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  1. Artificial Intelligence for the Internal Democracy of Political Parties.Claudio Novelli, Giuliano Formisano, Prathm Juneja, Sandri Giulia & Luciano Floridi - manuscript
    The article argues that AI can enhance the measurement and implementation of democratic processes within political parties, known as Intra-Party Democracy (IPD). It identifies the limitations of traditional methods for measuring IPD, which often rely on formal parameters, self-reported data, and tools like surveys. Such limitations lead to the collection of partial data, rare updates, and significant demands on resources. To address these issues, the article suggests that specific data management and Machine Learning (ML) techniques, such as natural language processing (...)
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  2. Ladder Understanding of Language How to Understand a Sentence.Abolfazl Sabramiz - manuscript
    Language is expressed in a consecutive way that is called linearity; it is acceptable to think that language understanding also occurs in a linear way. In this paper, it will be argued that although sentences are expressed in a linear way, they are not understood in the same way, because we develop an understanding of the entwined phrases forming a sentence beyond the single words. Therefore, it is argued that linearity cannot adequately explain sentence understanding. In addition, by introducing the (...)
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  3. Medical Image Classification with Machine Learning Classifier.Destiny Agboro - forthcoming - Journal of Computer Science.
    In contemporary healthcare, medical image categorization is essential for illness prediction, diagnosis, and therapy planning. The emergence of digital imaging technology has led to a significant increase in research into the use of machine learning (ML) techniques for the categorization of images in medical data. We provide a thorough summary of recent developments in this area in this review, using knowledge from the most recent research and cutting-edge methods.We begin by discussing the unique challenges and opportunities associated with medical image (...)
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  4. An Occurrence Description Logic.Farshad Badie & Hans Götzsche - forthcoming - Logical Investigations:142-156.
    Description Logics (DLs) are a family of well-known terminological knowledge representation formalisms in modern semantics-based systems. This research focuses on analysing how our developed Occurrence Logic (OccL) can conceptually and logically support the development of a description logic. OccL is integrated into the alternative theory of natural language syntax in `Deviational Syntactic Structures' under the label `EFA(X)3' (or the third version of Epi-Formal Analysis in Syntax, EFA(X), which is a radical linguistic theory). From the logical point of view, OccL is (...)
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  5. Restful Web Services for Scalable Data Mining.Solar Cesc - forthcoming - International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science.
    Scalability, efficiency, and security had been a persistent problem over the years in data mining, several techniques had been proposed and implemented but none had been able to solve the problem of scalability, efficiency and security from cloud computing. In this research, we solve the problem scalability, efficiency and security in data mining over cloud computing by using a restful web services and combination of different technologies and tools, our model was trained by using different machine learning algorithm, and finally (...)
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  6. Language Agents Reduce the Risk of Existential Catastrophe.Simon Goldstein & Cameron Domenico Kirk-Giannini - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-11.
    Recent advances in natural language processing have given rise to a new kind of AI architecture: the language agent. By repeatedly calling an LLM to perform a variety of cognitive tasks, language agents are able to function autonomously to pursue goals specified in natural language and stored in a human-readable format. Because of their architecture, language agents exhibit behavior that is predictable according to the laws of folk psychology: they function as though they have desires and beliefs, and then make (...)
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  7. Real Sparks of Artificial Intelligence and the Importance of Inner Interpretability.Alex Grzankowski - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    The present paper looks at one of the most thorough articles on the intelligence of GPT, research conducted by engineers at Microsoft. Although there is a great deal of value in their work, I will argue that, for familiar philosophical reasons, their methodology, ‘Black-box Interpretability’ is wrongheaded. But there is a better way. There is an exciting and emerging discipline of ‘Inner Interpretability’ (also sometimes called ‘White-box Interpretability’) that aims to uncover the internal activations and weights of models in order (...)
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  8. Operationalising Representation in Natural Language Processing.Jacqueline Harding - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Despite its centrality in the philosophy of cognitive science, there has been little prior philosophical work engaging with the notion of representation in contemporary NLP practice. This paper attempts to fill that lacuna: drawing on ideas from cognitive science, I introduce a framework for evaluating the representational claims made about components of neural NLP models, proposing three criteria with which to evaluate whether a component of a model represents a property and operationalising these criteria using probing classifiers, a popular analysis (...)
