Results for 'goal'

1000+ found
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  1.  78
    Goal-Directed Uses of the Replicability Concept (Preprint).Eden Tariq Smith, Hannah Fraser, Steven Kambouris, Fallon Mody, Martin Bush & Fiona Fidler - forthcoming - In Corrine Bloch-Mullins & Theodore Arabatzis (eds.), Concepts, Induction, and the Growth of Scientific Knowledge.
    The replicability of a research claim is often positioned as an important step in establishing the credibility of scientific research. This expectation persists despite ongoing disagreements over how to characterise replication practices in various contexts. Rather than attempt to explain or resolve these disagreements, we propose that there is value in exploring the variable uses of the replicability concept. To this end, we treat the replicability concept as a goal-directed tool for studying scientific practices. This approach extends scholarship on (...)
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  2.  72
    Unconscious Goals: Specific or Unspecific? The Potential Harm of the Goal/Gene Analogy.Bence Nanay - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (2):152-153.
    Huang and Bargh’s definition of goals is ambiguous between ‘specific goals’ – the end-state of a token action I am about to perform – and ‘unspecific goals’ – the end-state of an action-type (without specifying how this would be achieved). The analogy with selfish genes pushes the authors towards the former interpretation, but the latter would provide a more robust theoretical framework.
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  3. Seeing Goal-Directedness: A Case for Social Perception.Joulia Smortchkova - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (3):855-879.
    This article focuses on social perception, an area of research that lies at the interface between the philosophy of perception and the scientific investigation of human social cognition. Some philosophers and psychologists appeal to resonance mechanisms to show that intentional and goal-directed actions can be perceived. Against these approaches, I show that there is a class of simple goal-directed actions, whose perception does not rely on resonance. I discuss the role of the superior temporal sulcus as the possible (...)
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  4. Goal → New Heuristic Model of Ideality: Logos → Coincidentia Oppositorum → Primordial Generating Structure.Vladimir Rogozhin - 2017 - Contest FQXi Essay 2017.
    Fundamental knowledge endures deep conceptual crisis manifested in total crisis of understanding, crisis of interpretation and representation, loss of certainty, troubles with physics, crisis of methodology. Crisis of understanding in fundamental science generates deep crisis of understanding in global society. What way should we choose for overcoming total crisis of understanding in fundamental science? It should be the way of metaphysical construction of new comprehensive model of ideality on the basis of the "modified ontology". Result of quarter-century wanderings: sum of (...)
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  5. The Goals of Moral Worth.Nathan Robert Howard - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Metaethics.
    While it is tempting to suppose that an act has moral worth just when and because it is motivated by sufficient moral reasons, philosophers have, largely, come to doubt this analysis. Doubt is rooted in two claims. The first is that some facts can motivate a given act in multiple ways, not all of which are consistent with moral worth. The second is the orthodox view that normative reasons are facts. I defend the tempting analysis by proposing and defending a (...)
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  6. The Goals of Philosophy of Religion: A Reply to Ireneusz Zieminski.Kirk Lougheed - 2019 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (1):187-199.
    In a recent article, Ireneusz Zieminski argues that the main goals of philosophy of religion are to define religion; assess the truth value of religion and; assess the rationality of a religious way of life. Zieminski shows that each of these goals are difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. Hence, philosophy of religion leads to scepticism. He concludes that the conceptual tools philosophers of religion employ are best suited to study specific religious traditions, rather than religion more broadly construed. But (...)
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  7.  82
    Goal Statement for the Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal.Marzenna Jakubczak - 2011 - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 1 (1):5-6.
    It is my pleasure to present you the first issue of the Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal, published by the Department of Philosophy and Sociology, Pedagogical University of Cracow. This is a peer-reviewed journal founded to facilitate dialogue between Polish and international scholars and, on the other hand, to build bridges between professional philosophers and a wider educated public. We are open to the publishing of scholarly studies in history of philosophy as well as papers reporting the on-going debates in contemporary (...)
