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Brainstorms

MIT Press (1978)

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  1. The Process of Reflective Teaching.Peter Silcock - 1994 - British Journal of Educational Studies 42 (3):273 - 285.
    The process of reflection is analysed into three components - an ego-driven purpose, a restructuring capability, and a transforming perspective. Different types of reflection are argued to be instances of cognitive restructuring determined by purpose and by context. Procedures for resolving contradictions in the literature concerning ways in which 'reflective teaching' can be fostered are also suggested. It is argued that adopting any single model of 'reflective practice' can be unnecessarily restrictive given the ubiquity of the reflective process. Finally, the (...)
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  • On Evolution of God-Seeking Mind: An Inquiry Into Why Natural Selection Would Favor Imagination and Distortion of Sensory Experience.Conrad Montell - forthcoming - Philosophical Explorations.
    The earliest known products of human imagination appear to express a primordial concern and struggle with thoughts of dying and of death and mortality. I argue that the structures and processes of imagination evolved in that struggle, in response to debilitating anxieties and fearful states that would accompany an incipient awareness of mortality. Imagination evolved to find that which would make the nascent apprehension of death more bearable, to engage in a search for alternative perceptions of death: a search that (...)
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  • Intentionality, Mind and Folk Psychology.Winand H. Dittrich & Stephen E. G. Lea - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):39-41.
    The comment addresses central issues of a "theory theory" approach as exemplified in Gopnik' and Goldman's BBS-articles. Gopnik, on the one hand, tries to demonstrate that empirical evidence from developmental psychology supports the view of a "theory theory" in which common sense beliefs are constructed to explain ourselves and others. Focusing the informational processing routes possibly involved we would like to argue that his main thesis (e.g. idea of intentionality as a cognitive construct) lacks support at least for two reasons: (...)
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  • Why We Can Still Believe the Error Theory.Marianna Bergamaschi Ganapini - 2016 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 24 (4):523-536.
    The error theory is a metaethical theory that maintains that normative judgments are beliefs that ascribe normative properties, and that these properties do not exist. In a recent paper, Bart Streumer argues that it is impossible to fully believe the error theory. Surprisingly, he claims that this is not a problem for the error theorist: even if we can’t fully believe the error theory, the good news is that we can still come close to believing the error theory. In this (...)
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  • Believing, Holding True, and Accepting.Pascal Engel - 1998 - Philosophical Explorations 1 (2):140 – 151.
    Belief is not a unified phenomenon. In this paper I argue, as a number of other riters argue, that one should distinguish a variety of belief-like attitudes: believing proper - a dispositional state which can have degrees - holding true - which can occur without understanding what one believes - and accepting - a practical and contextual attitude that has a role in deliberation and in practical reasoning. Acceptance itself is not a unified attitude. I explore the various relationships and (...)
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  • Are Theories of Imagery Theories of Imagination? An Active Perception Approach to Conscious Mental Content.Nigel J. T. Thomas - 1999 - Cognitive Science 23 (2):207-245.
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  • Parallel Computation and the Mind-Body Problem.Paul Thagard - 1986 - Cognitive Science 10 (3):301-18.
    states are to be understood in terms of their functional relationships to other mental states, not in terms of their material instantiation in any particular kind of hardware. But the argument that material instantiation is irrelevant to functional..
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  • Supervenience and Neuroscience.Pete Mandik - 2011 - Synthese 180 (3):443 - 463.
    The philosophical technical term "supervenience" is frequently used in the philosophy of mind as a concise way of characterizing the core idea of physicalism in a manner that is neutral with respect to debates between reductive physicalists and nonreductive physicalists. I argue against this alleged neutrality and side with reductive physicalists. I am especially interested here in debates between psychoneural reductionists and nonreductive functionalist physicalists. Central to my arguments will be considerations concerning how best to articulate the spirit of the (...)
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  • The Logic of How-Questions.William Jaworski - 2009 - Synthese 166 (1):133 - 155.