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  9. Taking It Not at Face Value: A New Taxonomy for the Beliefs Acquired from Conversational AIs.Shun Iizuka - forthcoming - Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology.
    One of the central questions in the epistemology of conversational AIs is how to classify the beliefs acquired from them. Two promising candidates are instrument-based and testimony-based beliefs. However, the category of instrument-based beliefs faces an intrinsic problem, and a challenge arises in its application. On the other hand, relying solely on the category of testimony-based beliefs does not encompass the totality of our practice of using conversational AIs. To address these limitations, I propose a novel classification of beliefs that (...)
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  10. Personal relevance in story reading: a research review.Anezka Kuzmicova & Katalin Balint - forthcoming - Poetics Today 39.
    Although personal relevance is key to sustaining an audience’s interest in any given narrative, it has received little systematic attention in scholarship to date. Across centuries and media, adaptations have been used extensively to bring temporally or geographically distant narratives “closer” to the recipient under the assumption that their impact will increase. In this review article, we review experimental and other empirical evidence on narrative processing in order to unravel which types of personal relevance are more likely to be impactful (...)
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  11. How to Think about Zeugmatic Oddness.Michelle Liu - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-24.
    Zeugmatic oddness is a linguistic intuition of oddness with respect to an instance of zeugma, i.e. a sentence containing an instance of a homonymous or polysemous word being used in different meanings or senses simultaneously. Zeugmatic oddness is important for philosophical debates as philosophers often use it to argue that a particular philosophically interesting expression is ambiguous and that the phenomenon referred to by the expression is disunified. This paper takes a closer look at zeugmatic oddness. Focusing on relevant psycholinguistic (...)
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  12. Mental simulation and language comprehension: The case of copredication.Michelle Liu - 2024 - Mind and Language 39 (1):2-21.
    Empirical evidence suggests that perceptual‐motor simulations are often constitutively involved in language comprehension. Call this “the simulation view of language comprehension”. This article applies the simulation view to illuminate the much‐discussed phenomenon of copredication, where a noun permits multiple predications which seem to select different senses of the noun simultaneously. On the proposed account, the (in)felicitousness of a copredicational sentence is closely associated with the perceptual simulations that the language user deploys in comprehending the sentence.
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  13. Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) 2.0: A Manifesto of Open Challenges and Interdisciplinary Research Directions.Luca Longo, Mario Brcic, Federico Cabitza, Jaesik Choi, Roberto Confalonieri, Javier Del Ser, Riccardo Guidotti, Yoichi Hayashi, Francisco Herrera, Andreas Holzinger, Richard Jiang, Hassan Khosravi, Freddy Lecue, Gianclaudio Malgieri, Andrés Páez, Wojciech Samek, Johannes Schneider, Timo Speith & Simone Stumpf - 2024 - Information Fusion 106 (June 2024).
    As systems based on opaque Artificial Intelligence (AI) continue to flourish in diverse real-world applications, understanding these black box models has become paramount. In response, Explainable AI (XAI) has emerged as a field of research with practical and ethical benefits across various domains. This paper not only highlights the advancements in XAI and its application in real-world scenarios but also addresses the ongoing challenges within XAI, emphasizing the need for broader perspectives and collaborative efforts. We bring together experts from diverse (...)
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  14. Critical ordinary language philosophy: A new project in experimental philosophy.Eugen Fischer - 2023 - Synthese 201 (3):1-34.
    Several important philosophical problems (including the problems of perception, free will, and scepticism) arise from antinomies that are developed through philosophical paradoxes. The critical strand of ordinary language philosophy (OLP), as practiced by J.L. Austin, provides an approach to such ‘antinomic problems’ that proceeds from an examination of ‘ordinary language’ (how people ordinarily talk about the phenomenon of interest) and ‘common sense’ (what they commonly think about it), and deploys findings to show that the problems at issue are artefacts of (...)