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  8.  77
    Achieving Goals and Making Meanings: Toward a Unified Model of Recreational Experience.Peter J. Fix, J. Brooks, Jeffrey & M. Harrington, Andrew - 2018 - Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism 23:16-25.
    Understanding recreational experiences is a longstanding research tradition and key to effective management. Given the complexities of human experience, many approaches have been applied to study recreational experience. Two such approaches are the experiential approach (based in a positivistic paradigm) and emergent experience (based in an interpretive paradigm). While viewed as being complementary, researchers have not offered guidance for incorporating the approaches into a common model of recreational experience. This study utilized longitudinal, qualitative data to examine aspects of recreational experience (...)
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  9.  60
    Human Goals Are Constitutive of Agency in Artificial Intelligence.Elena Popa - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (4):1731-1750.
    The question whether AI systems have agency is gaining increasing importance in discussions of responsibility for AI behavior. This paper argues that an approach to artificial agency needs to be teleological, and consider the role of human goals in particular if it is to adequately address the issue of responsibility. I will defend the view that while AI systems can be viewed as autonomous in the sense of identifying or pursuing goals, they rely on human goals and other values incorporated (...)
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  10. Games, Goals, and Bounded Rationality.Leigh Tesfatsion - 1984 - Theory and Decision 17 (2):149-175.
    A generalization of the standard n-person game is presented, with flexible information requirements suitable for players constrained by bounded rationality. Strategies (complete contingency plans) are replaced by "policies," i. e., end-mean pairs of candidate goals and "controls" (partial contingency plans). The existence of individual objective functions over the joint policy choice set is axiomatized in terms of primitive preference and probability orders. Conditions are given for the existence of pure policy Nash equilibrium points in n-person games, and pure policy Nash (...)
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  11. Can Reason Establish the Goals of Action? Assessing Interpretations of Aristotle’s Theory of Agency.Juan Pablo Bermúdez - 2017 - Discusiones Filosóficas 18 (30):35-62.
    Scholarship on Aristotle’s theory of action has recently veered toward an intellectualist position, according to which reason is in charge of setting the goals of action. This position has recently been criticized by an anti-intellectualism revival, according to which character, and not reason, sets the goals of action. I argue that neither view can sufficiently account for the complexities of Aristotle’s theory, and suggest a middle way that combines the strengths of both while avoiding their pitfalls. The key problem for (...)
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  12.  5
    What is a Consolation Goal? Analysis of Language in a Football Match Report of England Versus Iran.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    This brief paper reviews language and presentation in a match report by Oliver Yew, senior football journalist for Sky Sports. I praise the bullet point summary, I note inconsistency in tenses used, and I ask after the definition of a consolation goal, presenting my own understanding.
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  13. Joint Action Goals Reduce Visuomotor Interference Effects From a Partner’s Incongruent Actions.Sam Clarke, Luke McEllin, Anna Francová, Marcell Székely, Stephen Andrew Butterfill & John Michael - 2019 - Scientific Reports 9 (1).
    Joint actions often require agents to track others’ actions while planning and executing physically incongruent actions of their own. Previous research has indicated that this can lead to visuomotor interference effects when it occurs outside of joint action. How is this avoided or overcome in joint actions? We hypothesized that when joint action partners represent their actions as interrelated components of a plan to bring about a joint action goal, each partner’s movements need not be represented in relation to (...)
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  14. Ageing and the Goal of Evolution.Justin Garson - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (1):1-16.
    There is a certain metaphor that has enjoyed tremendous longevity in the evolution of ageing literature. According to this metaphor, nature has a certain goal or purpose, the perpetuation of the species, or, alternatively, the reproductive success of the individual. In relation to this goal, the individual organism has a function, job, or task, namely, to breed and, in some species, to raise its brood to maturity. On this picture, those who cannot, or can no longer, reproduce are (...)
