Results for 'stem-cell derived gametes'

333 found
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  1. Multiplex Parenting: IVG and the Generations to Come.César Palacios-González, John Harris & Giuseppe Testa - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (11):752-758.
    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell differentiation and reprogramming suggest that functional human gametes could soon be created in vitro. While the ethical debate on the uses of in vitro generated gametes (IVG) was originally constrained by the fact that they could be derived only from embryonic stem cell lines, the advent of somatic cell reprogramming, with the possibility to easily derive human induced pluripotent stem cells from any individual, affords now a (...)
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  2. Direct Reprogramming and Ethics in Stem Cell Research.W. Malcolm Byrnes - 2008 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 8 (2):277-290.
    The recent successful conversion of adult cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells through direct reprogramming opens a new chapter in the study of disease and the development of regenerative medicine. It also provides a historic opportunity to turn away from the ethically problematic use of embryonic stem cells isolated through the destruction of human embryos. Moreover, because iPS cells are patient specific, they render therapeutic cloning unnecessary. To maximize therapeutic benefit, adult stem cell research will (...)
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  3. Genetic Parenthood and Causation: An Objection to Douglas and Devolder’s Modified Direct Proportionate Genetic Descent Account.César Palacios-González - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (9):1085-1090.
    In a recent publication Tom Douglas and Katrien Devolder have proposed a new account of genetic parenthood, building on the work of Heidi Mertes. Douglas and Devolder’s account aims to solve, among other things, the question of who are the genetic parents of an individual created through somatic cell nuclear transfer (i.e. cloning): (a) the nuclear DNA provider or (b) the progenitors of the nuclear DNA provider. Such a question cannot be answered by simply appealing to the folk account (...)
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  4. Stem Cell Research and Same Sex Reproduction.Thomas Douglas, Catherine Harding, Hannah Bourne & Julian Savulescu - 2012 - In Muireann Quigley, Sarah Chan & John Harris (eds.), Stem Cells: New Frontiers in Science and Ethics. World Scientific.
    Recent advances in stem cell research suggest that in the future it may be possible to create eggs and sperm from human stem cells through a process that we term in vitro gametogenesis (IVG). IVG would allow treatment of some currently untreatable forms of infertility. It may also allow same-sex couples to have genetically-related children. For example, cells taken from one man could potentially be used to create an egg, which could then be fertilised using naturally produced (...)
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  5. Stem Cell Lineages: Between Cell and Organism.Melinda Bonnie Fagan - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (6).
    Ontologies of living things are increasingly grounded on the concepts and practices of current life science. Biological development is a process, undergone by living things, which begins with a single cell and (in an important class of cases) ends with formation of a multicellular organism. The process of development is thus prima facie central for ideas about biological individuality and organismality. However, recent accounts of these concepts do not engage developmental biology. This paper aims to fill the gap, proposing (...)
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  6. Stem Cell Research on Embryonic Persons Is Just.Aaron Rizzieri - 2012 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (2):195-203.
    Abstract I argue that embryonic stem cell research is fair to the embryo, even on the assumption that the embryo has attained full personhood and an attendant right to life at conception. This is because the only feasible alternatives open to the embryo are to exist briefly in an unconscious state and be killed or to not exist at all. Hence, one is neither depriving the embryo of an enduring life it would otherwise have had nor is one (...)
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  7. The Lady Vanishes: What’s Missing From the Stem Cell Debate.Donna L. Dickenson - 2006 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (1):43-54.
    Most opponents of somatic cell nuclear transfer and embryonic stem cell technologies base their arguments on the twin assertions that the embryo is either a human being or a potential human being, and that it is wrong to destroy a human being or potential human being in order to produce stem cell lines. Proponents’ justifications of stem cell research are more varied, but not enough to escape the charge of obsession with the status (...)
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  8. Biopower, Styles of Reasoning, and What's Still Missing From the Stem Cell Debates.Shelley Tremain - 2010 - Hypatia 25 (3):577 - 609.
    Until now, philosophical debate about human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research has largely been limited to its ethical dimensions and implications. Although the importance and urgency of these ethical debates should not be underestimated, the almost undivided attention that mainstream and feminist philosophers have paid to the ethical dimensions of hESC research suggests that the only philosophically interesting questions and concerns about it are by and large ethical in nature. My argument goes some distance to challenge the assumption (...)
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  9.  18
    Ethical Issues of Using Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Therapy of John Stuart Mill Perspective.Pattamawadee Sankheangaew - 2021 - Ethics, Value Theory.
