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  1. L'eugénisme contemporain.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Depuis les années 1980, le génie génétique a été largement utilisé pour modifier génétiquement des organismes et des aliments. La pratique des tests génétiques prénataux identifie des gènes ou des marqueurs génétiques indésirables. Les parents peuvent choisir de poursuivre leur grossesse ou d'abandonner le bébé. Une fois le diagnostic génétique préimplantatoire réalisé, les parents potentiels peuvent choisir de recourir à la fécondation in vitro, puis de tester les cellules embryonnaires précoces pour identifier les embryons avec les gènes qu’ils préfèrent, ou (...)
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  2. Etica eugeniei.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Argumentele referitoare la înțelepciunea continuării experimentării genetice și posibilele efecte eugenice ale ingineriei genetice se încadrează în general în trei domenii: etica biomedicală, moralitatea și religia și legea. Utilizarea potențială a ingineriei genetice a readus în discuții eugenia din trecut în disputele despre bioetică. Există opinii conform cărora și programele de eugenie fără caracter coercitiv ar fi în mod inerent lipsite de etică. Principiul moral central al eticii biomedicale implică o obligație de a conferi beneficii și de a elimina daunele. (...)
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  3. Ce este eugenia?Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Termenul eugenie, ca practică și domeniu de studiu, a fost inventat către Francis Galton în 1883, bazându-se pe opera vărului său, Charles Darwin, genetica mendeliană și teoriile lui August Weismann (teoria plasmei germenilor, conform căreia informația ereditară este transmisă numai de celulele germinale din gonade (ovare și testicule), nu de celule somatice) . Galton a definit eugenismul drept "studiul tuturor agenților aflați sub control uman care pot îmbunătăți sau afecta calitatea rasială a generațiilor viitoare". Eugenia a fost descrisă ulterior ca (...)
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  4. L'éthique et l'avenir de l'eugénisme.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Les arguments concernant la sagesse de la poursuite des expérimentations génétiques et des effets eugéniques possibles du génie génétique se retrouvent généralement dans trois domaines : l'éthique biomédicale, la moralité, et la religion et le droit. L'utilisation potentielle du génie génétique a mis en discussion l'eugénisme dans le passé dans les litiges de bioéthique. Le séquençage du génome humain peut nous aider dans l'évolution humaine. Le projet sur le génome humain peut nous aider à comprendre les maladies afin d'orienter les (...)
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  5. Eugenics.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The main concern of the first eugenists, such as Karl Pearson and Walter Weldon of University College London , were the perceived intelligence factors considered to be correlated with the social class. In his speech "Darwinism, Medical Progress and Eugenics", Karl Pearson equates eugenics with a field of medicine. Some areas of medicine that are not commonly recognized as eugenic affect the human genes background. These include sterilization and surgical techniques that allow the functioning of reproductive organs. Even medicines that (...)
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  6. The Future of Eugenics.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    A "free-market" approach to the genetic development of children may result in a homogenising. Parents may be inclined to choose according to models accepted by society. In this case, improving technologies will "will grant racism and homophobia an unprecedented efficacy." One concern about the obligation to produce the best child in a particular society is that social norms may be discriminatory, so that in the end, for example, most children will be boys, extremists and heterosexuals. The sequencing of the human (...)
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  7. Eugénisme.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Dans la définition de l'eugénisme, il est très difficile d'établir une distinction claire entre la science (médecine, génie génétique) et l'eugénisme. Et de définir une ligne de conduite sur laquelle l'ingénierie génétique ne devrait pas aller, conformément aux normes morales, juridiques et religieuses. Tant que nous acceptons l'aide de la génétique pour trouver des moyens de lutter contre le cancer, le diabète ou le VIH, nous acceptons également l'eugénisme positif tel qu'il est actuellement. Et tant que nous acceptons le dépistage (...)
