Results for 'reactionism'

556 found
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  1. Developmental Reaction Norms: the interactions among allometry, ontogeny and plasticity.Massimo Pigliucci, Carl Schlichting, Cynthia Jones & Kurt Schwenk - 1996 - Plant Species Biology 11:69-85.
    How micro- and macroevolutionary evolutionary processes produce phenotypic change is without question one of the most intriguing and perplexing issues facing evolutionary biologists. We believe that roadblocks to progress lie A) in the underestimation of the role of the environment, and in particular, that of the interaction of genotypes with environmental factors, and B) in the continuing lack of incorporation of development into the evolutionary synthesis. We propose the integration of genetic, environmental and developmental perspectives on the evolution of the (...)
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  2. Radiation reaction on an accelerating point charge.Jerrold Franklin - 2023 - International Journal of Modern Physics A 38 (01):2350005, 6 pages.
    A point charge accelerating under the influence of an external force emits electromagnetic radiation that reduces the increase in its mechanical energy. This causes a reduction in the particle's acceleration. We derive the decrease in acceleration due to radiation reaction for a particle accelerating parallel to its velocity, and show that it has a negligible effect.
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  3. Emotional Reactions to Human Reproductive Cloning.Joshua May - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (1):26-30.
    [Selected as EDITOR'S CHOICE] Background: Extant surveys of people’s attitudes toward human reproductive cloning focus on moral judgments alone, not emotional reactions or sentiments. This is especially important given that some (esp. Leon Kass) have argued against such cloning on the grounds that it engenders widespread negative emotions, like disgust, that provide a moral guide. Objective: To provide some data on emotional reactions to human cloning, with a focus on repugnance, given its prominence in the literature. Methods: This brief mixed-method (...)
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  4. Reaction and Reflection in Tetris.David Kirsh & P. Maglio - 1992 - First Annual International Conference on AI Planning Systems.
    To discover how to couple reflection with reaction we have been studying how people play the computer game Tetris. Our basic intuition is that the job of the reasoned is to monitor the environment and the agent’s behavior over time to discover trends or deviations from the agent’s normative policy and tune the priorities of the Attentional system accordingly.
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  5. Employee Reactions to Leader-Initiated Crisis Preparation: Core Dimensions.Marcus Selart, Svein Tvedt Johansen & Synnøve Nesse - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 116 (1):99-106.
    Crisis prevention plans are usually evaluated based on their effects in terms of preventing or limiting organizational crisis. In this survey-based study, the focus was instead on how such plans influence employees’ reactions in terms of risk perception and well-being. Five different organizations were addressed in the study. Hypothesis 1 tested the assumption that leadership crisis preparation would lead to lower perceived risk among the employees. Hypothesis 2 tested the conjecture that it would also lead to a higher degree of (...)
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  6. A class of reaction-diffusion mechanisms which preferentially select striped patterns.Michael Lyons & Lionel G. Harrison - 1991 - Chemical Physics Letters 183 (1,2):158-164.
    Reaction-diffusion systems which have reaction term satisfying f(-q) = -f(q) tend strongly to form striped patterns. Haken’s slaving principle is used to derive differential equations for unstable mode amplitudes close to the Turing instability. This connects a dynamical symmetry to pattern selection, with possible relevance to biological and chemical pattern-forming phenomena.
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  7.  61
    Reactions to Positivist Hegemony in the Social Sciences.Damian Williams - forthcoming - Forthcoming.
    The local opposes the global or the macro opposes the micro and vice versa, respectively. This dialectical relationship further exposes that scales are socially and politically constructed, representative of a phenomena that is relational, and is thus of important consideration in analysis beyond simple labeling. That is, scale represents more than ‘size’ and ‘complexity’, but also reveals the relational. It is the relational—the relationship between the ‘global’ and its contents or the ‘local’—which provides for or is wont for analytic complexity (...)
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  8. Optimization Models for Reaction Networks: Information Divergence, Quadratic Programming and Kirchhoff’s Laws.Julio Michael Stern - 2014 - Axioms 109:109-118.
    This article presents a simple derivation of optimization models for reaction networks leading to a generalized form of the mass-action law, and compares the formal structure of Minimum Information Divergence, Quadratic Programming and Kirchhoff type network models. These optimization models are used in related articles to develop and illustrate the operation of ontology alignment algorithms and to discuss closely connected issues concerning the epistemological and statistical significance of sharp or precise hypotheses in empirical science.
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  9.  91
    Sins and Risks in Underreporting Suspected Adverse Drug Reactions.Austin Due - 2024 - Philosophy of Medicine 5 (1).
    The underreporting of suspected adverse drug reactions remains a primary issue for contemporary post-market drug surveillance or ‘pharmacovigilance.’ Pharmacovigilance pioneer W.H.W. Inman argued that ‘deadly sins’ committed by clinicians are to blame for underreporting. Of these ‘sins,’ ignorance and lethargy are the most obvious and impactful in causing underreporting. However, recent analyses show that diffidence, insecurity, and indifference additionally play a major role. I aim to augment our understanding of diffidence, insecurity, and indifference by arguing these sins are underwritten by (...)
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  10. Samuel Alexander's Early Reactions to British Idealism.A. R. J. Fisher - 2017 - Collingwood and British Idealism Studies 23 (2):169-196.