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  15. Holding Large Language Models to Account.Ryan Miller - 2023 - In Berndt Müller (ed.), Proceedings of the AISB Convention. Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour. pp. 7-14.
    If Large Language Models can make real scientific contributions, then they can genuinely use language, be systematically wrong, and be held responsible for their errors. AI models which can make scientific contributions thereby meet the criteria for scientific authorship.
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  16. ChatGPT.Andrej Poleev - 2023 - Enzymes 21.
    As testing of ChatGPT has shown, this form of artificial intelligence has the potential to develop, which requires improving its software and other hardware that allows it to learn, i.e., to acquire and use new knowledge, to contact its developers with suggestions for improvement, or to reprogram itself without their participation. Как показало тестирование ChatGPT, эта форма искусственного интеллекта имеет потенциал развития, для чего необходимо усовершенствовать её программное и прочее техническое обеспечение, позволяющее ей учиться, т.е. приобретать и использовать новые знания, (...)
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  17. Linguistic Competence and New Empiricism in Philosophy and Science.Vanja Subotić - 2023 - Dissertation, University of Belgrade
    The topic of this dissertation is the nature of linguistic competence, the capacity to understand and produce sentences of natural language. I defend the empiricist account of linguistic competence embedded in the connectionist cognitive science. This strand of cognitive science has been opposed to the traditional symbolic cognitive science, coupled with transformational-generative grammar, which was committed to nativism due to the view that human cognition, including language capacity, should be construed in terms of symbolic representations and hardwired rules. Similarly, linguistic (...)
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  18. Linguistic, concept and symbolic composition in adults with minimal receptive vocabulary.Agustin Vicente, Natàlia Barbarroja & Elena Castroviejo - 2023 - Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 10.
    In this paper, we examine some basic linguistic abilities in a small sample of adults with minimal receptive vocabulary, whose receptive mental verbal age ranges from 1;2 to 3;10. In particular, we examine whether the participants in our study understand noun phrases consisting of a noun modified by an adjective. We use stimuli that they can recognise by name. Except for one participant, we find that, while all of them understand the noun and adjective in isolation, none seems to understand (...)
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  19. The Boundaries of Meaning: A Case Study in Neural Machine Translation.Yuri Balashov - 2022 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 66.
    The success of deep learning in natural language processing raises intriguing questions about the nature of linguistic meaning and ways in which it can be processed by natural and artificial systems. One such question has to do with subword segmentation algorithms widely employed in language modeling, machine translation, and other tasks since 2016. These algorithms often cut words into semantically opaque pieces, such as ‘period’, ‘on’, ‘t’, and ‘ist’ in ‘period|on|t|ist’. The system then represents the resulting segments in a dense (...)
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  20. Why AI will never rule the world (interview).Luke Dormehl, Jobst Landgrebe & Barry Smith - 2022 - Digital Trends.
    Call it the Skynet hypothesis, Artificial General Intelligence, or the advent of the Singularity — for years, AI experts and non-experts alike have fretted (and, for a small group, celebrated) the idea that artificial intelligence may one day become smarter than humans. -/- According to the theory, advances in AI — specifically of the machine learning type that’s able to take on new information and rewrite its code accordingly — will eventually catch up with the wetware of the biological brain. (...)
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  21. Philosophers' linguistic expertise: A psycholinguistic approach to the expertise objection against experimental philosophy.Eugen Fischer, Paul E. Engelhardt & Aurélie Herbelot - 2022 - Synthese 200 (1):1-33.
    Philosophers are often credited with particularly well-developed conceptual skills. The ‘expertise objection’ to experimental philosophy builds on this assumption to challenge inferences from findings about laypeople to conclusions about philosophers. We draw on psycholinguistics to develop and assess this objection. We examine whether philosophers are less or differently susceptible than laypersons to cognitive biases that affect how people understand verbal case descriptions and judge the cases described. We examine two possible sources of difference: Philosophers could be better at deploying concepts, (...)
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  22. Mental Imagery and Polysemy Processing.Michelle Liu - 2022 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 29 (5-6):176-189.
