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  1. Personal Relevance in Story Reading: A Research Review.Anezka Kuzmicova & Katalin Balint - forthcoming - Poetics Today 39.
    Although personal relevance is key to sustaining an audience’s interest in any given narrative, it has received little systematic attention in scholarship to date. Across centuries and media, adaptations have been used extensively to bring temporally or geographically distant narratives “closer” to the recipient under the assumption that their impact will increase. In this review article, we review experimental and other empirical evidence on narrative processing in order to unravel which types of personal relevance are more likely to be impactful (...)
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  2. Bigger Isn’T Better: The Ethical and Scientific Vices of Extra-Large Datasets in Language Models.Trystan S. Goetze & Darren Abramson - 2021 - WebSci '21 Proceedings of the 13th Annual ACM Web Science Conference (Companion Volume).
    The use of language models in Web applications and other areas of computing and business have grown significantly over the last five years. One reason for this growth is the improvement in performance of language models on a number of benchmarks — but a side effect of these advances has been the adoption of a “bigger is always better” paradigm when it comes to the size of training, testing, and challenge datasets. Drawing on previous criticisms of this paradigm as applied (...)
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  3. Making AI Meaningful Again.Jobst Landgrebe & Barry Smith - 2021 - Synthese 198 (March):2061-2081.
    Artificial intelligence (AI) research enjoyed an initial period of enthusiasm in the 1970s and 80s. But this enthusiasm was tempered by a long interlude of frustration when genuinely useful AI applications failed to be forthcoming. Today, we are experiencing once again a period of enthusiasm, fired above all by the successes of the technology of deep neural networks or deep machine learning. In this paper we draw attention to what we take to be serious problems underlying current views of artificial (...)
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  4. There is No General AI.Jobst Landgrebe & Barry Smith - 2020 - arXiv.
    The goal of creating Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) – or in other words of creating Turing machines (modern computers) that can behave in a way that mimics human intelligence – has occupied AI researchers ever since the idea of AI was first proposed. One common theme in these discussions is the thesis that the ability of a machine to conduct convincing dialogues with human beings can serve as at least a sufficient criterion of AGI. We argue that this very ability (...)
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  5. Génie logiciel et ontologies.Ivan Maffezzini - 2020 - Mεtascience 1:137-157.
    La description en langue naturelle est l’artefact permettant de débuter un processus d’automatisation. La tâche principale de l’ingénieur du logiciel, c’est de combler le clivage entre langue naturelle et langue de la machine. Après avoir présenté quelques ontologies définies pour les processus d’automatisation, quelques pour et quelques contre l’emploi d’ontologies dans le génie logiciel sont présentées. Des indications pour dépasser cette simple opposition sont ensuite décrites. Des évaluations sur le réductionnisme dans les ontologies en ce qui concerne les possibles interactions (...)
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  6. Реформа интернета.Andrej Poleev - 2020 - Enzymes 18.
    Частным аспектом предлагаемой реформы интернета является метаномические правила референцирования и адресации виртуальных объектов с целью приближения их к естественным языкам, и создания их логической системы. Однако реформа интернета и преобразование его в средство общения и служения обществу требует также других мер. К этим мерам относится передача определённых имён в неотчуждаемое владение, чтобы их собственники безусловно и беспрепятственно могли осуществлять их право публикации, т.е. публичного высказывания и выражения их мыслей, что также важно для документографии. Другой мерой должно стать упразднение всей сложившейся (...)
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  7. Ἐγώ εἰμι.Andrej Poleev - 2020 - Enzymes 18.
    Появление человека, говорящего о себе Ἐγώ εἰμι, люди воспринимают в той же логике абсурда, к которой они привыкли. То, что кто-то может не играть и не носить маску, а реально быть, жить настоящей, а не выдуманной жизнью, для них немыслимо, невозможно, невыносимо и недопустимо. Но такой человек был, есть, и будет, и именно он преображает всё остальное человечество своим Ἐγώ εἰμι.
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  8. Compositionality and Expressive Power: Comments on Pietroski.Elmar Unnsteinsson - 2020 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 20 (3):295-310.
    Paul Pietroski has developed a powerful minimalist and internalist alternative to standard compositional semantics, where meanings are identified with instructions to fetch or assemble human concepts in specific ways. In particular, there appears to be no need for Fregean Function Application, as natural language composition only involves processes of combining monadic or dyadic concepts, and Pietroski’s theory can then, allegedly, avoid both singular reference and truth conditions. He also has a negative agenda, purporting to show, roughly, that the vocabulary of (...)