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  15. Intentional Sampling by Goal Optimization with Decoupling by Stochastic Perturbation.Julio Michael Stern, Marcelo de Souza Lauretto, Fabio Nakano & Carlos Alberto de Braganca Pereira - 2012 - AIP Conference Proceedings 1490:189-201.
    Intentional sampling methods are non-probabilistic procedures that select a group of individuals for a sample with the purpose of meeting specific prescribed criteria. Intentional sampling methods are intended for exploratory research or pilot studies where tight budget constraints preclude the use of traditional randomized representative sampling. The possibility of subsequently generalize statistically from such deterministic samples to the general population has been the issue of long standing arguments and debates. Nevertheless, the intentional sampling techniques developed in this paper explore pragmatic (...)
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  16. Can Motto-Goals Outperform Learning and Performance Goals? Influence of Goal Setting on Performance and Affect in a Complex Problem Solving Task.Miriam Sophia Rohe, Joachim Funke, Maja Storch & Julia Weber - 2016 - Journal of Dynamic Decision Making 2 (1):1-15.
    In this paper, we bring together research on complex problem solving with that on motivational psychology about goal setting. Complex problems require motivational effort because of their inherent difficulties. Goal Setting Theory has shown with simple tasks that high, specific performance goals lead to better performance outcome than do-your-best goals. However, in complex tasks, learning goals have proven more effective than performance goals. Based on the Zurich Resource Model, so-called motto-goals should activate a person’s resources through positive affect. (...)
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  17. Divergence of Values and Goals in Participatory Research.Lucas Dunlap, Amanda Corris, Melissa Jacquart, Zvi Biener & Angela Potochnik - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 88:284-291.
    Public participation in scientific research has gained prominence in many scientific fields, but the theory of participatory research is still limited. In this paper, we suggest that the divergence of values and goals between academic researchers and public participants in research is key to analyzing the different forms this research takes. We examine two existing characterizations of participatory research: one in terms of public participants' role in the research, the other in terms of the virtues of the research. In our (...)
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  18.  99
    Value Promotion as a Goal of Medicine.Eric Mathison & Jeremy Davis - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (7):494-501.
    In this paper, we argue that promoting patient values is a legitimate goal of medicine. Our view offers a justification for certain current practices, including birth control and living organ donation, that are widely accepted but do not fit neatly within the most common extant accounts of the goals of medicine. Moreover, we argue that recognising value promotion as a goal of medicine will expand the scope of medical practice by including some procedures that are sometimes rejected as (...)
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  19. Agents and Goals in Evolution, by Samir Okasha. [REVIEW]Jonathan Birch - 2019 - Mind 128 (512):1408-1416.
    In this essay review of Samir Okasha's Agents and Goals in Evolution, I reflect on the rationale for agential thinking in biology, and consider whether the rationale is the same for genes as for organisms. I also discuss Okasha's ingenious examples of the evolution of irrational behaviour, and in particular the evolution of violations of the "independence axiom" of rational choice theory. These examples rely on a crucial distinction between aggregate and idiosyncratic risk.
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  20.  11
    "The Vanishing Goal": A New Interpretation of Voluntarism.Victor Mota - manuscript
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  21.  92
    Book Review Towards the Goal by Mrs Vandana Sarathy and Dr Rajeev Ramakrishna. [REVIEW]Swami Narasimhananda - 2011 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 116 (1):228.
    This book is the history of the beginning of the Vedanta movement in Australia leading to the founding of the Vedanta Society in Sydney. The book brings out the undying spirit of the members of the Vedanta group in Australia and their unremitting efforts at spearheading the movement.
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  22. Understanding, Truth, and Epistemic Goals.Kareem Khalifa - 2020 - Philosophy of Science 87 (5):944-956.
