belong to a range of different disciplines (mostly sociology, social psychology, anthropology, ethnology, and gender studies). The number of interviews in each study range from as few as seven to over one hundred. Countries covered include Australia, Canada, (...)
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  9. Six Signs of Scientism.Susan Haack - 2012 - Logos and Episteme 3 (1):75-95.
    As the English word “scientism” is currently used, it is a trivial verbal truth that scientism—an inappropriately deferential attitude to science—should be avoided. But it is a substantial question when, and why, deference to the sciences is inappropriate or exaggerated. This paper tries to answer that question by articulating “six signs of scientism”: the honorific use of “science” and its cognates; using scientific trappings purely decoratively; preoccupation with demarcation; preoccupation with “scientific method”; looking to the sciences for answers beyond (...)
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  10. Classification of Sign-Language Using MobileNet - Deep Learning.Tanseem N. Abu-Jamie & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 6 (7):29-40.
    Abstract: Sign language recognition is one of the most rapidly expanding fields of study today. Many new technologies have been developed in recent years in the fields of artificial intelligence the sign language-based communication is valuable to not only deaf and dumb community, but also beneficial for individuals suffering from Autism, downs Syndrome, Apraxia of Speech for correspondence. The biggest problem faced by people with hearing disabilities is the people's lack of understanding of their requirements. In this paper we try (...)
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  11. Vital Sign Ontology.Albert Goldfain, Barry Smith, Sivaram Arabandi, Mathias Brochhausen & William R. Hogan - 2011 - In Goldfain Albert, Smith Barry, Arabandi Sivaram, Brochhausen Mathias & Hogan William R. (eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop on Bio-Ontologies, ISMB, Vienna, June 2011. pp. 71-74.
    We introduce the Vital Sign Ontology (VSO), an extension of the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) that covers the consensus human vital signs: blood pressure, body temperature, respiratory rate, and pulse rate. VSO provides a controlled structured vocabulary for describing vital sign measurement data, the processes of measuring vital signs, and the anatomical entities participating in such measurements. VSO is implemented in OWL-DL and follows OBO Foundry guidelines and best practices. If properly developed and extended, we believe (...)
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  12. The Sign of Consequence.Francesco Bellucci - 2016 - The Digital Encyclopedia of Peirce Studies 1:1-5.
    The “sign of consequence” is a notation for propositional logic that Peirce invented in 1886 and used at least until 1894. It substituted the “copula of inclusion” which he had been using since 1870.
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  13. Illusory Signs as Frustrated Expectations: Undoing Descartes’ Overblown Response.Marc Champagne - 2023 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 79 (3):1073-1096.
    Descartes held that it is impossible to make true statements about what we perceive, but I go over alleged cases of illusory experience to show why such a skeptical conclusion (and recourse to God) is overblown. The overreaction, I contend, stems from an insufficient awareness of the habitual expectations brought to any given experience. These expectations manifest themselves in motor terms, as perception constantly prompts and updates an embodied posture of readiness for what might come next. Such habitual anticipations work (...)
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  14. Signing on: A Contractarian Understanding of How Public History is Used for Civic Inclusion.Daniel Abrahams - 2023 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 26 (5):651-665.
    What makes public history more than just another hill to fight over in culture war politics? In this paper I propose a novel way of understanding the political significance of how public history creates and shapes identities: a contractarian one. I argue that public history can be sensibly understood as representing groups as a society’s contracting parties. One particular value of the contractarian approach is that it helps to elucidate the phenomenon of “signing on,” where a marginalized or oppressed group (...)
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  15. Emergent Sign-Action.Pedro Atã & João Queiroz - 2019 - European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy 11 (2).