    This academic paper on Ethical issues of using umbilical cord blood stem cell therapy of John Stuart Mill perspective aim to investigate the new approaches in the treatment of diseases by using umbilical cord blood stem cells. And also to study ethical issues from the use of umbilical cord blood stem cells in the treatment of diseases considered by Mill’s utilitarianism. 21st century, the medical industry was interested in organ transplantation from stem cells especially (...) cells from the umbilical cord to treat chronic and degenerative organ diseases, blood cancer and organ transplantation which successful and widespread throughout the world. Thailand has about 900 new children with Leukemia every year. About 50 percent are leukemia which needs to be treated correctly and urgently. In general Standardized chemotherapy but if the cancer patient has a bad prognosis Or have recurrent cancer Patients need to be treated with bone marrow transplants or stem cells to have a chance to heal. According to Mill’s Utilitarianism, the ethical concepts that determine what is the basic criterion used to determine whether it should or should not concern with the popular benefit that the criterion used is the amount of happiness that results from actions. Treating the disease using stem cells will make the patient recover from the disease, healthier and happier in life. As Mill said "The correctness of an action depends on the tendency that the action will lead to happiness. (shrink)
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  10. Stemming the Tide of Normalisation: An Expanded Feminist Analysis of the Ethics and Social Impact of Embryonic Stem Cell Research.Shelley Tremain - 2006 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (1-2):33-42.
    Feminists have indicated the inadequacies of bioethical debates about human embryonic stem cell research, which have for the most part revolved around concerns about the moral status of the human embryo. Feminists have argued, for instance, that inquiry concerning the ethics and politics of human embryonic stem cell research should consider the relations of social power in which the research is embedded. My argument is that this feminist work on stem cells is itself inadequate, however, (...)
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  11. Ethics Surrounding Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research.Joseph Nkang Ogar - 2019 - International Social Mentality and Researcher Thinkers Journal 5 (22).
    Since their discovery in the early 1990s, Stem Cell has brought the prospect of radically improving treatments for a host of diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease, cancers and many among other diseases that currently render patients and scientists helpless to combat. With the advent of medical and scientific research, comes the inevitable emergence of ethical controversy that often accompanied major scientific and medical development. The use of Stem Cell is no different. Those who seek to (...)
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  12.  47
    A Critical Examination of the Question of Personhood in Stem Cell Research.Diana-Abasi Ibanga - 2016 - IOSR Journal of HumanitieS and Social Science 21 (8):6-13.
    Stem cell research programme has been celebrated world over as the most promising medical research in the 21st century. However, the method of stem cell research involves the use and unavoidable destruction of human embryo. As a result of this, many theologians, scholars and analysts have condemned the research programme. Their argument is that the embryo use in stem cell research is human person; hence it is immoral. This paper therefore aims at analyzing and (...)
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  13. In Dubio Pro Embryone. Neue Argumente Zum Moralischen Status Menschlicher Embryonen.Gregor Damschen & Dieter Schönecker - 2003 - In Gregor Damschen & Dieter Schönecker (eds.), Der moralische Status menschlicher Embryonen. Pro und contra Spezies-, Kontinuums-, Identitäts- und Potentiali­tätsargument. Berlin & New York: de Gruyter. pp. 187-267.
    When in doubt, for the embryo. New arguments on the moral status of human embryos. - In the first part of our essay we distinguish the philosophical from the legal and political level of the embryo debate and describe our indirect justification strategy. It consists in renouncing a determination of the dignity-giving φ-properties and instead starting from premises that are undoubted by all discussion partners. In the second part we reconstruct and criticize the species, continuum, identity and potentiality arguments. The (...)
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  14. The Philosophy of Stem Cells: Melinda Bonnie Fagan: Philosophy of Stem Cell Biology: Knowledge in Flesh and Blood. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, Xx+274pp, £66.00 HB. [REVIEW]Stavros Ioannidis - 2015 - Metascience 24 (2):285-288.
    Melinda Fagan’s book on the philosophy of stem cell biology is a superb discussion of this exciting field of contemporary science, and the first book-length philosophical treatment of the subject. It contains a detailed and insightful examination of stem cell science, its structure, methods, and challenges.The book does not require any previous knowledge of stem cell biology—all the relevant scientific details and concepts, the central experimental procedures and results, as well as the historical development (...)
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  15.  38
    Good Science and Good Ethics: Why We Should Discourage Payment for Eggs in Stem Cell Researchonation.Donna Dickenson - 2009 - Nature Reviews Genetics 10 (11):743.