    Several argue that truth cannot be science’s sole epistemic goal, for it would fail to do justice to several scientific practices that advance understanding. I challenge these arguments, but only after making a small concession: science’s sole epistemic goal is not truth as such; rather, its goal is finding true answers to relevant questions. Using examples from the natural and social sciences, I then show that scientific understanding’s epistemically valuable features are either true answers to relevant questions (...)
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  23. Understanding as an Epistemic Goal.Stephen Grimm - 2005 - Dissertation, University of Notre Dame
    Among epistemologists and philosophers of science, one often hears that someone with understanding is able to “see” or “grasp” how the elements of a subject “cohere” or “fit together”—but just what is involved in the seeing or the grasping is usually left to the imagination. I argue that the most productive way to make progress on this issue is by first identifying the kind of explanation-seeking why-questions that drive the search for understanding in the first place. In particular, I suggest (...)
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  24. Introduction: The Sustainable Development Goals Forum.Eric Palmer - 2015 - Journal of Global Ethics 11 (1):3-9.
    (Article part 1 of 2) This introduction notes the contributions of various authors to the first issue of the Journal of Global Ethics 2015 Forum and briefly explains the United Nations process through which the sustainable development goals have been formulated up to the receipt by the General Assembly, in August 2014, of the Report of the Open Working Group of the General Assembly on Sustainable Development Goals. The goals are identified as a confluence of distinct streams of UN work (...)
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  25. Public Consultation and the 2030 Agenda: Sustaining Commentary for the Sustainable Development Goals.Eric Palmer - manuscript
    (Pre-publication draft November 2015: Partial content of "Introduction: The 2030 Agenda," Journal of Global Ethics 11:3 [December 2015], 262-270) This introduction briefly explains the process through which the Sustainable Development Goals have developed from their receipt in 2014 to their passage in September 2015 by the UN General Assembly, and it considers their development in prospect. The Millennium Development Goals, which spanned 1990-2015, present a case study that reveals the changeability of such long-term multilateral commitments. They were enmeshed in overlapping (...)
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  26. Constructing the Context Through Goals and Schemata: Top-Down Processes in Comprehension and Beyond.Marco Mazzone - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
    My main purpose here is to provide an account of context selection in utterance understanding in terms of the role played by schemata and goals in top-down processing. The general idea is that information is organized hierarchically, with items iteratively organized in chunks—here called “schemata”—at multiple levels, so that the activation of any items spreads to schemata that are the most accessible due to previous experience. The activation of a schema, in turn, activates its other components, so as to predict (...)
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  27. A Case for Global Democracy? Arms Exports and Conflicting Goals in Democracy Promotion.Pavel Dufek & Michal Mochťak - 2019 - Journal of International Relations and Development 22 (3):610–639.
    Employing the framework of conflicting goals in democracy promotion as departure point, the paper addresses the issue of arms exports to non-democratic countries as an important research topic which points to a reconsideration of certain fundamental conceptual and normative commitments underpinning democracy promotion. Empirically, we remind of the lingering hypocrisy of Western arms exporters, knowing that exports to non-democratic countries often hinder or block democratisation. This is not easily circumvented, because of the many conflicting objectives both internal and external to (...)
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  28. Reasons, Answers, and Goals.John Turri - 2012 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 9 (4):491-499.
    I discuss two arguments against the view that reasons are propositions. I consider responses to each argument, including recent responses due to Mark Schroeder, and suggest further responses of my own. In each case, the discussion proceeds by comparing reasons to answers and goals.
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  29.  90
    A Non Monotonic Reasoning Framework for Goal-Oriented Knowledge Adaptation.Antonio Lieto, Federico Perrone, Gian Luca Pozzato & Eleonora Chiodino - 2019 - In Paglieri (ed.), Proceedings of AISC 2019. Rome: Università degli Studi di Roma Tre. pp. 12-14.