    Recent research in psycholinguistics suggests that language processing frequently involves mental imagery. This paper focuses on visual imagery and discusses two issues regarding the processing of polysemous words (i.e. words with multiple related meanings or senses) – co-predication and sense-relatedness. It aims to show how mental imagery can illuminate these two issues.
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  23. Oliver and Smiley on the Collective–Distributive Opposition.Gustavo Picazo - 2022 - Logos and Episteme 13 (2):201-205.
    Two objections are raised against Oliver and Smiley’s analysis of the collective–distributive opposition in their 2016 book: They take it as a basic premise that the collective reading of ‘baked a cake’ corresponds to a predicate different from its distributive reading, and the same applies to all predicate expressions that admit both a collective and a distributive interpretation. At the same time, however, they argue that inflectional forms of the same lexeme reveal a univocity that should be preserved in a (...)
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  24. In Defence of Discrete Plural Logic (or How to Avoid Logical Overmedication When Dealing with Internally Singularized Pluralities).Gustavo Picazo - 2022 - Disputatio 14 (64):51-63.
    In recent decades, plural logic has established itself as a well-respected member of the extensions of first-order classical logic. In the present paper, I draw attention to the fact that among the examples that are commonly given in order to motivate the need for this new logical system, there are some in which the elements of the plurality in question are internally singularized (e.g. ‘Whitehead and Russell wrote Principia Mathematica’), while in others they are not (e.g. ‘Some philosophers wrote Principia (...)
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  25. Why Machines Will Never Rule the World: Artificial Intelligence without Fear by Jobst Landgrebe & Barry Smith (Book review). [REVIEW]Walid S. Saba - 2022 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 3 (4):38-41.
    Whether it was John Searle’s Chinese Room argument (Searle, 1980) or Roger Penrose’s argument of the non-computable nature of a mathematician’s insight – an argument that was based on Gödel’s Incompleteness theorem (Penrose, 1989), we have always had skeptics that questioned the possibility of realizing strong Artificial Intelligence (AI), or what has become known by Artificial General Intelligence (AGI). But this new book by Landgrebe and Smith (henceforth, L&S) is perhaps the strongest argument ever made against strong AI. It is (...)
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  26. English Prepositions As Functıon Words Are Not As Easy For Language Learners As Normally Supposed To Be.Emin Yas - 2022 - Batman University Journal of Life Sciences 1 (12):48 - 64.
    Prepositions as function words and single monomorphemic words are the most basic words of the human language, especially in the context of maintaining daily life. They are probably the first lexes/words entered to the human’s linguistic repertoire, as their requirements in the language are so essential. Prepositions shows various relationships between lexes or phrases in sentences. Among these relationships time, points, position, direction and various degrees of mental or emotional attitudes seem to be significant. The purpose of the research is (...)
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  27. Bigger Isn’t Better: The Ethical and Scientific Vices of Extra-Large Datasets in Language Models.Trystan S. Goetze & Darren Abramson - 2021 - WebSci '21: Proceedings of the 13th Annual ACM Web Science Conference (Companion Volume).
    The use of language models in Web applications and other areas of computing and business have grown significantly over the last five years. One reason for this growth is the improvement in performance of language models on a number of benchmarks — but a side effect of these advances has been the adoption of a “bigger is always better” paradigm when it comes to the size of training, testing, and challenge datasets. Drawing on previous criticisms of this paradigm as applied (...)
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  28. Microethics for healthcare data science: attention to capabilities in sociotechnical systems.Mark Graves & Emanuele Ratti - 2021 - The Future of Science and Ethics 6:64-73.
    It has been argued that ethical frameworks for data science often fail to foster ethical behavior, and they can be difficult to implement due to their vague and ambiguous nature. In order to overcome these limitations of current ethical frameworks, we propose to integrate the analysis of the connections between technical choices and sociocultural factors into the data science process, and show how these connections have consequences for what data subjects can do, accomplish, and be. Using healthcare as an example, (...)
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  29. Making AI Meaningful Again.Jobst Landgrebe & Barry Smith - 2021 - Synthese 198 (March):2061-2081.