    We explore Peirce’s pragmatic conception of sign action, as a distributed and emergent view of cognition and exemplify with the emergence of classical ballet. In our approach, semiosis is a temporally distributed process in which a regular tendency towards certain future outcomes emerges out of a history of sign actions. Semiosis self-organizes in time, in a process that continuously entails the production of more signs. Emergence is a ubiquitous condition in this process: the translation of signs into (...) cannot be inferred from the properties of the components of a semiotic triad alone, but has to take into account a complex interaction between a micro-semiotic and macro-semiotic level of description. This interaction can be understood as an interplay of potentialities and tendencies, or upward constitutive determinative relations and downward selective determinative relations. According to this view, emergence is a central defining condition of processes of meaning. Ballet is a sign in action. The emergence of classical ballet is a self-regulatory process, in which a system of different kinds of cognitive artifacts (musical, bodily/motor, spatial/architectonic) and agents obtained a stable semiotic relation throughout many phases of development between the 16th and the 19th Century. One case is the development of the verticality of dance in classical ballet as a semiotic relation connecting proscenium arch stages, dancing bodies, and audiences. This development is micro-semiotically determined by the spatial constraints of the proscenium arch stage, and macro-semiotically determined by a historical construction of the dancing body as a sign within a network of semiotic chains, such as the intersemiotic regulation of body of the dancer by principles coming from painting. This is not only the emergence of actual meaning, but also the emergence of an open-ended field of potential and general meanings, an autonomous tendency of development. To say that ballet, as sign action, emerges, is to say that cognitive artifacts such as dancer’s bodies, stages and audience’s point of view, musical compositions, costumes, all sorts of supporting institutions, etc, constitute a niche for sign action, interacting according to tendencies of development that didn’t exist before. (shrink)
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  16. Signs as a Theme in the Philosophy of Mathematical Practice.David Waszek - 2021 - In Bharath Sriraman (ed.), Handbook of the History and Philosophy of Mathematical Practice. Springer.
    Why study notations, diagrams, or more broadly the variety of nonverbal “representations” or “signs” that are used in mathematical practice? This chapter maps out recent work on the topic by distinguishing three main philosophical motivations for doing so. First, some work (like that on diagrammatic reasoning) studies signs to recover norms of informal or historical mathematical practices that would get lost if the particular signs that these practices rely on were translated away; work in this vein has (...)
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  17. Sign and Object : Quine’s forgotten book project.Sander Verhaegh - 2019 - Synthese 196 (12):5039-5060.
    W. V. Quine’s first philosophical monograph, Word and Object, is widely recognized as one of the most influential books of twentieth century philosophy. Notes, letters, and draft manuscripts at the Quine Archives, however, reveal that Quine was already working on a philosophical book in the early 1940s; a project entitled Sign and Object. In this paper, I examine these and other unpublished documents and show that Sign and Object sheds new light on the evolution of Quine’s ideas. Where “Two Dogmas (...)
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  18. Ostensive signs: Against the identity theory of quotation.Manuel García-Carpintero - 1994 - Journal of Philosophy 91 (5):253-264.
    Defends a version of the Davidsonian Demonstrative Theory of quotation against proponents of the Fregean Identity Theory.
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  19. Classification of Sign-language Using VGG16.Tanseem N. Abu-Jamie & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 6 (6):36-46.
    Sign Language Recognition (SLR) aims to translate sign language into text or speech in order to improve communication between deaf-mute people and the general public. This task has a large social impact, but it is still difficult due to the complexity and wide range of hand actions. We present a novel 3D convolutional neural network (CNN) that extracts discriminative spatial-temporal features from photo datasets. This article is about classification of sign languages are not universal and are usually not mutually intelligible (...)
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  20. Classification of Sign-Language Using Deep Learning by ResNet.Tanseem N. Abu-Jamie & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 6 (8):25-34.
    American Sign Language, or ASL as its acronym is commonly known, is a fascinating language, and many people outside of the Deaf community have begun to recognize its value and purpose. It is a visual language consisting of coordinated hand gestures, body movements, and facial expressions. Sign language is not a universal language; it varies by country and is heavily influenced by the native language and culture. The American Sign Language alphabet and the British Sign Language alphabet are completely contrary. (...)
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  21. Signs, Toy Models, and the A Priori.Lydia Patton - 2009 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (3):281-289.
    The Marburg neo-Kantians argue that Hermann von Helmholtz's empiricist account of the a priori does not account for certain knowledge, since it is based on a psychological phenomenon, trust in the regularities of nature. They argue that Helmholtz's account raises the 'problem of validity' (Gueltigkeitsproblem): how to establish a warranted claim that observed regularities are based on actual relations. I reconstruct Heinrich Hertz's and Ludwig Wittgenstein's Bild theoretic answer to the problem of validity: that scientists and philosophers can depict the (...)
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  22. Signs of Morality in David Bowie's "Black Star" Video Clip.May Kokkidou & Elvina Paschali - 2017 - Philosophy Study 7 (12).
    “Black Star” music video was released two days before Bowie’s death. It bears various implications of dying and the notion of mortality is both literal and metaphorical. It is highly autobiographical and serves as a theatrical stage for Bowie to act both as a music performer and as a self-conscious human being. In this paper, we discuss the signs of mortality in Bowie’s “Black Star” music video-clip. We focus on video’s cinematic techniques and codes, on its motivic elements and (...)