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  9. Biomedical Ontology Alignment: An Approach Based on Representation Learning.Prodromos Kolyvakis, Alexandros Kalousis, Barry Smith & Dimitris Kiritsis - 2018 - Journal of Biomedical Semantics 9 (21).
    While representation learning techniques have shown great promise in application to a number of different NLP tasks, they have had little impact on the problem of ontology matching. Unlike past work that has focused on feature engineering, we present a novel representation learning approach that is tailored to the ontology matching task. Our approach is based on embedding ontological terms in a high-dimensional Euclidean space. This embedding is derived on the basis of a novel phrase retrofitting strategy through which semantic (...)
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  10. In Pursuit of the Functional Definition of a Mind: The Pivotal Role of a Discourse.Vitalii Shymko - 2018 - Psycholinguistics 24 (1):403-424.
    This article is devoted to describing results of conceptualization of the idea of mind at the stage of maturity. Delineated the acquisition by the energy system (mind) of stable morphological characteristics, which associated with such a pivotal formation as the discourse. A qualitative structural and ontological sign of the system transition to this stage is the transformation of the verbal morphology of the mind into a discursive one. The analysis of the poststructuralist understanding of discourse in the context of the (...)
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  11. Ontology-Based Fusion of Sensor Data and Natural Language.Erik Thomsen & Barry Smith - 2018 - Applied Ontology 13 (4):295-333.
    We describe a prototype ontology-driven information system (ODIS) that exploits what we call Portion of Reality (POR) representations. The system takes both sensor data and natural language text as inputs and composes on this basis logically structured POR assertions. The goal of our prototype is to represent both natural language and sensor data within a single framework that is able to support both axiomatic reasoning and computation. In addition, the framework should be capable of discovering and representing new kinds of (...)
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  12. The Difficulty of English Adverbial Constructions for the Foreign Learners.Emin Yas - 2017 - Batman University Journal of Life Sciences 2 (7):46-61.
    The purpose of this paper is to bring to the light what difficulties or burden the English Adverbial Clauses have for foreign language learners (FLLs) or second language learners (SLLs) In this context, the syntactic structure of such grammatical category has been examined. This has been done by examining the syntactic properties of adverbial clauses as grammatical unity by emphasising their structures. The most important books that are available in the English speaking world have been inquired. This corpus analysis has (...)
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  13. The Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain Ontology – Towards an International Information System for Space Data.Robert J. Rovetto - 2016 Sept - In Proceedings of The Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies (AMOS) Conference.
    The orbital space environment is home to natural and artificial satellites, debris, and space weather phenomena. As the population of orbital objects grows so do the potential hazards to astronauts, space infrastructure and spaceflight capability. Orbital debris, in particular, is a universal concern. This and other hazards can be minimized by improving global space situational awareness (SSA). By sharing more data and increasing observational coverage of the space environment we stand to achieve that goal, thereby making spaceflight safer and expanding (...)
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  14. Preliminaries of a Space Situational Awareness Ontology.Robert J. Rovetto & T. S. Kelso - 2016 Feb - In Renato Zanetti, Ryan P. Russell, Martin T. Oximek & Angela L. Bowes (eds.), Proceedings of AAS/AIAA Spaceflight Mechanics Meeting, in Advances in the Astronautical Sciences. Univelt Inc.. pp. 4177-4192.
    Space situational awareness (SSA) is vital for international safety and security, and for the future of space travel. The sharing of SSA data and information should improve the state of global SSA for planetary defense and spaceflight safety. I take steps toward a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Ontology, and outline some central objectives, requirements and desiderata in the ontology development process for this domain. The purpose of this ontological system is to explore the potential for the ontology research topic to (...)
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  15. Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain Ontology.Robert J. Rovetto - 2016 - In Stefano Borgo, Jean-Rémi Bourguet & Adrien Barton (eds.), CEUR workshop proceedings of The Joint Ontology Workshops, with the 9th International Conference of Formal Ontology for Information Systems (FOIS), Early Career Symposium. CEUR Scientific Workshops.
    A short summary paper of my Orbital Space Domain Ontology project (purl.org/space-ontology), originally conceived in 2011. Since then I've sought (without success) opportunities to realize it (either as a PhD or other degree thesis; or in an employment position) toward my original passion of entering the space sector and gaining further space education. Since then persons in the relevant space disciplines have seen the potential in it, and unfortunately some have taken advantage of my ideas yet excluded me from work. (...)