    In this paper we present a framework for the dynamic and automatic generation of novel knowledge obtained through a process of commonsense reasoning based on typicality-based concept combination. We exploit a recently introduced extension of a Description Logic of typicality able to combine prototypical descriptions of concepts in order to generate new prototypical concepts and deal with problem like the PET FISH (Osherson and Smith, 1981; Lieto & Pozzato, 2019). Intuitively, in the context of our application of this logic, the (...)
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  30. Being Emergence Vs. Pattern Emergence: Complexity, Control, and Goal-Directedness in Biological Systems.Jason Winning & William Bechtel - 2019 - In Sophie Gibb, Robin Hendry & Tom Lancaster (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Emergence. London: pp. 134-144.
    Emergence is much discussed by both philosophers and scientists. But, as noted by Mitchell (2012), there is a significant gulf; philosophers and scientists talk past each other. We contend that this is because philosophers and scientists typically mean different things by emergence, leading us to distinguish being emergence and pattern emergence. While related to distinctions offered by others between, for example, strong/weak emergence or epistemic/ontological emergence (Clayton, 2004, pp. 9–11), we argue that the being vs. pattern distinction better captures what (...)
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  31. Participative Management Practices and Institutional Goal Attainment in Nigerian Universities.Garieth Omorobi Omorobi, Usen Friday Mbon, Valentine Joseph Owan & John Asuquo Ekpenyong - 2020 - American Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 5 (1):169-177.
    This study evaluated the relationship between participative management practices and institutional goal attainment among Nigerian universities, with University of Calabar in focus. To achieve the purpose of the study, two research questions and two null hypotheses where developed to guide the study. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population and sample of the study was one hundred and twenty-two (122) deans of faculties and heads of departments using the census approach. An instrument titled Participative (...)
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  32. A Qualitative Analysis of Universal Basic Education Policy Implementation Strategies in Nigeria: Effective Management for Goals Realization.Festus Obun Arop, Valentine Joseph Owan & Martin Akan Ekpang - 2018 - International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science 2 (9):48-54.
    The study assessed qualitatively, the implementation strategies of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Policy in Nigeria. In order to provide insights into the topic, terms were clarified accordingly. The Universal Basic Education goals were stated as contained in the policy statement of the National Policy on Education. The proposed strategies for the realization of the goals of UBE were stated and analysed accordingly. Relevant literatures were cited to provide understanding of the issues involved. A critique was carried out on the (...)
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  33. Ecological Civilization: What is It and Why It Should Be the Goal of Humanity.Arran Gare - 2021 - Culture Della Sostenibilità 27 (1):8-23.
    In 2007 the Chinese government embraced ‘ecological civilization’ as a central policy objective of the government. In 2012, the goal of achieving ecological civilization was incorporated into its constitution as a framework for China’s environmental policies, laws and education, and was included as a goal in its five-year plans. In 2017, the 19th Congress of the Communist Party called for acceleration in achieving this goal. Expenditure on technology to ameliorate environmental damage, reduce pollution and reduce greenhouse gas (...)
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  34. Epistemic Value and the Jamesian Goals.Sophie Horowitz - 2017 - In Jeffrey Dunn Kristoffer Ahlstrom-Vij (ed.), Epistemic Consequentialism. Oxford University Press.
    William James famously tells us that there are two main goals for rational believers: believing truth and avoiding error. I argues that epistemic consequentialism—in particular its embodiment in epistemic utility theory—seems to be well positioned to explain how epistemic agents might permissibly weight these goals differently and adopt different credences as a result. After all, practical versions of consequentialism render it permissible for agents with different goals to act differently in the same situation. -/- Nevertheless, I argue that epistemic consequentialism (...)
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  35.  68
    The Social Goals of Agriculture.Paul B. Thompson - 1986 - Agriculture and Human Values 3 (4):32-42.
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  36. Służebność państwa wobec człowieka i jego praw jako naczelna idea Konstytucji RP z 2 kwietnia 1997 roku – osiągnięcie czy zadanie? [Subordination of the State to the Individual and to Human Rights as a Central Idea of Poland’s Constitution of 2 April 1997: A Goal or an Achievement?].Marek Piechowiak - 2007 - Przegląd Sejmowy 15 (4 (81)):65-91.