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  8. The New (Liberal) Eugenics.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Despite the Nazi horrors, in 1953 the new eugenics was founded, when Watson and Crick postulated the double helix of DNA as the basis of chemical heredity. In 1961, scientists have deciphered the genetic code of DNA, laying the groundwork for code manipulation and the potential building of new life forms. After thirty years from the discovery of the DNA structure, the experimenters began to carry out the first clinical studies of human somatic cell therapy. The practice of prenatal genetic (...)
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  9. Evoluția și etica eugeniei.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    În acest articol încerc să argumentez opinia că, așa cum este definită eugenia, este foarte dificil de făcut o diferențiere clară între știință (medicină, ingineria genetică) și eugenie. Și de stabilit o linie peste care ingineria genetică nu ar trebui să treacă, conform unor norme morale, juridice și religioase. Atâta timp cât acceptăm ajutorul geneticii în găsirea unor modalități de combatere a cancerului, diabetului sau HIV, acceptăm în mod implicit și eugenia pozitivă, conform definiției actuale. Și atâta timp cât acceptăm (...)
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  10. Eugenia actuală.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Începând din anii 1980, ingineria genetică a fost folosită pe scară largă pentru a modifica genetic organisme și alimente. Practica testelor genetice prenatale identifică gene sau markeri genetici nedorite. Părinții potențiali pot alege să continue sarcina sau să renunțe la făt. Odată cu apariția diagnosticului genetic de preimplantare, părinții potențiali pot alege să utilizeze fertilizarea in vitro și apoi să testeze celulele timpurii ale embrionilor creați pentru a identifica embrionii cu gene pe care le preferă sau pe care să le (...)
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  11. Évolution et éthique de l'eugénisme.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Étant donné la définition de l'eugénisme, il est très difficile d'établir une distinction claire entre la science (médecine, ingénierie génétique) et l'eugénisme en tant que domaine inclus. Et pour définir une ligne sur laquelle l'ingénierie génétique ne devrait pas aller plus loin, conformément aux normes morales, juridiques et religieuses. Si nous acceptons l'aide de la génétique pour trouver des moyens de lutter contre le cancer, le diabète ou le VIH, nous acceptons également l'eugénisme positif tel qu'il est défini à présent. (...)
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  12. Evolution and Ethics of Eugenics.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    As eugenics is defined, it is very difficult to make a clear distinction between science (medicine, genetic engineering) and eugenics as a included field. And to set a line over which genetic engineering should not go further, according to moral, legal and religious norms. If we accept the help of genetics in finding ways to fight cancer, diabetes, or HIV, we also accept positive eugenics as they are defined now. And if we accept genetic screening, and interventions on the unborn (...)
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  13. Istoria eugeniei.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Sir Francis Galton a sistematizat aceste idei și practici, influențat de cartea Originea Speciilor a vărului lui, Charles Darwin, prin care mecanismele de selecție naturală au fost potențial zădărnicite de civilizația umană. El a afirmat că societatea umană, protejând pe cei defavorizați și slabi, era în contradicție cu selecția naturală , și numai prin schimbarea acestor politici sociale ar putea fi salvată societatea de la o "revenirea spre mediocritate", frază transformată de el ulterior în "regresia spre mediocritatea." Charles Davenport, un (...)
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  14. Evolution de l'eugénisme jusqu'à la seconde guerre mondiale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Sir Francis Galton a systématisé les idées et pratiques de l'eugenisme, influencées par le livre L'origine des espèces de son cousin, Charles Darwin, par lesquelles les mécanismes de sélection naturels étaient potentiellement déjoués par la civilisation humaine. Il a affirmé que la société humaine, protégeant les plus défavorisés et les plus faibles, était en contradiction avec la sélection naturelle, et que seule une modification de ces politiques sociales permettrait à la société d'être sauvée d'un « retour à la médiocrité », (...)