    Payment for eggs used in stem cell research puts women at unacceptable risk and encourages exploitative commodification of the female body. Thanks to the development of induced pluripotent stem cells, however, we no longer face a choice between good science and good ethics.
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  16.  8
    'Trust Us... We're Doctors': Science, Media, and Ethics in the Hwang Stem Cell Controversy.Robert Sparrow - 2006 - Journal of Communication Research 43 (1):5-24.
    When doubts were first raised about the veracity of the dramatic advances in stem cell research announced by Professor Hwang Woo-Suk, a significant minority response was to question the qualifications of journalists to investigate the matter. In this paper I examine the contemporary relationships between science, scientists, the public, and the media. In the modern context the progress of science often relies on the media to mobilise public support for research and also for the purpose of communication within (...)
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  17.  69
    Comments on “Moral Complicity in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research”.Byrnes W. Malcolm & J. Furton Edward - 2009 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 19 (2):202-205.
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  18.  88
    The Relationship of Gametes to Those Who Procreate and Its Impact on Artificially Generated Gamete Technologies.Michal Pruski - 2017 - Ethics and Medicine 33 (1):27-41.
    Current developments in reproductive technology forecast that in the foreseeable future artificially generated gametes might be presented as a possible fertility treatment for infertile couples and for homosexual couples desiring to have children genetically originating from both partners. It is important to evaluate the ethical issues connected to this technology before its emergence. This article first reviews the meaning that gametes (sperm and eggs) might have to those who procreate, as well as their ontology. From this, suggestions are (...)
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  19. Skepticism About the “Convertibility” of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.Thomas V. Cunningham - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (1):40-42.
    No abstract available. First paragraph: In this issue’s target article, Stier and Schoene-Siefert purport to ‘depotentialize’ the argument from potentiality based on their claim that any human cell may be “converted” into a morally significant entity, and consequently, the argument from potentiality finally succumbs to a reductio ad absurdum. I aim to convey two reasons for skepticism about the innocuousness of the notion of cell convertibility, and hence, the cogency of their argument.
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  20.  62
    ANT-OAR Fails on All Counts: Method of Harvesting Stem Cells Riddled with Scientific and Ethical Flaws.W. Malcolm Byrnes & Jose Granados - 2006 - Science and Theology News (1):23-25.
    The altered nuclear transfer-oocyte assisted reprogramming (ANT-OAR) proposal has serious scientific and philosophical flaws, and it is not a morally acceptable means of obtaining embryonic stem cells. Note that this is the final preprint of an article that was published in the newspaper Science and Theology News in June 2006.
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  21. Embryo Loss and Double Effect.Ezio Di Nucci - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (8):537-540.
    I defend the argument that if embryo loss in stem cell research is morally problematic, then embryo loss in in vivo conception is similarly morally problematic. According to a recent challenge to this argument, we can distinguish between in vivo embryo loss and the in vitro embryo loss of stem cell research by appealing to the doctrine of double effect. I argue that this challenge fails to show that in vivo embryo loss is a mere unintended (...)
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  22. The Flawed Scientific Basis of the Altered Nuclear Transfer-Oocyte Assisted Reprogramming (ANT-OAR) Proposal.W. Malcolm Byrnes - 2007 - Stem Cell Reviews and Reports 1 (3):60-65.
    First put forth in June 2005, the altered nuclear transfer-oocyte assisted reprogramming (ANT-OAR) proposal has been promoted as an ethically-acceptable alternative to the embryo-destructive methods now used to obtain embryonic stem cells. According to its proponents, the goal of ANT-OAR is to use the cloning process to create a pluripotent stem cell. This would be achieved through overexpression of the transcription factor Nanog (or a hypothetical substitute) both in the enucleated egg cell and in the somatic (...)
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  23.  81
    Maternal Exercise During Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation but Not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring.Sérgio Gomes da Silva - 2016 - PLoS ONE 11 (1):01-15.
    Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain devel- opment and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and absolute cell num- bers in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rat pups born from mothers exer- cised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral (...)
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  24.  38
    The Threatened Trade in Human Ova.Donna Dickenson - 2004 - Nature Reviews Genetics 5 (3):157.
    It is well known that there is a shortage of human ova for in vitro fertilization (IVF) purposes, but little attention has been paid to the way in which the demand for ova in stem-cell technologies is likely to exacerbate that shortfall and create a trade in human eggs. Because the 'Dolly' technology relies on enucleated ova in large quantities, allowing for considerable wastage, there is a serious threat that commercial and research demands for human eggs will grow (...)