    The article deals with relations between the individual and human rights on the one hand, and the State on the other, in the context of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. The author poses the question whether the idea of subordination of the State to the individual is really a central idea of that constitution. He puts forward many arguments against such suggestion. These arguments relate, above all, to the arrangement of the constitution: a chapter concerning human rights is (...)
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  37. The Aim of Belief and the Goal of Truth: Reflections on Rosenberg.Matthew Chrisman - 2016 - In Pedro Schmechtig & Martin Grajner (eds.), Epistemic Reasons, Norms, and Goals. De Gruyter. pp. 357-382.
    This paper considers an argument from Rosenberg (Thinking about Knowing, 2002) that truth is not and cannot be the aim of belief. Here, I reconstruct what I take to be the most well worked out version of this idea tracing back to Rorty and Davidson. In response, I also distinguish two things the truth-aim could be: a goal regulating our executable epistemic conduct and an end which determines the types of evaluation, susceptibility to which is partially constitutive of what (...)
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  38. Epistemic Normativity is Independent of Our Goals.Alex Worsnip - forthcoming - In Blake Roeber, Matthias Steup, Ernest Sosa & John Turri (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Epistemology (3rd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell.
    In epistemology and in ordinary life, we make many normative claims about beliefs. As with all normative claims, philosophical questions arise about what – if anything – underwrites these kinds of normative claims. On one view, epistemic instrumentalism, facts about what we (epistemically) ought to believe, or about what is an (epistemic, normative) reason to believe what, obtain at least partly in virtue of our goals (or aims, ends, intentions, desires, etc.). The converse view, anti-instrumentalism, denies this, and holds that (...)
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  39.  67
    Management of Educational Support Services and Attainment of Universal Basic Education Goals in Primary Schools in Cross River State.Valentine Joseph Owan - 2018 - Humanities and Social Sciences Letters 6 (4):203-210.
    The main objective of this paper was to examine the relationship between management of educational support services and the attainment of Universal Basic Education goals in Cross River State. Three null hypotheses were formulated in this study. The study adopted correlational research design. Census technique was employed in selecting the entire population of 2,078 primary school administrators in the state. The instruments used for data collection were “Management of Educational Support Services Questionnaire (MESSQ); and Attainment of Universal Basic Education Goals (...)
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  40.  18
    Principals' Management of Financial and Non-Financial Resources as Correlates of Institutional Goal Fulfilment in Secondary Schools in Calabar Metropolis.Francisca Nonyelum Odigwe & Valentine Joseph Owan - 2022 - Global Journal of Educational Research 21 (2):123-134.
    This research examined the management of financial and non-financial resources by Calabar Metropolis’ public secondary school principals in relation to the fulfillment of institutional goals. Null hypotheses were developed based on the two specific objectives guiding the study. The study used the ex-post facto research design under the quantitative research framework. A census approach was adopted in enumerating all the 69 school managers (24 principals and 45 vice principals) in Calabar Metropolis, Nigeria. A validated questionnaire, with a reliability index of (...)
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  41. Military AI as a Convergent Goal of Self-Improving AI.Alexey Turchin & Denkenberger David - 2018 - In Artificial Intelligence Safety and Security. Louiswille: CRC Press.
    Better instruments to predict the future evolution of artificial intelligence (AI) are needed, as the destiny of our civilization depends on it. One of the ways to such prediction is the analysis of the convergent drives of any future AI, started by Omohundro. We show that one of the convergent drives of AI is a militarization drive, arising from AI’s need to wage a war against its potential rivals by either physical or software means, or to increase its bargaining power. (...)
