Results for 'Athletes'

32 found
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  1.  45
    On Treating Athletes with Banned Substances: The Relationship Between Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Hypopituitarism, and Hormone Replacement Therapy.Sarah Malanowski & Nicholas Baima - 2015 - Neuroethics 8 (1):27-38.
    Until recently, the problem of traumatic brain injury in sports and the problem of performance enhancement via hormone replacement have not been seen as related issues. However, recent evidence suggests that these two problems may actually interact in complex and previously underappreciated ways. A body of recent research has shown that traumatic brain injuries, at all ranges of severity, have a negative effect upon pituitary function, which results in diminished levels of several endogenous hormones, such as growth hormone and gonadotropin. (...)
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  2. Intersex Athletes: Do We Need A Gender Police In Professional Sports?Maren Behrensen - 2010 - IWM Junior Visiting Fellows' Conferences XXIX.
    Based on the case of Caster Semenya, I argue in this paper that the practice of Gender Verification Testing (GVT) in professional sports is unethical and pointless. The presumed benefit of GVT—ensuring fair competition for female athletes—is virtually nonexistent compared to its potential harms, in particular the exposure of individual athletes to a largely interphobic public. GVTs constitute a serious incursion on the athlete’s dignity, autonomy, and privacy; an incursion that cannot be justified by the appeal to fairness. (...)
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  3. An Argument Against Athletes as Political Role Models.Shawn Klein - 2017 - FairPlay, Journal of Philosophy, Ethics and Sports Law 10.
    A common refrain in and outside academia is that prominent sports figures ought to engage more in the public discourse about political issues. This idea parallels the idea that athletes ought to be role models in general. This paper first examines and critiques the “athlete as role model” argument and then applies this critique to the “athlete as political activist” argument. Appealing to the empirical political psychological literature, the paper sketches an argument that athlete activism might actually do more (...)
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  4.  32
    ‘I Just Want to Be Left Alone’: Professional Athletes, Dramaturgical Demands and Perpetual Performance-Readiness.Martin Roderick & Jacquelyn Allen Collinson - 2020 - Sociology of Sport Journal 37 (2):108-116.
    By Martin Roderick & Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson -/- To date, no sociological studies of professional athletes have investigated the lived experiences of sportspeople in highly publicly-visible occupations that provide relatively few opportunities for back-stage relaxation from role demands. Drawing on findings from a British Academy-funded project examining high-profile sports workers, and employing Goffman’s dramaturgical insights, this article provides a novel examination of high-profile athletes who work in highly publicly visible contexts. This working context can render them ‘open’ persons in (...)
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  5. Ambassadors of the Game: Do Famous Athletes Have Special Obligations to Act Virtuously?Christopher C. Yorke & Alfred Archer - 2020 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 47 (2):301-317.
    Do famous athletes have special obligations to act virtuously? A number of philosophers have investigated this question by examining whether famous athletes are subject to special role model obligations (Wellman 2003; Feezel 2005; Spurgin 2012). In this paper we will take a different approach and give a positive response to this question by arguing for the position that sport and gaming celebrities are ‘ambassadors of the game’: moral agents whose vocations as rule-followers have unique implications for their non-lusory (...)
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  6. Why Are There No Platypuses at the Olympics?: A Teleological Case for Athletes with Disorders of Sexual Development to Compete Within Their Sex Category.Nathan Gamble & Michal Pruski - 2020 - South African Journal of Sports Medicine 32 (1).
    In mid-2019, the controversy regarding South African runner Caster Semenya’s eligibility to participate in competitions against other female runners culminated in a Court of Arbitration for Sport judgement. Semenya possessed high endogenous testosterone levels (arguably a performance advantage), secondary to a disorder of sexual development. In this commentary, Aristotelean teleology is used to defend the existence of ‘male’ and ‘female’ as discrete categories. It is argued that once the athlete’s sex is established, they should be allowed to compete in the (...)
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  7.  39
    Olympians and Vampires - Talent, Practice, and Why Most of Us 'Don't Get It'.Alessandra Buccella - forthcoming - Argumenta:1-11.
    Why do some people become WNBA champions or Olympic gold medalists and others do not? What is ‘special’ about those very few incredibly skilled athletes, and why do they, in particular, get to be special? In this paper, I attempt to make sense of the relationship that there is, in the case of sports champions, between so-called ‘talent’, i.e. natural predisposition for particular physical activities and high-pressure competition, and practice/training. I will articulate what I take to be the ‘mechanism’ (...)
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  8. Cognitive Enhancement, Cheating, and Accomplishment.Rob Goodman - 2010 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 20 (2):pp. 145-160.