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  23. Sign, Symbol and Analogy: The semiotics of contemplation is Teresa of Avila's Interior Castle.Baranna Baker - 2011 - Semiotics (2011):427-435.
    This article analyses the use of signs (in a semiotic sense) in the analysis of Teresa of Avila's book, The Interior Castle. It takes one through the various levels of the castle, which stands as a sign for contemplation. Exploring Avila's creative use of imagery and language, it focus on what these signs (as pertaining to American semiotics and Charles S. Peirce) come to signify within Teresa's mental construction of the castle as a road to pure contemplation, in (...)
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  24. Classification of Sign-Language Using Deep Learning - A Comparison between Inception and Xception models.Tanseem N. Abu-Jamie & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 6 (8):9-19.
    there is a communication gap between hearing-impaired people and those with normal hearing, sign language is the main means of communication in the hearing-impaired population. Continuous sign language recognition, which can close the communication gap, is a difficult task since the ordered annotations are weakly supervised and there is no frame-level label. To solve this issue, we compare the accuracy of each model using two deep learning models, Inception and Xception . To that end, the purpose of this paper is (...)
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  25. "Signs for a People Who Reason": Religious Experience and Natural Theology.Amber L. Griffioen - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9 (2):139-163.
    In this paper, I examine various philosophical approaches to religious experience and natural theology and look at some ways in which the former might be relevant for the latter. I argue that by thinking more about oft-overlooked or -underemphasized understandings of a) what might constitute religious experience and b) what functions natural theology might serve, we can begin to develop a more nuanced approach to natural theological appeals to religious experience — one that makes use of materially mediated religious experience (...)
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  26. La théorie des signes locaux de Hermann Lotze et la controverse empirisme-nativisme au XIXe siècle.Denis Fisette - 2014 - In Lotze et son héritage. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. pp. 45-71.
    Commentaires sur le débat nativisme-empirisme au XIXe siècle et la théorie des signes locaux de Lotze.
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  27. Sign machines in the framework of Semiotics Unbounded.Winfried Nöth - 2008 - Semiotica 2008 (169):319-341.
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  28. Signs and Meanings.Barry Smith - 2009 - In Peer Bundgaard & Frederik Stjernfelt (eds.), Signs and Meanings: Five Questions. Automatic Press. pp. 199--206.
    A background piece on the role of ontology in technology research, focusing especially on the use-mention confusion.
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  29. Thought, Sign and Machine - the Idea of the Computer Reconsidered.Niels Ole Finnemann - 1999 - Copenhagen: Danish Original: Akademisk Forlag 1994. Tanke, Sprog og Maskine..
    Throughout what is now the more than 50-year history of the computer many theories have been advanced regarding the contribution this machine would make to changes both in the structure of society and in ways of thinking. Like other theories regarding the future, these should also be taken with a pinch of salt. The history of the development of computer technology contains many predictions which have failed to come true and many applications that have not been foreseen. While we must (...)
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  30. Sign and Fuzzy Automata.Mihai Nadin - 1977 - Zeitschrift Für Semiotik 1.
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  31. Outward Signs: The Powerlessness of External Things in Augustine's Thought – By Phillip Cary. [REVIEW]Peter Ochs - 2011 - Modern Theology 27 (1):206-208.
    A Review of Outward Signs: The Powerlessness of External Things in Augustine’s Thought by Phillip Cary (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), xxiv + 344 pp. -/- Phillip Cary has written another highly significant book on Augustine, and his writing displays the art of a master stylist. A complement to his Inner Grace, Outward Signs extends Cary’s thesis in Augustine and the Invention of the Inner Self: that Augus- tine’s Trinitarian and semiotic theology, groundbreaking as it was, remains beholden (...)
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  32. Signs of Reality - the Idea of General Bildung by J. A. Comenius.Eetu Pikkarainen - 2012 - In Pauli Siljander, Ari Kivelä & Ari Sutinen (eds.), Theories of Bildung and Growth: Connections and Controversies between Continental Educational Thinking and American Pragmatism. Sense Publishers. pp. 19-30.
    Eetu Pikkarainen describes the educational thinking of Johann AmosComenius (1592-1670) from a perspective of Bildung -theoretical problems. Comenius has had a remarkable influence on modern education, particularly through his language-learning and general didactical methods and principles. However, Comenius’ broader pansophic views have had somewhat more benign later effects. Comenius developed a reformation programme concerning the ‘main areas’ of reality, from theology and education to philosophy and language to social questions and world peace. This program has important connections to the modern (...)