    Philosophers and scientists are concerned with the why and the how of things. Questions like the following are so much grist for the philosopher’s and scientist’s mill: How can we be free and yet live in a deterministic universe?, How do neural processes give rise to conscious experience?, Why does conscious experience accompany certain physiological events at all?, How is a three-dimensional perception of depth generated by a pair of two-dimensional retinal images?. Since Belnap and Steel’s pioneering work on the (...)
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  • Lloyd Morgan's Canon in Evolutionary Context.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):362.
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  • A Pragmatic Theory of Truth and Ontology.Stewart Edward Granger - unknown
    At the heart of my pragmatic theory of truth and ontology is a view of the relation between language and reality which I term internal justification: a way of explaining how sentences may have truth-values which we cannot discover without invoking the need for the mystery of a correspondence relation. The epistemology upon which the theory depend~ is fallibilist and holistic ; places heavy reliance on modal idioms ; and leads to the conclusion that current versions of realism and anti-realism (...)
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  • Problems with Intellectualism.Ellen Fridland - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 165 (3):879-891.
    In his most recent book, Stanley (2011b) defends his Intellectualist account of knowledge how. In Know How, Stanley produces the details of a propositionalist theory of intelligent action and also responds to several objections that have been forwarded to this account in the last decade. In this paper, I will focus specifically on one claim that Stanley makes in chapter one of his book: I will focus on Stanley’s claim that automatic mechanisms can be used by the intellectualist in order (...)
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  • Words About Young Minds: The Concepts of Theory, Representation, and Belief in Philosophy and Developmental Psychology.Eric Schwitzgebel - 1997 - Dissertation, University of California Berkeley
    In this dissertation, I examine three philosophically important concepts that play a foundational role in developmental psychology: theory, representation, and belief. I describe different ways in which the concepts have been understood and present reasons why a developmental psychologist, or a philosopher attuned to cognitive development, should prefer one understanding of these concepts over another.
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  • Acting Contrary to Our Professed Beliefs or the Gulf Between Occurrent Judgment and Dispositional Belief.Eric Schwitzgebel - 2010 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 91 (4):531-553.
    People often sincerely assert or judge one thing (for example, that all the races are intellectually equal) while at the same time being disposed to act in a way evidently quite contrary to the espoused attitude (for example, in a way that seems to suggest an implicit assumption of the intellectual superiority of their own race). Such cases should be regarded as ‘in-between’ cases of believing, in which it's neither quite right to ascribe the belief in question nor quite right (...)
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  • Chronic Sensory Pain.Patricia Kitcher - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (1):63-64.
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  • Realism, Instrumentalism, and the Intentional Stance.William Bechtel - 1985 - Cognitive Science 9 (4):265-92.
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  • Introductory Article: The Mind-Society Problem.Riccardo Viale - 2000 - Mind and Society 1 (1):3-24.
    The mind-society problem deals with the relations between mental and social phenomena. The problem is crucial in the main methodologies of social sciences. The thesis of hermeneutics is that we can only understand but not explain the relationship between beliefs and social action because mental and social events are not natural events. The thesis of social holism is that social phenomena are emergent and irreducible to mental phenomena. The thesis of rational choice theory is that social phenomena are reducible to (...)
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  • Belief Attribution in Science: Folk Psychology Under Theoretical Stress.J. D. Trout - 1991 - Synthese 87 (June):379-400.
    Some eliminativists have predicted that a developed neuroscience will eradicate the principles and theoretical kinds (belief, desire, etc.) implicit in our ordinary practices of mental state attribution. Prevailing defenses of common-sense psychology infer its basic integrity from its familiarity and instrumental success in everyday social commerce. Such common-sense defenses charge that eliminativist arguments are self-defeating in their folk psychological appeal to the belief that eliminativism is true. I argue that eliminativism is untouched by this simple charge of inconsistency, and introduce (...)