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  25. Sentimentalism and Metaphysical Beliefs.Noriaki Iwasa - 2010 - Prolegomena 9 (2):271-286.
    This essay first introduces the moral sense theories of Francis Hutcheson, David Hume, and Adam Smith, and clarifies important differences between them. It then examines whether moral judgment based on the moral sense or moral sentiments varies according to one's metaphysical beliefs. For this, the essay mainly applies those theories to such issues as stem cell research, abortion, and active euthanasia. In all three theories, false religious beliefs can distort moral judgment. In Hutcheson's theory, answers to stem (...)
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  26. Why Human "Altered Nuclear Transfer" is Unethical: A Holistic Systems View.W. Malcolm Byrnes - 2005 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 5 (2):271-279.
    A remarkable event occurred at the December 3, 2004, meeting of the U. S. President’s Council on Bioethics. Council member William Hurlbut, a physician and Consulting Professor in the Program in Human Biology at Stanford University, formally unveiled a proposal that he claimed would solve the ethical problems surrounding the extraction of stem cells from human embryos. The proposal would involve the creation of genetically defective embryos that “never rise to the level of integrated organismal existence essential to be (...)
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  27. Disappearing Women, Vanishing Ladies and Property in Embryos.Donna Dickenson - 2017 - International Journal of Law and the Biosciences 4:1-6.
    Guidelines on embryo storage prioritise 'respect for the embryo' above the wishes of the women whose labour and tissue have gone into creating the embryo in the first place, effectively making women and the female body disappear. In this article I draw a parallel between this phenomenon relating to embryo storage and other instances of a similar phenomenon that I have called 'the lady vanishes', particularly in stem cell and 'mitochondrial transfer' research. I suggest that a modified property (...)
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  28.  31
    Bioethics: All That Matters.Donna Dickenson - 2012 - London: Hodder.
    Should we do whatever science lets us do? This short introduction in the 'All That Matters' series shows how developments in biotechnology, such as genetics, stem cell research and artificial reproduction, arouse both our greatest hopes and our greatest fears. Many people invest the new biotechnology with all the aspirations and faith once accorded to religious salvation. But does everyone benefit equally from scientific progress? This book argues that although we've entered new scientific territory, there is no need (...)
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  29. “More on Respect for Embryos and Potentiality: Does Respect for Embryos Entail Respect for in Vitro Embryos?”.Stephen S. Hanson - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (3):215-226.
    It is commonly assumed that persons who hold abortions to be generally impermissible must, for the same reasons, be opposed to embryonic stem cell research [ESR]. Yet a settled position against abortion does not necessarily direct one to reject that research. The difference in potentiality between the embryos used in ESR and embryos discussed in the abortion debate can make ESR acceptable even if one holds that abortion is impermissible. With regard to their potentiality, in vitro embryos are (...)
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  30. Nonreductive Moral Classification and the Limits of Philosophy.Thomas V. Cunningham - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (2):22-24.
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  31. Chimeras Intended for Human Gamete Production: An Ethical Alternative?César Palacios-González - 2017 - Reproductive Biomedicine Online 35 (4):387-390.
    Human eggs for basic, fertility and stem-cell research are in short supply. Many experiments that require their use cannot be carried out at present, and, therefore, the benefits that could emerge from these are either delayed or never materialise. This state of affairs is problematic for scientists and patients worldwide, and it is a matter that needs our attention. Recent advances in chimera research have opened the possibility of creating human/non-human animal chimeras intended for human gamete production (chimeras-IHGP). (...)
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  32. Metaphysical and Moral Status of Cryopreserved Embryos.Jason T. Eberl - 2012 - The Linacre Quarterly 79 (3):304-315.
    Those who oppose human embryonic stem cell research argue for a clear position on the metaphysical and moral status of human embryos. This position does not differ whether the embryo is present inside its mother’s reproductive tract or in a cryopreservation tank. It is worth examining, however, whether an embryo in “suspended animation” has the same status as one actively developing in utero. I will explore this question from the perspective of Thomas Aquinas’s metaphysical account of human nature. (...)
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  33.  76
    Die Würde Menschlicher Embryonen. Zur Moralischen Relevanz von Potentialität Und Numerischer Identität.Gregor Damschen & Dieter Schönecker - 2003 - Internationale Zeitschrift für Philosophie (2):44-69.
    The dignity of human embryos. On the moral relevance of potentiality and numerical identity. -.