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  33. Meaning and Emotion: The Extended Gricean Model and What Emotional Signs Mean.Constant Bonard - 2021 - Dissertation, University of Geneva and University of Antwerp
    This dissertation may be divided into two parts. The first part is about the Extended Gricean Model of information transmission. This model, introduced here, is meant to better explain how humans communicate and understand each other. It has been developed to apply to cases that were left unexplained by the two main models of communication found in contemporary philosophy and linguistics, i.e. the Gricean (pragmatic) model and the code (semantic) model. In particular, I show that these latter two models cannot (...)
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  34. Thomas Reid on Signs and Language.Lewis Powell - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (3):e12409.
    Thomas Reid's philosophy of mind, epistemology, and philosophy of language all rely on his account of signs and signification. On Reid's view, some entities play a role of indicating other entities to our minds. In some cases, our sensitivity to this indication is learned through experience, whereas in others, the sensitivity is built in to our natural constitutions. Unlike representation, which was presumed to depend on resemblances and necessary connections, signification is the sort of relationship that can occur without (...)
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  35. Models as signs: extending Kralemann and Lattman’s proposal on modeling models within Peirce’s theory of signs.Sergio A. Gallegos - 2019 - Synthese 196 (12):5115-5136.
    In recent decades, philosophers of science have devoted considerable efforts to understand what models represent. One popular position is that models represent fictional situations. Another position states that, though models often involve fictional elements, they represent real objects or scenarios. Though these two positions may seem to be incompatible, I believe it is possible to reconcile them. Using a threefold distinction between different signs proposed by Peirce, I develop an argument based on a proposal recently made by Kralemann and (...)
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  36. The Sign of the Joker: The Clown Prince of Crime as a Sign.Joel West - 2020 - Leiden, Netherlands: Brill.
    The Joker both fascinates and repels us. From his origin in Detective Comics in 1940, he has committed obscene crimes, some of the worst the Batman universe has ever known, and, conversely, fans have made him the topic of erotic and pornographic “fan fiction.” Speculation about the Joker abounds, where some fans have even claimed that the Joker is “queer coded.” This work explores various popular claims about the Joker, and delves into the history of comic books, and of other (...)
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  37.  41
    Do Real Contradictions Belong to Heraclitus’ Conception of Change? The Anti-cognate Internal Object Gives a Sign.Celso Vieira - 2024 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 26 (2):184-206.
    Heraclitus uses paradoxical language to present the relationship between opposites in his worldview. This mode of expression has generated much controversy. Some take the paradoxes as evidence of a contradictory identity of opposites (Barnes), while others propose a dynamic union through transformation without identity that avoids the contradiction (Graham). By examining B88 and B62, I seek to identify the stronger and weaker points of such readings. The contradictory identity reading thwarts the transformation between opposites. The dynamic reading offers a plausible (...)
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  38. A World of Signs: Baroque Pansemioticism, the Polyhistor and the Early Modern Wunderkammer.Jan C. Westerhoff - 2001 - Journal of the History of Ideas 62 (4):633-650.
    This paper is an attempt to argue that there existed a very prominent view of signs and signification in late sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe which can help us to understand several puzzling aspects of baroque culture. This view, called here "pansemioticism," constituted a fundamental part of the baroque conception of the world. After sketching the content and importance of pansemioticism, I will show how it can help us to understand the (from a modern perspective) rather puzzling concept of the (...)
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  39. Signs and Wonders. [REVIEW]Todd Buras - 2012 - Books and Culture: A Christian Review 18:22-24.
    Review Essay: C. Stephen Evans, Natural Signs and Knowledge of God: A New Look at Theistic Arguments, Oxford UP (2012).
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  40. THE SYMBOLIC SIGN and KINETIC ECONOMY: MORAL LIBERATION, PATHOS OR SLAVERY METAPHYSICS?Victor Mota - manuscript
    Signs evolve on colective inconsciousness.
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  41. Ibn Taymiyya on theistic signs and knowledge of God.Jamie B. Turner - 2022 - Religious Studies 58 (3):583-597.
    This article aims to draw on the ‘Qur'anic Rationalism’ of Taqī al-Dīn Ibn Taymiyya (1263–1328) in elucidating an Islamic epistemology of theistic natural signs, in the lens of contemporary philosophy of religion. In articulating what Ibn Taymiyya coins ‘God's method of proof through signs (istidlāluhu taʿālā bi'l-āyāt)’, it seeks aid in particular from the work of C. Stephen Evans and other contemporary philosophers of religion, in an attempt to understand the relevance and force of this alternative to natural (...)