    In an essay on performance-enhancing drugs, author Chuck Klosterman (2007) argues that the category of enhancers extends from hallucinogens used to inspire music to steroids used to strengthen athletes—and he criticizes those who would excuse one means of enhancement while railing against the other as a form of cheating: After the summer of 1964, the Beatles started taking serious drugs, and those drugs altered their musical performance. Though it may not have been their overt intent, the Beatles took performance-enhancing (...)
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  9.  30
    Plato's Gymnastic Dialogues.Heather Reid - 2020 - In Mark Ralkowski Heather Reid (ed.), Athletics, Gymnastics, and Agon in Plato. Sioux City, IA, USA: pp. 15-30.
    It is not mere coincidence that several of Plato’s dialogues are set in gymnasia and palaistrai (wrestling schools), employ the gymnastic language of stripping, wrestling, tripping, even helping opponents to their feet, and imitate in argumentative form the athletic contests (agōnes) commonly associated with that place. The main explanation for this is, of course, historical. Sophists, orators, and intellectuals of all stripes, including the historical Socrates, really did frequent Athens’ gymnasia and palaistrai in search of ready audiences and potential students. (...)
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  10. Methods for Measuring Breadth and Depth of Knowledge.Doris J. F. McIllwain & John Sutton - 2015 - In Damion Farrow & Joe Baker (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Sport Expertise.
    In elite sport, the advantages demonstrated by expert performers over novices are sometimes due in part to their superior physical fitness or to their greater technical precision in executing specialist motor skills. However at the very highest levels, all competitors typically share extraordinary physical capacities and have supremely well-honed techniques. Among the extra factors which can differentiate between the best performers, psychological skills are paramount. These range from the capacities to cope under pressure and to bounce back from setbacks, to (...)
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  11. Complexity Biology-Based Information Structures Can Explain Subjectivity, Objective Reduction of Wave Packets, and Non-Computability.Alex Hankey - 2014 - Cosmos and History 10 (1):237-250.
    Background: how mind functions is subject to continuing scientific discussion. A simplistic approach says that, since no convincing way has been found to model subjective experience, mind cannot exist. A second holds that, since mind cannot be described by classical physics, it must be described by quantum physics. Another perspective concerns mind's hypothesized ability to interact with the world of quanta: it should be responsible for reduction of quantum wave packets; physics producing 'Objective Reduction' is postulated to form the basis (...)
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  12. Anti-Doping, Purported Rights to Privacy and WADA's Whereabouts Requirements: A Legal Analysis.Oskar MacGregor, Richard Griffith, Daniele Ruggiu & Mike McNamee - 2013 - Fair Play 1 (2):13-38.
    Recent discussions among lawyers, philosophers, policy researchers and athletes have focused on the potential threat to privacy posed by the World Anti-Doping Agency’s (WADA) whereabouts requirements. These requirements demand, among other things, that all elite athletes file their whereabouts information for the subsequent quarter on a quarterly basis and comprise data for one hour of each day when the athlete will be available and accessible for no advance notice testing at a specified location of their choosing. Failure to (...)
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  13. A Moral Basis for Prohibiting Performance Enhancing Drug Use in Competitive Sport.Sean McKeever - 2017 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 44 (2):243-257.
    A strong moral reason for prohibiting doping in sport is to be found in the bad choices that would be faced by clean athletes in a sporting world that tolerated doping. The case against doping is not, however, to be grounded in the concept of coercion. Instead, it is grounded in a general duty of sport to afford fair opportunity to the goods that are distinctively within sport's sphere of control. The moral reason to prohibit doping need not be (...)
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  14.  32
    On Decoding and Rewriting Genomes: A Psychoanalytical Reading of a Scientific Revolution.Hub Zwart - 2012 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (3):337-346.
    In various documents the view emerges that contemporary biotechnosciences are currently experiencing a scientific revolution: a massive increase of pace, scale and scope. A significant part of the research endeavours involved in this scientific upheaval is devoted to understanding and, if possible, ameliorating humankind: from our genomes up to our bodies and brains. New developments in contemporary technosciences, such as synthetic biology and other genomics and “post-genomics” fields, tend to blur the distinctions between prevention, therapy and enhancement. An important dimension (...)
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  15.  29
    From Utopia to Science: Challenges of Personalised Genomics Information for Health Management and Health Enhancement. [REVIEW]Hub Zwart - 2009 - Medicine Studies 1 (2):155-166.
    From 1900 onwards, scientists and novelists have explored the contours of a future society based on the use of “anthropotechnologies” (techniques applicable to human beings for the purpose of performance enhancement ranging from training and education to genome-based biotechnologies). Gradually but steadily, the technologies involved migrated from (science) fiction into scholarly publications, and from “utopia” (or “dystopia”) into science. Building on seminal ideas borrowed from Nietzsche, Peter Sloterdijk has outlined the challenges inherent in this development. Since time immemorial, and at (...)