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  15. Can 'Eugenics' Be Defended?Walter Veit, Jonathan Anomaly, Peter Singer, Nick Agar, Francesca Minerva & Diana Fleischman - forthcoming - Monash Bioethics Review.
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  16. Race, Eugenics, and the Holocaust.Jonathan Anomaly - 2021 - In Ira Bedzow & Stacy Gallin (eds.), Bioethics and the Holocaust. Springer.
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  17. Dehumanization, Disability, and Eugenics.Robert A. Wilson - 2021 - In Maria Kronfeldner (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Dehumanization. New York, NY, USA: pp. 173-186.
    This paper explores the relationship between eugenics, disability, and dehumanization, with a focus on forms of eugenics beyond Nazi eugenics.
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  18. Cognitive Enhancement and Network Effects: How Individual Prosperity Depends on Group Traits.Jonathan Anomaly & Garett Jones - 2020 - Philosophia 48:1753-1768.
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  19. Great Minds Think Different: Preserving Cognitive Diversity in an Age of Gene Editing.Jonny Anomaly, Julian Savulescu & Christopher Gyngell - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (1):81-89.
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  20. Race, Technology, and Posthumanism.Holly Flint Jones & Nicholaos Jones - 2020 - In Mads Rosenthal Thomsen & Jacob Wamberg (eds.), The Bloomsbury Handbook of Posthumanism. New York: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 161-170.
    This chapter briefly reviews the role of race (as a concept) in the history of theorizing the posthuman, engages with existing discussions of race as technology, and explores the significance of understanding race as technology for the field of posthumanism. Our aim is to engage existing literature that posits racialized individuals as posthumans and to consider how studying race might inform theories of the posthuman.
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  21. Looking Back to Look Forward: Disability, Philosophers, and Activism.Robert A. Wilson - 2020 - Diversity and Inclusion Section, APA Blog.
    How have and how might philosophers contribute to linking disability and activism in these peri-COVID-19 times, especially in forms of public engagement that go beyond podcasted talks and articles aimed at a public audience? How do we harness philosophical thinking to contribute positively to those living with disability whose vulnerabilities are heightened by this pandemic and the ableism highlighted by collective responses to it?
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  22. Prologue: Eugenics and its Study.Robert A. Wilson - 2020 - In Frank Stahnisch & Erna Kurbegovic (eds.), Exploring the Relationship of Eugenics and Psychiatry: Canadian and Trans-Atlantic Perspectives 1905 – 1972. Athabasca University Press.
    This is the prologue to a collection of essays on eugenics and psychiatry.
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  23. Genome Editing: Slipping Down Toward Eugenics?Davide Battisti - 2019 - Medicina Historica 3 (3):206-218.
    In this paper, I will present the empirical version of the slippery slope argument (SSA) in the field of genome editing. According to the SSA, if we adopt germline manipulation of embryos we will eventually end up performing or allowing something morally reprehensible, such as new coercive eugenics. I will investigate the actual possibility of sliding towards eugenics: thus, I will examine enhancement and eugenics both in the classical and liberal versions, through the lens of SSA. In the first part, (...)
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  24. The Trust Game CRISPR for Human Germline Editing Unsettles Scientists and Society.Matthias Braun & Darian Meacham - 2019 - EMBO Reports 20 (2).
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  25. Wronging Future Children.K. Lindsey Chambers - 2019 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 6.
    The dominant framework for addressing procreative ethics has revolved around the notion of harm, largely due to Derek Parfit’s famous non-identity problem. Focusing exclusively on the question of harm treats what procreators owe their offspring as akin to what they would owe strangers (if they owe them anything at all). Procreators, however, usually expect (and are expected) to parent the persons they create, so we cannot understand what procreators owe their offspring without also appealing to their role as prospective parents. (...)
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  26. Cloning Centering at Egoism.Yusuke Kaneko - 2019 - The Basis : The Annual Bulletin of Research Center for Liberal Education 9:245-260.