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  42. New Prospects for Organizational Democracy? How the Joint Pursuit of Social and Financial Goals Challenges Traditional Organizational Designs.Julie Battilana, Michael Fuerstein & Michael Y. Lee - 2018 - In Subramanian Rangan (ed.), Capitalism Beyond Mutuality?: Perspectives Integrating Philosophy and Social Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 256-288.
    Some interesting exceptions notwithstanding, the traditional logic of economic efficiency has long favored hierarchical forms of organization and disfavored democracy in business. What does the balance of arguments look like, however, when values besides efficient revenue production are brought into the picture? The question is not hypothetical: In recent years, an ever increasing number of corporations have developed and adopted socially responsible behaviors, thereby hybridizing aspects of corporate businesses and social organizations. We argue that the joint pursuit of financial and (...)
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  43.  63
    Epistemic Normativity is Not Independent of Our Goals.J. Adam Carter - 2022 - In Ernest Sosa, Matthias Steup, John Turri & Blake Roeber (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Epistemology, 3rd Edition. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  44.  21
    Normal Science, Global Science and the Institutional Facts as a Goal of Science.Jerzy Bobryk - 2010 - Filozofia Nauki 18 (3):7.
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  45. Diversion Effects, Incentive Effects, and the Goals of Research Ethics Promulgations.Danielle M. Wenner - 2015 - Journal of Law and the Biosciences.
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  46. Food Sovereignty and Consumer Sovereignty: Two Antagonistic Goals?Cristian Timmermann, Georges Félix & Pablo Tittonell - 2018 - Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems 42 (3):274-298.
    The concept of food sovereignty is becoming an element of everyday parlance in development politics and food justice advocacy. Yet to successfully achieve food sovereignty, the demands within this movement have to be compatible with the way people are pursuing consumer sovereignty, and vice versa. The aim of this article is to examine the different sets of demands that the two ideals of sovereignty bring about, analyze in how far these different demands can stand in constructive relations with each other (...)
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  47. A Cognitive Archaeology of Writing: Concepts, Models, Goals.Karenleigh Anne Overmann - 2021 - In Philip Boyes, Philippa Steele & Natalia Elvira Astoreca (eds.), The social and cultural contexts of historic writing practices. Oxford: Oxbow. pp. 55-72.
    Complex systems like literacy and numeracy emerge through multigenerational interactions of brains, behaviors, and material forms. In such systems, material forms – writing for language and notations for numbers – become increasingly refined to elicit specific behavioral and psychological responses in newly indoctrinated individuals. These material forms, however, differ fundamentally in things like semiotic function: language signifies, while numbers instantiate. This makes writing for language able to represent the meanings and sounds of particular languages, while notations for numbers are semantically (...)
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  48. Are There Any Good Arguments Against Goal-Line Technology?Emily Ryall - 2012 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 6 (4):439-450.
    Despite frequent calls by players, managers and fans, FIFA's resistance to the implementation of goal-line technology (GLT) has been well documented in national print and online media as well as FIFA's own website. In 2010, FIFA president Sepp Blatter outlined eight reasons why GLT should not be used in football. The reasons given by FIFA can be broadly separated into three categories; those dealing with the nature and value of the game of football, those related to issues of justice, (...)
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  49. Transformational Leadership, Transactional Contingent Reward, and Organizational Identification: The Mediating Effect of Perceived Innovation and Goal Culture Orientations.Athena Xenikou - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
    Purpose - The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of transformational leadership and transactional contingent reward as complementary, but distinct, forms of leadership on facets of organizational identification via the perception of innovation and goal organizational values. Design/methodology/approach – Three studies were carried out implementing either a measurement of mediation or experimental-causal-chain design to test for the hypothesized effects. Findings - The measurement of mediation study showed that transformational leadership had a positive direct and indirect effect, (...)
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  50. Ontological Priorities: A Critique of the Announced Goals of "Descriptive Metaphysics".David Kolb - 1975 - Metaphilosophy 6 (3-4):238-258.
    A critique of Strawson's distinction between descriptive and revisionary metaphysics.
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