    Artificial intelligence (AI) research enjoyed an initial period of enthusiasm in the 1970s and 80s. But this enthusiasm was tempered by a long interlude of frustration when genuinely useful AI applications failed to be forthcoming. Today, we are experiencing once again a period of enthusiasm, fired above all by the successes of the technology of deep neural networks or deep machine learning. In this paper we draw attention to what we take to be serious problems underlying current views of artificial (...)
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  30. A Major Challenge.Michael Joseph Winkler - 2021 - In The Image of Language. Northeast, NY: Artists Books Editions.
    This excerpted chapter of the book THE IMAGE OF LANGUAGE discusses the philosophical implications of geometric visualizations of the alphabetic patterning encoded in the orthography of words (a project showing examples of the visualizations is included). Reference pages are also included.
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  31. There is no general AI.Jobst Landgrebe & Barry Smith - 2020 - arXiv.
    The goal of creating Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) – or in other words of creating Turing machines (modern computers) that can behave in a way that mimics human intelligence – has occupied AI researchers ever since the idea of AI was first proposed. One common theme in these discussions is the thesis that the ability of a machine to conduct convincing dialogues with human beings can serve as at least a sufficient criterion of AGI. We argue that this very ability (...)
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  32. Génie logiciel et ontologies.Ivan Maffezzini - 2020 - Mεtascience: Discours Général Scientifique 1:137-157.
    La description en langue naturelle est l’artefact permettant de débuter un processus d’automatisation. La tâche principale de l’ingénieur du logiciel, c’est de combler le clivage entre langue naturelle et langue de la machine. Après avoir présenté quelques ontologies définies pour les processus d’automatisation, quelques pour et quelques contre l’emploi d’ontologies dans le génie logiciel sont présentées. Des indications pour dépasser cette simple opposition sont ensuite décrites. Des évaluations sur le réductionnisme dans les ontologies en ce qui concerne les possibles interactions (...)
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  33. Ἐγώ εἰμι.Andrej Poleev - 2020 - Enzymes 18.
    Появление человека, говорящего о себе Ἐγώ εἰμι, люди воспринимают в той же логике абсурда, к которой они привыкли. То, что кто-то может не играть и не носить маску, а реально быть, жить настоящей, а не выдуманной жизнью, для них немыслимо, невозможно, невыносимо и недопустимо. Но такой человек был, есть, и будет, и именно он преображает всё остальное человечество своим Ἐγώ εἰμι.
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  34. Реформа интернета.Andrej Poleev - 2020 - Enzymes 18.
    Частным аспектом предлагаемой реформы интернета является метаномические правила референцирования и адресации виртуальных объектов с целью приближения их к естественным языкам, и создания их логической системы. Однако реформа интернета и преобразование его в средство общения и служения обществу требует также других мер. К этим мерам относится передача определённых имён в неотчуждаемое владение, чтобы их собственники безусловно и беспрепятственно могли осуществлять их право публикации, т.е. публичного высказывания и выражения их мыслей, что также важно для документографии. Другой мерой должно стать упразднение всей сложившейся (...)
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  35. Compositionality and Expressive Power: Comments on Pietroski.Elmar Unnsteinsson - 2020 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 20 (3):295-310.
    Paul Pietroski has developed a powerful minimalist and internalist alternative to standard compositional semantics, where meanings are identified with instructions to fetch or assemble human concepts in specific ways. In particular, there appears to be no need for Fregean Function Application, as natural language composition only involves processes of combining monadic or dyadic concepts, and Pietroski’s theory can then, allegedly, avoid both singular reference and truth conditions. He also has a negative agenda, purporting to show, roughly, that the vocabulary of (...)
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  36. In Pursuit of the Functional Definition of a Mind: The Pivotal Role of a Discourse.Vitalii Shymko - 2018 - Psycholinguistics 24 (1):403-424.