    Cloning research caught a great deal of attention when Dolly the sheep was born (§4). While some fear surrounded the attainment (§§14-15), Wilmutʼs research itself has grown well, providing a less vicious manner to gain ES cells (§12). In this article, we review the progress of cloning research along with the concern of medical circles about its application to reproductive cloning, that is to say, making replicas of human beings (§§16-21). Note that all the content is ascribed to the author (...)
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  27. Should Parents Genetically Engineer Their Children?Walter Veit - 2019 - Psychology Today.
    Imagine a world where everyone is healthy, intelligent, long living and happy. Intuitively this seems wonderful, albeit unrealistic. However, recent scientific developments in genetic engineering, namely CRISPR/Cas bring the question into public discourse, how the genetic enhancement of humans should be evaluated morally.
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  28. Eugenics Undefended.Robert A. Wilson - 2019 - Monash Bioethics Review 37 (1-2):68-75.
    This is a critical response to "Defending Eugenics", published in MBR in 2018.
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  29. Defending Eugenics: From Cryptic Choice to Conscious Selection.Jonny Anomaly - 2018 - Monash Bioethics Review 35:24-35.
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  30. Looking Into the Shadow: The Eugenics Argument in Debates on Reproductive Technologies and Practices.Giulia Cavaliere - 2018 - Monash Bioethics Review 36 (1-4):1-22.
    Eugenics is often referred to in debates on the ethics of reproductive technologies and practices, in relation to the creation of moral boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable technologies, and acceptable and unacceptable uses of these technologies. Historians have argued that twentieth century eugenics cannot be reduced to a uniform set of practices, and that no simple lessons can be drawn from this complex history. Some authors stress the similarities between past eugenics and present reproductive technologies and practices (what I define (...)
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  31. Selecting Against Disability: The Liberal Eugenic Challenge and the Argument From Cognitive Diversity.Christopher Gyngell & Thomas Douglas - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 35 (2):319-340.
    Selection against embryos that are predisposed to develop disabilities is one of the less controversial uses of embryo selection technologies. Many bio-conservatives argue that while the use of ESTs to select for non-disease-related traits, such as height and eye-colour, should be banned, their use to avoid disease and disability should be permitted. Nevertheless, there remains significant opposition, particularly from the disability rights movement, to the use of ESTs to select against disability. In this article we examine whether and why the (...)
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  32. Philosophy in the Trenches: Reflections on The Eugenic Mind Project.Alan C. Love - 2018 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 10.
    Robert Wilson’s The Eugenic Mind Project is a major achievement of engaged scholarship and socially relevant philosophy and history of science. It exemplifies the virtues of interdisciplinarity. As principal investigator of the Living Archives on Eugenics in Western Canada project, while employed in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Alberta, Wilson encountered a proverbial big ball of mud with questions and issues that involved local individuals living through a painful set of memories and implicated his institutional home in (...)
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  33. The Composite Redesign of Humanity’s Nature: A Work in Process.Lantz Miller - 2018 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 39 (2):157-164.
    One of the most salient contemporary concerns in academic debates and pop culture alike is the extent to which new technologies may re-cast Homo sapiens. Species members may find themselves encased in a type of existence they deem to be wanting in comparison with their present form, even if the promised form was assured to be better. Plausibly, the concern is not merely fear of change or of the unknown, but rather it arises out of individuals’ general identification with what (...)
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  34. Killing in the Name of Care.Joel Michael Reynolds - 2018 - Levinas Studies 12:141-164.
    On 26 July 2016, Satoshi Uematsu murdered 19 and injured 26 at a caregiving facility in Sagamihara, Japan, making it the country’s worst mass killing since WWII. In this article, I offer an analysis of the Sagamihara 19 massacre. I draw on the work of Julia Kristeva and Emmanuel Levinas to argue that claims about disability experience are insufficient to justify normative projects. In short, disability is normatively ambiguous.