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  16. The Space Object Ontology.Robert J. Rovetto - 2016 - 2016 1.
    This paper develops the ontology of space objects for theoretical and computational ontology applied to the space (astronautical/astronomical) domain. It follows “An ontological architecture for Orbital Debris Data” (Rovetto, 2015) and “Preliminaries of a Space Situational Awareness Ontology” (Rovetto, Kelso, 2016). Important considerations for developing a space object ontology, or more broadly, a space domain ontology are presented. The main category term ‘Space Object’ is analyzed from a philosophical perspective. The ontological commitments of legal definitions for artificial space objects are (...)
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  17. Computational Models (of Narrative) for Literary Studies.Antonio Lieto - 2015 - Semicerchio, Rivista di Poesia Comparata 2 (LIII):38-44.
    In the last decades a growing body of literature in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Cognitive Science (CS) has approached the problem of narrative understanding by means of computational systems. Narrative, in fact, is an ubiquitous element in our everyday activity and the ability to generate and understand stories, and their structures, is a crucial cue of our intelligence. However, despite the fact that - from an historical standpoint - narrative (and narrative structures) have been an important topic of investigation in (...)
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  18. An Ontological Architecture for Orbital Debris Data.Robert J. Rovetto - 2015 - Earth Science Informatics 9 (1):67-82.
    The orbital debris problem presents an opportunity for inter-agency and international cooperation toward the mutually beneficial goals of debris prevention, mitigation, remediation, and improved space situational awareness (SSA). Achieving these goals requires sharing orbital debris and other SSA data. Toward this, I present an ontological architecture for the orbital debris and broader SSA domain, taking steps in the creation of an orbital debris ontology (ODO). The purpose of this ontological system is to (I) represent general orbital debris and SSA domain (...)
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  19. New Discoveries Should Reopen the Discussion of Signs.Michael Joseph Winkler - 2015 - Alternative Theoretics 2015:12.
    Some recent scientific discoveries regarding the signs of language, which impact my own ongoing project as a visual/conceptual artist, also dramatically impact the Saussurian foundation of the prevalent cultural theories which underlie the curatorial priorities of many major art institutions.
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  20. The Relevance of Philosophical Ontology to Information and Computer Science.Barry Smith - 2014 - In Ruth Hagengruber & Uwe Riss (eds.), Philosophy, Computing and Information Science. Chatto & Pickering. pp. 75-83.
    The discipline of ontology has enjoyed a checkered history since 1606, with a significant expansion in recent years. We focus here on those developments in the recent history of philosophy which are most relevant to the understanding of the increased acceptance of ontology, and especially of realist ontology, as a valuable method also outside the discipline of philosophy.
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  21. Slurs.Adam M. Croom - 2011 - Language Sciences 33:343-358.
    Slurs possess interesting linguistic properties and so have recently attracted the attention of linguists and philosophers of language. For instance the racial slur "nigger" is explosively derogatory, enough so that just hearing it mentioned can leave one feeling as if they have been made complicit in a morally atrocious act.. Indeed, the very taboo nature of these words makes discussion of them typically prohibited or frowned upon. Although it is true that the utterance of slurs is illegitimate and derogatory in (...)
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  22. Universal Metadata Standard.Andrej Poleev - 2011 - Scientific and Technical Information Processing 38 (2):119-122.
    Consciousness is based on the association of notions or a neural network. Similarly, the creation of the next generation Internet (semantic web) is impossible without attributes that allow the semantic association of documents and their integration into an information context. To achieve these goals, the Universal Metadata Standard (UMS) may serve as a basis for documentography and is functionally required for interpretation of documents by automatic operating systems.
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  23. Универсальный стандарт метаданных.Andrej Poleev - 2011 - Enzymes 9.
    Основой сознания является ассоциативная связь понятий, согласованная работа элементов нейрональной сети. Аналогично этому, создание интернета нового поколения (semantic web) невозможно без атрибутов, позволяющих осуществлять семантическую связь документов и интеграцию их в информационный контекст. Для реализации этих целей предлагается ввести Универсальный Стандарт Метаданных (universal metadata standard, ums), который мог бы служить основой документографии (documentography), функционально необходимой для интерпретации документов в автоматических операционных системах.