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  34.  42
    Zukünftig Φ. Über Ein Subjektivistisches Gedankenexperiment in der Embryo­Nendebatte.Gregor Damschen & Dieter Schönecker - 2003 - Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 8:67-93.
    In future φ. On a subjectivist thought experiment in the embryo debate. -.
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  35. Potentiality Arguments and the Definition of “Human Organism”.Annette Dufner - 2013 - American Journal of Bioethics 13 (1):33-34.
    Bettina Schöne-Seifert and Marco Stier present a host of detailed and intriguing arguments to the effect that potentiality arguments have to be viewed as outdated due to developments in stem cell research, in particular the possibility of re-setting the development potential of differentiated cells, such as skin cells. However, their argument leaves them without an explanation of the intuitive difference between skin cells and human beings, which seems to be based on the assumption that a skin cell (...)
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  36.  85
    Habermas and the Question of Bioethics.Hille Haker - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (4):61-86.
    In The Future of Human Nature, Jürgen Habermas raises the question of whether the embryonic genetic diagnosis and genetic modification threatens the foundations of the species ethics that underlies current understandings of morality. While morality, in the normative sense, is based on moral interactions enabling communicative action, justification, and reciprocal respect, the reification involved in the new technologies may preclude individuals to uphold a sense of the undisposability of human life and the inviolability of human beings that is necessary for (...)
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  37. Respecting Diversity, Respecting Complexity.Judith Andre - 2002 - Law Review of Michigan State University-Detroit College of Law 2002 (4):911-916.
    A discussion of the ethics of stem cell research, and attempts to regulate it.
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  38. Confessions of a" Pro-Life" Obama Supporter.W. Malcolm Byrnes - 2009 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 9 (2):241-244.
    The author supported Barack Obama for president, and he agrees with Obama on most issues. However, he opposes the federal funding of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research. Besides involving the destruction of human life, hESC research can (1) result in the exploitation of women, and (2) cause human reproduction to become a means to an end, i.e., human embryos will become commodities to be bought and sold. Recent scientific developments show the growing potential of induced pluripotent (...) (iPS) cells and the diminishing promise of their embryonic counterparts. When President Obama lifted restrictions on hESC research on March 9, 2009, he missed an opportunity to show moral leadership on a politically controversial issue. (shrink)
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  39. What Justifies the Ban on Federal Funding for Nonreproductive Cloning?Thomas V. Cunningham - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy 16:825-841.
    This paper explores how current United States policies for funding nonreproductive cloning are justified and argues against that justification. I show that a common conceptual framework underlies the national prohibition on the use of public funds for cloning research, which I call the simple argument. This argument rests on two premises: that research harming human embryos is unethical and that embryos produced via fertilization are identical to those produced via cloning. In response to the simple argument, I challenge the latter (...)
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  40. The Epistemic Costs of Compromise in Bioethics.Katrien Devolder & Thomas Douglas - 2018 - Bioethics 32 (2):111-118.
    Bioethicists sometimes defend compromise positions, particularly when they enter debates on applied topics that have traditionally been highly polarised, such as those regarding abortion, euthanasia and embryonic stem cell research. However, defending compromise positions is often regarded with a degree of disdain. Many are intuitively attracted to the view that it is almost always problematic to defend compromise positions, in the sense that we have a significant moral reason not to do so. In this paper, we consider whether (...)
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  41. Who Owns Embryonic and Fetal Tissue?Donna Dickenson - 2002 - In Ethical Issues in Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 233-244.
    Until very recently the question of who owns embryonic or fetal tissue was of limited importance to clinicians, but advances in stem cell research have made such tissue commercially valuable. This chapter examines the legal and ethical basis of claims to property in embryonic or fetal tissue, taking a critical stance.
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  42.  54
    Relation of Common ABL Kinase Domain Mutations with Resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibiters in Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Middle Euphrates of Iraq.Mohammed Sadeq Mahdi Al- Musawi - 2020 - International Journal of Scientific Research and Management (IJSRM) 8 (02).
    Background: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic stem cell disease, associated with a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and chromosome 22, lead to the formation of the BCRABL fusion gene (Philadelphia chromosome). This fusion gene is believed to play golden role in the initial development of CML with constitutive tyrosine kinase activation. Successful use of tyrosine kinase inhibiters (TKIs) play a role in improve survival and increase prevalence of CML, but un fortunately mutations in the BCR-ABL kinase (...)
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  43.  7
    Research Guidelines for Embryoids.Monika Piotrowska - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106493.