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  42. Bashar H. Malkawi, Signing Ceremony of MOU on Professional Legal Diploma, Government of Dubai 2020.Bashar H. Malkawi - 2020 - Dubai Legal Periodical 2:1.
    Signing Ceremony of MOU on Professional Legal Diploma, Government of Dubai 2020.
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  43. Must a sign be repeatable?Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    This paper contests a point that Jacques Derrida and John Searle actually agree on, within their infamous debate: that a sign must be repeatable. I focus on a situation involving dissent when evaluating this claim.
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  44. G.W. Leibniz: Sign and the Problem of Expression.Dimitri A. Bayuk & Olga B. Fedorova - 2020 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 57 (1):146-165.
    The disciplinary differentiation of sciences attracted Leibniz’s attention for a long period of time. From nowadays prospects it looks very well grounded as soon as in Leibniz’s manuscripts a modern scholar finds clue ideas of any research field which would tempt him to consider Leibniz as one of the founders of this particular discipline. We argue that this is possible only in retrospection and would significantly distort the essence of Leibniz’s epistemology. Our approach implies, in contrary, the investigation of the (...)
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  45. Theory of signs and statistical approach to big data in assessing the relevance of clinical biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.Pietro Ghezzi, Kevin Davies, Aidan Delaney & Luciano Floridi - 2018 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (10):2473-2477.
    Biomarkers are widely used not only as prognostic or diagnostic indicators, or as surrogate markers of disease in clinical trials, but also to formulate theories of pathogenesis. We identify two problems in the use of biomarkers in mechanistic studies. The first problem arises in the case of multifactorial diseases, where different combinations of multiple causes result in patient heterogeneity. The second problem arises when a pathogenic mediator is difficult to measure. This is the case of the oxidative stress (OS) theory (...)
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  46. Tell-Tale Signs of Pseudoskepticism (Bogus Skepticism).Marcoen J. T. F. Cabbolet - manuscript
    Pseudoskepticism, which typically is portraying someone's work as despicable with scientifically unsound polemics, is a modern day threat to the traditional standard of discussion in science and popular science. This essay gives seven tell-tale signs by which pseudoskepticism can be recognized.
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  47. Peirce's sign theory as an open-source R package.Alon Friedman & Erin Feichtinger - 2017 - Signs 8 (1-24).
    Throughout Peirce’s writing, we witness his developing vision of a machine that scientists will eventually be able to create. Nadin (2010) raised the question:Why do computer scientists continue to ignore Peirce’s sign theory? A review of the literature on Peirce’s theory and the semiotics machine reveals that many authors discussed the machine;however, they donot differentiate between a physical computer machine and its software. This paper discusses the problematic issues involved in converting Peirce’s theory into a programming language, machine and software (...)
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  48. Consciousness and the Philosophy of Signs: How Peircean Semiotics Combines Phenomenal Qualia and Practical Effects.Marc Champagne - 2018 - Cham: Springer.
    It is often thought that consciousness has a qualitative dimension that cannot be tracked by science. Recently, however, some philosophers have argued that this worry stems not from an elusive feature of the mind, but from the special nature of the concepts used to describe conscious states. Marc Champagne draws on the neglected branch of philosophy of signs or semiotics to develop a new take on this strategy. The term “semiotics” was introduced by John Locke in the modern period (...)
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  49. The Fetishism of Signs.Eugene Halton - 1984 - In Eugene Rochberg-Halton & Eugene (eds.), Semiotics 1984. pp. 409-418.
    The tendency in semiotics toward unnecessary abstractionism and antinaturalism is criticized. More broadly, a transformation is proposed from abstractionism, with its fetishism of signs, to an animism of signs in which the imagination and the signs it gives birth to not only reconnect with the biocultural heritage, but also animate an idea of culture as involving living purpose, not simply inert code. See the revised version of this chapter in my book, Meaning and Modernity.
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  50. What is a sign?Karl Bühler - 2005 - Kodikas/Code 28 (1-2):19-23.
    First of all, and above all, a sign is expected to be significant. A sign without significance is like a hollow husk. It is chaff without seed. Sign and significance are correlative terms like parent and child. Just as no one is a parent who has not begotten or borne a child so nothing which does not have significance can be a sign. On this point the English and the Latin words are self-explanatory. In English the words “sign” and “significance” (...)
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