    This article is devoted to describing results of conceptualization of the idea of mind at the stage of maturity. Delineated the acquisition by the energy system (mind) of stable morphological characteristics, which associated with such a pivotal formation as the discourse. A qualitative structural and ontological sign of the system transition to this stage is the transformation of the verbal morphology of the mind into a discursive one. The analysis of the poststructuralist understanding of discourse in the context of the (...)
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  37. Ontology-based fusion of sensor data and natural language.Erik Thomsen & Barry Smith - 2018 - Applied ontology 13 (4):295-333.
    We describe a prototype ontology-driven information system (ODIS) that exploits what we call Portion of Reality (POR) representations. The system takes both sensor data and natural language text as inputs and composes on this basis logically structured POR assertions. The goal of our prototype is to represent both natural language and sensor data within a single framework that is able to support both axiomatic reasoning and computation. In addition, the framework should be capable of discovering and representing new kinds of (...)
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  38. The Difficulty of English Adverbial Constructions for the Foreign Learners.Emin Yas - 2017 - Batman University Journal of Life Sciences 2 (7):46-61.
    The purpose of this paper is to bring to the light what difficulties or burden the English Adverbial Clauses have for foreign language learners (FLLs) or second language learners (SLLs) In this context, the syntactic structure of such grammatical category has been examined. This has been done by examining the syntactic properties of adverbial clauses as grammatical unity by emphasising their structures. The most important books that are available in the English speaking world have been inquired. This corpus analysis has (...)
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  39. The Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain Ontology – Towards an International Information System for Space Data.Robert J. Rovetto - 2016 Sept - In Proceedings of The Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies (AMOS) Conference.
    The orbital space environment is home to natural and artificial satellites, debris, and space weather phenomena. As the population of orbital objects grows so do the potential hazards to astronauts, space infrastructure and spaceflight capability. Orbital debris, in particular, is a universal concern. This and other hazards can be minimized by improving global space situational awareness (SSA). By sharing more data and increasing observational coverage of the space environment we stand to achieve that goal, thereby making spaceflight safer and expanding (...)
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  40. Preliminaries of a Space Situational Awareness Ontology.Robert J. Rovetto & T. S. Kelso - 2016 Feb - In Renato Zanetti, Ryan P. Russell, Martin T. Oximek & Angela L. Bowes (eds.), Proceedings of AAS/AIAA Spaceflight Mechanics Meeting, in Advances in the Astronautical Sciences. Univelt Inc.. pp. 4177-4192.
    Space situational awareness (SSA) is vital for international safety and security, and for the future of space travel. The sharing of SSA data and information should improve the state of global SSA for planetary defense and spaceflight safety. I take steps toward a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Ontology, and outline some central objectives, requirements and desiderata in the ontology development process for this domain. The purpose of this ontological system is to explore the potential for the ontology research topic to (...)
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  41. Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain Ontology.Robert J. Rovetto - 2016 - In Adrien Barton, Stefano Borgo & Jean-Rémi Bourguet (eds.), CEUR workshop proceedings of The Joint Ontology Workshops, with the 9th International Conference of Formal Ontology for Information Systems (FOIS), Early Career Symposium. CEUR Scientific Workshops.
    A short summary paper of my Orbital Space Domain Ontology project (purl.org/space-ontology), originally conceived in 2011. Since then I've sought (without success) opportunities to realize it (either as a PhD or other degree thesis; or in an employment position) toward my original passion of entering the space sector and gaining further space education. Since then persons in the relevant space disciplines have seen the potential in it, and unfortunately some have taken advantage of my ideas yet excluded me from work. (...)
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  42. The Space Object Ontology.Robert J. Rovetto - 2016 - 2016 1.
    This paper develops the ontology of space objects for theoretical and computational ontology applied to the space (astronautical/astronomical) domain. It follows “An ontological architecture for Orbital Debris Data” (Rovetto, 2015) and “Preliminaries of a Space Situational Awareness Ontology” (Rovetto, Kelso, 2016). Important considerations for developing a space object ontology, or more broadly, a space domain ontology are presented. The main category term ‘Space Object’ is analyzed from a philosophical perspective. The ontological commitments of legal definitions for artificial space objects are (...)