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  24. A Note on Plural Logic.Gustavo Fernández Díez - 2010 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 17 (2):150-162.
    A distinction is introduced between itemized and non-itemized plural predication. It is argued that a full-fledged system of plural logic is not necessary in order to account for the validity of inferences concerning itemized collective predication. Instead, it is shown how this type of inferences can be adequately dealt with in a first-order logic system, after small modifications on the standard treatment. The proposed system, unlike plural logic, has the advantage of preserving completeness. And as a result, inferences such as (...)
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  25. Towards New Information Resources for Public Health: From WordNet to MedicalWordNet.Christane Fellbaum, Udo Hahn & Barry Smith - 2006 - Journal of Biomedical Informatics 39 (3):321-332.
    In the last two decades, WORDNET has evolved as the most comprehensive computational lexicon of general English. In this article, we discuss its potential for supporting the creation of an entirely new kind of information resource for public health, viz. MEDICAL WORDNET. This resource is not to be conceived merely as a lexical extension of the original WORDNET to medical terminology; indeed, there is already a considerable degree of overlap between WORDNET and the vocabulary of medicine. Instead, we propose a (...)
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  26. Formal Ontology for Natural Language Processing and the Integration of Biomedical Databases.Jonathan Simon, James M. Fielding, Mariana C. Dos Santos & Barry Smith - 2005 - International Journal of Medical Informatics 75 (3-4):224-231.
    The central hypothesis of the collaboration between Language and Computing (L&C) and the Institute for Formal Ontology and Medical Information Science (IFOMIS) is that the methodology and conceptual rigor of a philosophically inspired formal ontology greatly benefits application ontologies. To this end r®, L&C’s ontology, which is designed to integrate and reason across various external databases simultaneously, has been submitted to the conceptual demands of IFOMIS’s Basic Formal Ontology (BFO). With this project we aim to move beyond the level of (...)
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  27. Medical WordNet: A New Methodology for the Construction and Validation of Information Resources for Consumer Health.Barry Smith & Christiane Fellbaum - 2004 - In Proceedings of Coling: The 20th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Geneva: pp. 371-382.
    A consumer health information system must be able to comprehend both expert and non-expert medical vocabulary and to map between the two. We describe an ongoing project to create a new lexical database called Medical WordNet (MWN), consisting of medically relevant terms used by and intelligible to non-expert subjects and supplemented by a corpus of natural-language sentences that is designed to provide medically validated contexts for MWN terms. The corpus derives primarily from online health information sources targeted to consumers, and (...)
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  28. Using Cross-Lingual Information to Cope with Underspecification in Formal Ontologies.Werner Ceusters, Ignace Desimpel, Barry Smith & Stefan Schulz - 2003 - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 95:391-396.
    Description logics and other formal devices are frequently used as means for preventing or detecting mistakes in ontologies. Some of these devices are also capable of inferring the existence of inter-concept relationships that have not been explicitly entered into an ontology. A prerequisite, however, is that this information can be derived from those formal definitions of concepts and relationships which are included within the ontology. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm that is able to suggest relationships among existing (...)
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  29. Using Ontology in Query Answering Systems: Scenarios, Requirements and Challenges.Werner Ceusters, Barry Smith & Maarten Van Mol - 2003 - In R. Bernardi & M. Moortgat (eds.), Questions and Answers: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives, Proceedings of the 2nd CoLogNET-Elsnet Symposium, December 2003. Amsterdam: pp. 5-15.
    Equipped with the ultimate query answering system, computers would finally be in a position to address all our information needs in a natural way. In this paper, we describe how Language and Computing nv (L&C), a developer of ontology-based natural language understanding systems for the healthcare domain, is working towards the ultimate Question Answering (QA) System for healthcare workers. L&C’s company strategy in this area is to design in a step-by-step fashion the essential components of such a system, each component (...)
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  30. Political Footprints: Political Discourse Analysis Using Pre-Trained Word Vectors.Christophe Bruchansky - manuscript
    How political opinions are spread on social media has been the subject of many academic researches recently, and rightly so. Social platforms give researchers a unique opportunity to understand how public discourses are perceived, owned and instrumentalized by the general public. This paper is instead focussing on the political discourses themselves, and how a specific machine learning technique - vector space models (VSMs) -, can be used to make systematic and more objective discourse analysis. Political footprints are vector-based representation of (...)
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