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  • The Mind as Neural Software? Understanding Functionalism, Computationalism, and Computational Functionalism.Gualtiero Piccinini - 2010 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 81 (2):269-311.
    Defending or attacking either functionalism or computationalism requires clarity on what they amount to and what evidence counts for or against them. My goalhere is not to evaluatc their plausibility. My goal is to formulate them and their relationship clearly enough that we can determine which type of evidence is relevant to them. I aim to dispel some sources of confusion that surround functionalism and computationalism. recruit recent philosophical work on mechanisms and computation to shed light on them, and clarify (...)
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  • Consequentialism and Collective Action.Brian Hedden - 2020 - Ethics 130 (4):530-554.
    Many consequentialists argue that you ought to do your part in collective action problems like climate change mitigation and ending factory farming because (i) all such problems are triggering cases, in which there is a threshold number of people such that the outcome will be worse if at least that many people act in a given way than if fewer do, and (ii) doing your part in a triggering case maximises expected value. I show that both (i) and (ii) are (...)
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  • Formations discursives et dispositifs de pouvoir: Habermas critique Foucault.J. Nicolas Kaufmann - 1988 - Dialogue 27 (1):41-.
    L'interet de Habermas pour lamodernitédont traite son dernier livre, le tourne vers les travaux de Foucault. Celui-ci aurait mis en évidence, dès l'Histoire de la folie, ce qu'il y a de nouveau sous le ciel de la rationalité moderne. Dans plusieurs chapitres consacrés à Foucault, Habermas esquisse une critique qui s'inspire substantiellement des travaux de Fink-Eitel, Fraser, Honegger, Rippel et Münkler, Dreyfus et Rabinow et de Honneth. Cette critique est radicale et prend pour cible la présumée théorie du pouvoir de (...)
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  • Philosophic Sur Ordinateur Ou Intelligence Artificielle.Gilbert Boss & Maryvonne Longeart - 1993 - Dialogue 32 (2):271-.
    L'informatique se définissant comme le traitement rationnel de l'information par machine automatique et l'intelligence se caractérisant par une même capacité de traitement rationnel, il était inévitable que l'on songe à associer l'intelligence au traitement automatique de l'information. C'est ce qu'a fait John McCarthy en forgeant le terme d'intelligence artificielle. Par «intelligence artificielle» on peut vouloir exprimer l'ambition de1. Recréer, transformer ou développer l'intelligence artificiellement2. Simuler l'intelligence en la reconstituant dans des modéles imitant certains aspects de notre intelligence dite naturelle.
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  • Belief Accripton, Parsimony, and Rationality.John Hell - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):365.
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  • Contingencies and Rules.B. F. Skinner - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):607-613.
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  • Negation in Skinner's System.N. E. Wetherick - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):606-607.
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  • The Egg Revealed.William S. Verplanck - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):605-606.
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  • Rule-Governed Behavior in Computational Psychology.Edward P. Stabler - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):604-605.
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  • Operant Analysis of Problem Solving: Answers to Questions You Probably Don't Want to Ask.Robert J. Sternberg - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):605-605.
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  • New Wine in Old Glasses?Joseph M. Scandura - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):602-603.
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  • Response Classes, Operants, and Rules in Problem Solving.Jan G. Rein - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):602-602.
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  • Questions Raised by the Reinforcement Paradigm.Anatol Rapoport - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):601-602.
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  • Problem Solving as a Cognitive Process.Manfred Kochen - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):599-600.
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  • Is There Such a Thing as a Problem Situation?Kjell Raaheim - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):600-601.
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  • Can Skinner Define a Problem?Geir Kaufmann - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):599-599.
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  • Contingencies, Rules, and the “Problem” of Novel Behavior.Pere Julià - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):598-599.
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  • A Case Study of How a Paper Containing Good Ideas, Presented by a Distinguished Scientist, to an Appropriate Audience, Had Almost No Influence at All.Earl Hunt - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):597-598.