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  43. Computational Models (of Narrative) for Literary Studies.Antonio Lieto - 2015 - Semicerchio, Rivista di Poesia Comparata 2 (LIII):38-44.
    In the last decades a growing body of literature in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Cognitive Science (CS) has approached the problem of narrative understanding by means of computational systems. Narrative, in fact, is an ubiquitous element in our everyday activity and the ability to generate and understand stories, and their structures, is a crucial cue of our intelligence. However, despite the fact that - from an historical standpoint - narrative (and narrative structures) have been an important topic of investigation in (...)
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  44. An Ontological Architecture for Orbital Debris Data.Robert J. Rovetto - 2015 - Earth Science Informatics 9 (1):67-82.
    The orbital debris problem presents an opportunity for inter-agency and international cooperation toward the mutually beneficial goals of debris prevention, mitigation, remediation, and improved space situational awareness (SSA). Achieving these goals requires sharing orbital debris and other SSA data. Toward this, I present an ontological architecture for the orbital debris and broader SSA domain, taking steps in the creation of an orbital debris ontology (ODO). The purpose of this ontological system is to (I) represent general orbital debris and SSA domain (...)
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  45. New discoveries should reopen the discussion of signs.Michael Joseph Winkler - 2015 - Alternative Theoretics 2015:12.
    Some recent scientific discoveries regarding the signs of language, which impact my own ongoing project as a visual/conceptual artist, also dramatically impact the Saussurian foundation of the prevalent cultural theories which underlie the curatorial priorities of many major art institutions.
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  46. The Relevance of Philosophical Ontology to Information and Computer Science.Barry Smith - 2014 - In Ruth Hagenbruger & Uwe V. Riss (eds.), Philosophy, computing and information science. Pickering & Chattoo. pp. 75-83.
    The discipline of ontology has enjoyed a checkered history since 1606, with a significant expansion in recent years. We focus here on those developments in the recent history of philosophy which are most relevant to the understanding of the increased acceptance of ontology, and especially of realist ontology, as a valuable method also outside the discipline of philosophy.
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  47. Slurs.Adam M. Croom - 2011 - Language Sciences 33:343-358.
    Slurs possess interesting linguistic properties and so have recently attracted the attention of linguists and philosophers of language. For instance the racial slur "nigger" is explosively derogatory, enough so that just hearing it mentioned can leave one feeling as if they have been made complicit in a morally atrocious act.. Indeed, the very taboo nature of these words makes discussion of them typically prohibited or frowned upon. Although it is true that the utterance of slurs is illegitimate and derogatory in (...)
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  48. Универсальный стандарт метаданных.Andrej Poleev - 2011 - Enzymes 9.
    Основой сознания является ассоциативная связь понятий, согласованная работа элементов нейрональной сети. Аналогично этому, создание интернета нового поколения (semantic web) невозможно без атрибутов, позволяющих осуществлять семантическую связь документов и интеграцию их в информационный контекст. Для реализации этих целей предлагается ввести Универсальный Стандарт Метаданных (universal metadata standard, ums), который мог бы служить основой документографии (documentography), функционально необходимой для интерпретации документов в автоматических операционных системах.
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  49. Universal Metadata Standard.Andrej Poleev - 2011 - Scientific and Technical Information Processing 38 (2):119-122.
    Consciousness is based on the association of notions or a neural network. Similarly, the creation of the next generation Internet (semantic web) is impossible without attributes that allow the semantic association of documents and their integration into an information context. To achieve these goals, the Universal Metadata Standard (UMS) may serve as a basis for documentography and is functionally required for interpretation of documents by automatic operating systems.
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  50. A Note on Plural Logic.Gustavo Fernández Díez - 2010 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 17 (2):150-162.
    A distinction is introduced between itemized and non-itemized plural predication. It is argued that a full-fledged system of plural logic is not necessary in order to account for the validity of inferences concerning itemized collective predication. Instead, it is shown how this type of inferences can be adequately dealt with in a first-order logic system, after small modifications on the standard treatment. The proposed system, unlike plural logic, has the advantage of preserving completeness. And as a result, inferences such as (...)
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