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  16.  32
    Vicarious Pain and Genuine Pleasure: Some Reflections on Spectator Transformation of Meaning in Sport.Leslie A. Howe - 2007 - In Heather Sheridan Leslie A. Howe & Keith Thompson (eds.), Sporting Reflections: Some Philosophical Perspectives. Meyer & Meyer Sport.
    Ambiguity in the athlete’s perception and description of pain that opens the door to a series of reinterpretations of athletic experience and events that argue the development of an increasingly inauthentic relation to self and others on the part of those who consume performance as third parties (spectators) and ultimately those who produce it first hand (athletes). The insertion of the spectator into the sport situation as a consumer of the athlete’s activity and the preference given to spectator interpretation (...)
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  17.  56
    Achieving Income Justice in Professional Sports: Limitation, Taxation, or Donation.Gottfried Schweiger - 2012 - Physical Culture and Sport 56 (1):12-22.
    This paper is based on the assumption that the high incomes of some professional sports athletes, such as players in professional leagues in the United States and Europe, pose an ethical problem of social justice. I deal with the questions of what should follow from this evaluation and in which ways those incomes should be regulated. I discuss three different options: a) the idea that the incomes of professional athletes should be limited, b) the idea that they should (...)
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  18. Modelling Sex/Gender.Helen L. Daly - 2017 - Think 16 (46):79-92.
    People often assume that everyone can be divided by sex/gender (that is, by physical and social characteristics having to do with maleness and femaleness) into two tidy categories: male and female. Careful thought, however, leads us to reject that simple ‘binary’ picture, since not all people fall precisely into one group or the other. But if we do not think of sex/gender in terms of those two categories, how else might we think of it? Here I consider four distinct models; (...)
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  19. Cricket and Moral Commendation.Jonathan Evans - 2007 - Sport and Society 10 (5):802-817.
    As evidenced in recent literature in moral philosophy, commending actions on their propensity to develop enduring moral traits is not the province of the virtue theorist alone. For however we understand the moral goals of human beings and the nature of right action we recognize that a temperate, just or beneficent person is more likely to conform to the demands of morality than one lacking in these virtues. If this idea is used as a standard for assessing the worth of (...)
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  20. Attention and Mindwandering in Skilled Behavior: An Argument for Pluralism.Carolyn Dicey Jennings & Alex Dayer - manuscript
    Peak human performance—whether of Olympic athletes, Nobel prize winners, or Carnegie Hall musicians—depends on skill. Skill is at the heart of what it means to excel. Yet, the fixity of skilled behavior can sometimes make it seem a lower-level activity, more akin to the movements of an invertebrate or a machine. Experts in multiple domains have described what they do as sometimes “automatic.” Expert gamers describe themselves as “playing with” automaticity (Taylor and Elam 2018). Expert musicians are said to (...)
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  21.  62
    Philosophical Zombies and the Zone Phenomenon.David B. Macintosh - manuscript
    The philosophical zombie is an imaginary being that is just like us in every way, except that philosophical zombies don't have experience. Elite athletes who are 'in the zone' also lack experience, therefore, while in a zone state they are similar to philosophical zombies.
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  22.  29
    Lowering Restrictions on Performance Enhancing Drugs in Elite Sports.Rory Warwick Collins - 2017 - Inquiries Journal 9 (3).
    This article argues that performance enhancing drugs ought to be allowed across all elite sporting competitions for athletes over the age of 16 so long as consuming them does not pose a significant risk to their health. I begin with a brief explanation of the current state of PED use in professional sports before assessing the prospect of allowing PEDs by three widely accepted measures of ethical merit: well-being, autonomy, and justice. I end with a critique of the World (...)
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  23.  55
    Vicarious Pain and Genuine Pleasure: Some Reflections on Spectator Transformation of Meaning in Sport.Leslie A. Howe - 2007 - In Heather Sheridan, Leslie A. Howe & Keith Thompson (eds.), Sporting Reflections: Some Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford, UK: Meyer and Meyer Sport, Ltd.. pp. 32-44.
    Ambiguity in the athlete’s perception and description of pain that opens the door to a series of reinterpretations of athletic experience and events that argue the development of an increasingly inauthentic relation to self and others on the part of those who consume performance as third parties (spectators) and ultimately those who produce it first hand (athletes). The insertion of the spectator into the sport situation as a consumer of the athlete’s activity and the preference given to spectator interpretation (...)
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  24. Is Competitive Elite Sport Really Morally Corrupt?Rognvaldur Ingthorsson - 2017 - Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research 75 (1):05–14.
    It has been argued that competitive elite sport both (i) reduces the humanity of athletes by turning them into beings whose sole value is determined in relation to others, and (ii) is motivated by a celebration of the genetically superior and humiliation of the weak. This paper argues that while (i) is a morally reproachable attitude to competition, it is not what competitive elite sport revolves around, and that (ii) simply is not the essence of competitive elite sport. Competitive (...)