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  35. Eugenia - Trecut, Prezent, Viitor.Nicolae Sfetcu - 2018 - Drobeta Turnu Severin: MultiMedia Publishing.
    Previzualizare carte Așa cum este definită eugenia, este foarte dificil de făcut o diferențiere clară între știință (medicină, ingineria genetică) și eugenie. Și de stabilit o linie peste care ingineria genetică nu ar trebui să treacă, conform unor norme morale, juridice și religioase. Atâta timp cât acceptăm ajutorul geneticii în găsirea unor modalități de combatere a cancerului, diabetului sau HIV, acceptăm în mod implicit și eugenia pozitivă, conform definiției actuale. Și atâta timp cât acceptăm screening-ul genetic, și intervenții asupra fătului (...)
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  36. Cognitive Enhancement and the Threat of Inequality.Walter Veit - 2018 - Journal of Cognitive Enhancement 2:1-7.
    As scientific progress approaches the point where significant human enhancements could become reality, debates arise whether such technologies should be made available. This paper evaluates the widespread concern that human enhancements will inevitably accentuate existing inequality and analyzes whether prohibition is the optimal public policy to avoid this outcome. Beyond these empirical questions, this paper considers whether the inequality objection is a sound argument against the set of enhancements most threatening to equality, i.e., cognitive enhancements. In doing so, I shall (...)
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  37. Procreative Beneficence and Genetic Enhancement.Walter Veit - 2018 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 32 (1):75-92.
    Imagine a world where everyone is healthy, intelligent, long living and happy. Intuitively this seems wonderful albeit unrealistic. However, recent scienti c breakthroughs in genetic engineering, namely CRISPR/Cas bring the question into public discourse, how the genetic enhancement of humans should be evaluated morally. In 2001, when preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and in vitro fertilisation (IVF), enabled parents to select between multiple embryos, Julian Savulescu introduced the principle of procreative bene cence (PPB), stating that parents have the obligations to choose (...)
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  38. The Eugenic Mind Project.Robert A. Wilson - 2018 - Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    The Eugenic Mind Project is a wide-ranging, philosophical book that explores and critiques both past and present eugenic thinking, drawing on the author’s intimate knowledge of eugenics in North America and his previous work on the cognitive, biological, and social sciences, the fragile sciences. Informed by the perspectives of Canadian eugenics survivors in the province of Alberta, The Eugenic Mind Project recounts the history of eugenics and the thinking that drove it, and critically engages contemporary manifestations of eugenic thought, newgenics. (...)
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  39. Resisting the Temptation of Perfection.Joseph Tham - 2017 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 17 (1):51-62.
    With the advance of CRISPR technology, parents will be tempted to create superior offspring who are healthier, smarter, and stronger. In addition to the fact that many of these procedures are considered immoral for Catholics, they could change human nature in radical and possibly disastrous ways. This article focuses on the question of human perfectionism. First, by considering the relationship between human nature and technology, it analyzes whether such advances can improve human nature in addition to curing diseases. Next, it (...)
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  40. Group-Level Cognizing, Collaborative Remembering, and Individuals.Robert A. Wilson - 2017 - In Penny Van Bergen Michelle Meade (ed.), Collaborative Remembering: Theories, Research, and Applications. New York, NY, USA: pp. 248-260.
    This chapter steps back from the important psychological work on collaborative remembering at the heart of the present volume to take up some broader questions about the place of memory in Western cultural thought, both historically and in contemporary society, offering the kind of integrative and reflective perspective for which philosophy is often known. In particular, the text aims to shed some light on the relationship between collaborative memory and the other two topics in this title—group-level cognizing and individuals—beginning with (...)
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  41. Contemporary Forms of Eugenics.Robert A. Wilson - 2017 - eLS Wiley Online.