    Human embryo models formed from stem cells—known as embryoids—allow scientists to study the elusive first stages of human development without having to experiment on actual human embryos. But clear ethical guidelines for research involving embryoids are still lacking. Previously, a handful of researchers put forward new recommendations for embryoids, which they hope will be included in the next set of International Society for Stem Cell Research guidelines. Although these recommendations are an improvement over the default approach, they (...)
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  44.  29
    Finding a Consensus Between Philosophy of Applied and Social Sciences: A Case of Biology of Human Rights.Ammar Younas - 2020 - JournalNX 6 (2):62 - 75.
    This paper is an attempt to provide an adequate theoretical framework to understand the biological basis of human rights. We argue that the skepticism about human rights is increasing especially among the most rational, innovative and productive community of intellectuals belonging to the applied sciences. By using examples of embryonic stem cell research, a clash between applied scientists and legal scientists cum human rights activists has been highlighted. After an extensive literature review, this paper concludes that the advances (...)
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  45.  92
    Avoiding the Potentiality Trap: Thinking About the Moral Status of Synthetic Embryos.Monika Piotrowska - forthcoming - Monash Bioethics Review.
    Research ethics committees must sometimes deliberate about objects that do not fit nicely into any existing category. This is currently the case with the “gastruloid,” which is a self-assembling blob of cells that resembles a human embryo. The resemblance makes it tempting to group it with other members of that kind, and thus to ask whether gastruloids really are embryos. But fitting an ambiguous object into an existing category with well-worn pathways in research ethics, like the embryo, is only a (...)
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  46. Rethinking Quasispecies Theory: From Fittest Type to Cooperative Consortia.Luis Villarreal & Guenther Witzany - 2013 - World Journal of Biological Chemistry 4:79-90.
    Recent investigations surprisingly indicate that single RNA "stem-loops" operate solely by chemical laws that act without selective forces, and in contrast, self-ligated consortia of RNA stem-loops operate by biological selection. To understand consortial RNA selection, the concept of single quasi-species and its mutant spectra as drivers of RNA variation and evolution is rethought here. Instead, we evaluate the current RNA world scenario in which consortia of cooperating RNA stem-loops are the basic players. We thus redefine quasispecies as (...)
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  47. Generation of Biological Patterns and Form: Some Physical, Mathematical and Logical Aspects.Alfred Gierer - 1981 - Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 37 (1):1-48.
    While many different mechanisms contribute to the generation of spatial order in biological development, the formation of morphogenetic fields which in turn direct cell responses giving rise to pattern and form are of major importance and essential for embryogenesis and regeneration. Most likely the fields represent concentration patterns of substances produced by molecular kinetics. Short range autocatalytic activation in conjunction with longer range “lateral” inhibition or depletion effects is capable of generating such patterns (Gierer and Meinhardt, 1972). Non-linear reactions (...)
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  48. An Expert System for Coconut Diseases Diagnosis.Izzeddin A. Alshawwa, Abeer A. Elsharif & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 3 (4):8-13.
    The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the palm tree family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus Cocos, can refer to the whole coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which botanically is a drupe, not a nut. The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco meaning "head" or "skull" after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features. Objectives: The main goal of this expert system is (...)
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  49. The Neural Substrates of Conscious Perception Without Performance Confounds.Jorge Morales, Brian Odegaard & Brian Maniscalco - forthcoming - In Felipe De Brigard & Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (eds.), Anthology of Neuroscience and Philosophy.
    To find the neural substrates of consciousness, researchers compare subjects’ neural activity when they are aware of stimuli against neural activity when they are not aware. Ideally, to guarantee that the neural substrates of consciousness—and nothing but the neural substrates of consciousness—are isolated, the only difference between these two contrast conditions should be conscious awareness. Nevertheless, in practice, it is quite challenging to eliminate confounds and irrelevant differences between conscious and unconscious conditions. In particular, there is an often-neglected confound that (...)
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  50.  44
    ANN for Predicting DNA Lung Cancer.Wajeeh Abu Kashf, Nedal Okasha, Ashraf Sahyoun, Emal El-Rabi & Bastami Bashhar - 2017 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 10 (2):6-13.
    Abstract: Lung cancer is the top reason of cancer-associated deaths globally. Surgery is the typical treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Advancement in the knowledge of the biology of non-small cell lung cancer has shown molecular evidence used for systemic cancer therapy aiming metastatic disease, with a significant impact on patients’ overall survival (OS) and eminence of life. Though, a biopsy of overt metastases is an invasive technique restricted to assured positions and not effortlessly satisfactory in (...)
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