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  • Psychology as Moral Rhetoric.Rom Harré - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):595-596.
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  • On Choosing the “Right” Stimulus and Rule.Robin M. Hogarth - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):596-596.
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  • The Microscopic Analysis of Behavior: Toward a Synthesis of Instrumental, Perceptual, and Cognitive Ideas.Stephen Grossberg - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):594-595.
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  • Learning From Instruction.Jerome A. Feldman - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):593-593.
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  • Can We Analyze Skinner's Problem-Solving Behavior in Operant Terms?P. C. Dodwell - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):592-593.
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  • On the Depth and Fit of Behaviorist Explanation.L. Jonathan Cohen - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):591-592.
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  • An Operant Analysis of Problem Solving.B. F. Skinner - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (4):583-591.
    Behavior that solves a problem is distinguished by the fact that it changes another part of the solver's behavior and is strengthened when it does so. Problem solving typically involves the construction of discriminative stimuli. Verbal responses produce especially useful stimuli, because they affect other people. As a culture formulates maxims, laws, grammar, and science, its members behave more effectively without direct or prolonged contact with the contingencies thus formulated. The culture solves problems for its members, and does so by (...)
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  • Levels of Modeling of Mechanisms of Visually Guided Behavior.Michael A. Arbib - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (3):407-436.
    Intermediate constructs are required as bridges between complex behaviors and realistic models of neural circuitry. For cognitive scientists in general, schemas are the appropriate functional units; brain theorists can work with neural layers as units intermediate between structures subserving schemas and small neural circuits.After an account of different levels of analysis, we describe visuomotor coordination in terms of perceptual schemas and motor schemas. The interest of schemas to cognitive science in general is illustrated with the example of perceptual schemas in (...)
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  • Reintroducing Group Selection to the Human Behavioral Sciences.David Sloan Wilson & Elliott Sober - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):585-608.
    In both biology and the human sciences, social groups are sometimes treated as adaptive units whose organization cannot be reduced to individual interactions. This group-level view is opposed by a more individualistic one that treats social organization as a byproduct of self-interest. According to biologists, group-level adaptations can evolve only by a process of natural selection at the group level. Most biologists rejected group selection as an important evolutionary force during the 1960s and 1970s but a positive literature began to (...)
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  • How Many Concepts of Consciousness?Ned Block - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):272-287.
    With some help from the commentators, a few adjustments to the characterizations of A-consciousness and P-consciousness can avoid some trivial cases of one without the other. But it still seems that the case for the existence of P without A is stronger than that for A without P. If indeed there can be P without A, but not A without P, this would be a remarkable result that would need explanation.
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  • Feeling of Knowing and Phenomenal Consciousness.Tiziana Zalla & Adriano P. Palma - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):271-272.
    In Feeling of Knowing cases, subjects have a form of consciousness about the presence of a content without having access to it. If this phenomenon can be correctly interpreted as having to do with consciousness, then there would be a P-conscious mental experience which is dissociated from access.
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  • More on Prosopagnosia.Andrew W. Young - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):271-271.
    Some cases of prosopagnosia involve a highly circumscribed loss of A-consciousness. When seen in this way they offer further support for the arguments made in Block's target article.
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  • Should We Continue to Study Consciousness?Richard M. Warren - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):270-271.
    Block has attempted to reduce the confusion and controversy concerning the term “consciousness” by suggesting that there are two forms or types of consciousness, each of which has several characteristics or properties. This suggestion appears to further becloud the topic, however. Perhaps consciousness cannot be defined adequately and should not be considered as a topic that can be studied scientifically.
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  • Consciousness is Not a Natural Kind.J. van Brakel - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):269-270.
    Blocks distinction between “phenomenal feel” consciousness and “thought/cognition” consciousness is a cultural construction. Consciousness is not a natural kind. Some crosscultural data are presented to support this.
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