    Eugenics is commonly thought of as having endured as science and social movement only until 1945. With the advance of both reproductive and enhancement technologies, however, concern has arisen that eugenics has resurfaced in new forms. In particular, the eugenic potential of the Human Genome Project led to talk of the rise of ‘newgenics’ and of a backdoor to eugenics. This article focuses on such concerns deriving from the practice of prenatal screening and technologies that increase our ability to generate (...)
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  42. Eugenics in Philosophy.Robert A. Wilson - 2017 - Oxford Bibliographies Online.
    Annotated bibliography on eugenics and philosophy.
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  43. CRISPR as a Driving Force: The Model T of Biotechnology.Carlos Mariscal & Angel Petropanagos - 2016 - Monash Bioethics Review 34 (2):1-16.
    The CRISPR system for gene editing can break, repair, and replace targeted sections of DNA. Although CRISPR gene editing has important therapeutic potential, it raises several ethical concerns. Some bioethicists worry CRISPR is a prelude to a dystopian future, while others maintain it should not be feared because it is analogous to past biotechnologies. In the scientific literature, CRISPR is often discussed as a revolutionary technology. In this paper we unpack the framing of CRISPR as a revolutionary technology and contrast (...)
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  44. Echoes of the Eugenic Movement From Interwar Romania in Communist Pronatalist Practices.Andreea Poenaru - 2016 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 3 (4):411-419.
    The present article dwells on the idea of the empowerment of women as it was used by the Communist regime. Eugenics, a field much discussed in inter-war Romania, was the main tool in controlling women. The principles of this science, related to the idea of biology as destiny, were adopted and applied so that the private sphere became public. My thesis is that even if these principles were used in the communist strategy in order to strengthen the nation, in fact, (...)
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  45. Science and Values.Matthew J. Barker - 2015 - Eugenics Archive.
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  46. Feminism, Disability, and Brain Death :Alternative Voices From Japanese Bioethics.Masahiro Morioka - 2015 - Journal of Philosophy of Life 5 (1):19-41.
    Japanese bioethics has created a variety of important ideas that have not yet been reflected on mainstream bioethics discourses in the English-speaking world, which include “the swaying of the confused self” in the field of feminism, “inner eugenic thought” concerning disability, and “human relationship-oriented approaches to brain death.” In this paper, I will examine them more closely, and consider what bioethics in Japan can contribute to the development of an international discussion on philosophy of life.
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  47. Public Goods and Procreation.Jonny Anomaly - 2014 - Monash Bioethics Review 32 (3-4):172-188.
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  48. Race, Genes, and the Ethics of Belief: A Review of Nicholas Wade, A Troublesome Inheritance. [REVIEW]Jonny Anomaly - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (5):51-52.
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  49. Etika lidského vylepšování a liberální eugenika.Tomas Hribek - 2014 - Filosoficky Casopis 62 (6):847-861.
    [The Ethics of Human Enhancement and Liberal Eugenics] The paper deals with the ethics of biotechnological enhancement of human qualities such as intelligence, health and lifespan. In contemporary bioethics three views have emerged concerning the moral permissibility of such a biotechnological enhancement of humans. While bioconservatives reject it as morally impermissible and dangerous, bioradicals welcome it as permissible and desirable. Between these two extremes we find bioliberals who admit some types of enhancement, under certain conditions. These debates are still overshadowed (...)
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  50. Nietzsche's Naturalist Morality of Breeding: A Critique of Eugenics as Taming.Donovan Miyasaki - 2014 - In Vanessa Lemm (ed.), Nietzsche and the Becoming of Life. Fordham University Press. pp. 194-213.
    In this paper, I directly oppose Nietzsche ’s endorsement of a morality of breeding to all forms of comparative, positive eugenics: the use of genetic selection to introduce positive improvement in individuals or the species, based on negatively or comparatively defined traits. I begin by explaining Nietzsche ’s contrast between two broad categories of morality: breeding and taming. I argue that the ethical dangers of positive eugenics are grounded in their status as forms of taming, which preserves positively evaluated character (...)
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