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  25.  13
    The Ethics of Doping: Between Paternalism and Duty.Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2020 - Pannoniana: Journal of Humanities 4 (1):35-49.
    The most plausible line of anti-doping argumentation starts with the fact that performance enhancing substances are harmful and put at considerable risk the health and the life of those who indulge in the overwhelming promises these substances hold. From a liberal point of view, however, this is not a strong reason neither to morally reject doping altogether, nor to put a blanket ban on it; on the contrary, allowing adult, competent and informed athletes to have access to performance enhancement (...)
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  26.  22
    Athlete Agency and the Spirit of Olympic Sport.Heather Reid - 2020 - Journal of Olympic Studies 1 (1):22-36.
    A debate has arisen over whether “the spirit of sport” is an appropriate criterion for determining whether a substance should be banned. In this paper, I argue that the criterion is crucial for Olympic sport because Olympism celebrates humanity, specifically human agency, so we need to preserve the degree to which athletes are personally and morally responsible for their performances. This emphasis on what I call “athlete agency” is reflected metaphysically in the structure of sport, which characteristically prescribes inefficiencies (...)
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  27.  28
    Wrestling with the Eleatics in Plato's Parmenides.Heather Reid & Lidia Palumbo - 2020 - In Athletics, Gymnastics, and Agon in Plato. Sioux City, IA, USA: pp. 185-198.
    This paper interprets the Parmenides agonistically as a constructive contest between Plato’s Socrates and the Eleatics of Western Greece. Not only is the dialogue set in the agonistic context of the Panathenaic Games, it features agonistic language, employs an agonistic method, and may even present an agonistic model for participation in the forms. The inspiration for this agonistic motif may be that Parmenides and his student Zeno represent Western Greece, which was a key rival for the mainland at the Olympics (...)
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  28.  25
    The Alienated Ethical Consideration: A (Post-)Marxist Critique on the Sport Practitioner.Anton Heinrich Rennesland - 2018 - Suri: Journal of the Philosophical Association of the Philippines 7 (1):34-46.
    Throughout one’s career, a professional sports practitioner is confronted with various choices to make, ranging from coaching a fair match or offering opportunities for selected individuals to win; showing true sportsmanship or venturing for a better compensation; to even sticking to one’s home team or accepting a better offer. This is faced by all sports practitioners within the same industry: athletes, coaches, managers, and even team owners. In making these choices, individuals recognize essential ethical considerations. However, a primary factor (...)
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  29. What Does a Professional Athlete Deserve?Gottfried Schweiger - 2014 - Prolegomena 13 (1):5-20.
    In this paper I sketch a possible answer to the question of what professional athletes deserve for their sporting activities. I take two different backgrounds into account. First, the content and meaning of desert is highly debated within political philosophy and many theorists are sceptical if it has any value for social justice. On the other hand sport is often understood as a meritocracy, in which all prizes or wins should be solely awarded based on merit. I will distinguish (...)
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  30. Embodied Cognition and Sport.Lawrence Shapiro & Shannon Spaulding - forthcoming - In Massimiliano Cappuccio (ed.), Handbook of Embodied Cognition and Sport Psychology. MIT Press.
    Successful athletic performance requires precision in many respects. A batter stands behind home plate awaiting the arrival of a ball that is less than three inches in diameter and moving close to 100 mph. His goal is to hit it with a ba­­t that is also less than three inches in diameter. This impressive feat requires extraordinary temporal and spatial coordination. The sweet spot of the bat must be at the same place, at the same time, as the ball. A (...)
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  31. The Phenomenology of Ritual Resistance: Colin Kaepernick as Confucian Sage.Philip J. Walsh - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-24.
    In 2016, Colin Kaepernick, a quarterback for the San Francisco 49ers, remained seated during the national anthem in order to protest racial injustice and police brutality against African-Americans. After consulting with National Football League (NFL) and military veteran Nate Boyer, Kaepernick switched to taking a knee during the anthem for the remainder of the season. Several NFL players and other professional athletes subsequently adopted this gesture. This paper brings together complementary Confucian and phenomenological analyses to elucidate the significance of (...)
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  32. Misleading Aesthetic Norms of Beauty: Perceptual Sexism in Elite Women's Sports.Peg Zeglin Brand Weiser & Edward B. Weiser - 2016 - In Sherri Irvin (ed.), Body Aesthetics. Oxford University Press. pp. 192-221.
    The history of gender challenges faced by women in elite sports is fraught with controversy and injustice. These athletes' unique physical beauty creates what appears to be a paradox yet is, in fact, scientifically predictable. Intense training for the highest levels of competition leads to unique bodily strength and rare beauty associated with specific anatomic changes, leading top athletes to be singled out as exceptions from their gender and even excluded from competing. Authorities like the IOC and IAF, (...)
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