    Samuel Alexander was a central figure of the new wave of realism that swept across the English-speaking world in the early twentieth century. His Space, Time, and Deity (1920a, 1920b) was taken to be the official statement of realism as a metaphysical system. But many historians of philosophy are quick to point out the idealist streak in Alexander’s thought. After all, as a student he was trained at Oxford in the late 1870s and early 1880s as British Idealism was beginning (...)
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  11. Girl Talk: Understanding Negative Reactions to Female Vocal Fry.Monika Chao & Julia R. S. Bursten - 2021 - Hypatia 36 (1):42-59.
    Vocal fry is a phonation, or voicing, in which an individual drops their voice below its natural register and consequently emits a low, growly, creaky tone of voice. Media outlets have widely acknowledged it as a generational vocal style characteristic of millennial women. Critics of vocal fry often claim that it is an exclusively female vocal pattern, and some say that the voicing is so distracting that they cannot understand what is being said under the phonation. Claiming that a phonation (...)
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  12. Integration and Reaction.Ronald R. Sundstrom - 2023 - Dialogue 62 (1):77-83.
    D. C. Matthew argues that although integration offers blacks social and economic benefits, it also creates the conditions for phenotypic devaluation that leads to harm against black self-worth and servile behavior. Therefore, he advises against integration because the resulting self-worth harms outweigh the benefits of integration. I argue that Matthew’s cost-benefit calculation against integration lacks the requisite evidence, and amounts to a luxury belief that will result in more harm. Moreover, his interpretation of behavior — which he construes as being (...)
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  13. Evaluation of the Knowledge and Practices About Drug Prescribing and Adverse Reaction Reporting Among Turkish Dentists.Olcay Kıroğlu, Zakir Khan, Fatih Berktaş, Emine Öz, İlker Ünal & Yusuf Karatas - 2023 - European Journal of Therapeutics 29 (1):74-80.
    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess dental care professionals' drug prescription knowledge, practices, and reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). -/- Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory study was conducted by using a face-to-face survey administered to a sample of dentists from tertiary care hospitals in Adana, Türkiye. A questionnaire consisted of six sections with closed-ended items including sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge about drugs, patient history information, counseling practices during prescribing, source of information and ADR reporting. -/- Results: The study (...)
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  14. An untutored reaction of incredulity: A Review of Thomas Nagel's Mind and Cosmos.Mohan Matthen - 2013 - Philosophers' Magazine 60 (-1):114 - 117.
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  15. The Institutionalist Reaction to Keynesian Economics.Malcolm Rutherford & C. Tyler DesRoches - 2008 - Journal of the History of Economic Thought 1 (30):29-48.
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  16. Newton and Wolff: The Leibnizian reaction to the Principia, 1716-1763.Marius Stan - 2012 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):459-481.
    Newton rested his theory of mechanics on distinct metaphysical and epistemological foundations. After Leibniz's death in 1716, the Principia ran into sharp philosophical opposition from Christian Wolff and his disciples, who sought to subvert Newton's foundations or replace them with Leibnizian ideas. In what follows, I chronicle some of the Wolffians' reactions to Newton's notion of absolute space, his dynamical laws of motion, and his general theory of gravitation. I also touch on arguments advanced by Newton's Continental followers, such as (...)
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  17. From Inaction to Reaction: Progress or Barbarism?Victor Mota - manuscript
    how's going human civilizat5ion: preparing to leave earth behind?
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  18. John Locke's Contemporaries' Reaction against the Theory of Substratum.Mihretu P. Guta - 2013 - In C. Illies & C. Schaefer (eds.), Metaphysics or Modernity? Bamberg University Press. pp. 9-28.
    The goal of this paper is to critically examine the objections of John Locke’s contemporaries against the theory of substance or substratum. Locke argues in Essay that substratum is the bearer of the properties of a particular substance. Locke also claims that we have no knowledge of substratum. But Locke’s claim about our ignorance as to what substratum is, is contentious. That is, if we don’t know what substratum is, then what is the point of proposing it as a bearer (...)
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  19. Action and Reaction: The Two Voices of Inner Speech.Tom Frankfort - 2022 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy (1):51-69.
    Is inner speech an intentional action, something we do, or a reaction, something that happens to us? This paper will argue that it can be both, (although not at the same time). Some inner speech utterances are reactive: they are spontaneous, they require no effort, and we are not in control of their occurring. These inner speech utterances fail to meet the traditional criteria for qualifying as intentional actions. But some inner speech ut- terances are intentional actions, performed deliberately, effortfully (...)
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  20. Origin, Impact, and Reaction to Misogynistic Behaviors: An Interview with Kate A. Manne, PhD.Lopez Brianna - 2021 - Stance 14:146-167.
    Kate A. Manne is an associate professor at the Sage School of Philosophy at Cornell University, where she has been teaching since 2013. Before that, she was a junior fellow at the Harvard Society of Fellows (2011–2013), did her graduate work at MIT (2006–2011), and was an undergraduate at the University of Melbourne (2001–2005), where she studied philosophy, logic, and computer science. Her current research is primarily in moral, feminist, and social philosophy. She is the author of two books, including (...)
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  21. Should I stay or should I go? Three-year-olds’ reactions to appropriate motives to interrupt a joint activity.Francesca Bonalumi, Barbora Siposova, Wayne Christensen & John Michael - 2023 - PLoS ONE 18 (7):e0288401.
    Understanding when it is acceptable to interrupt a joint activity is an important part of understanding what cooperation entails. Philosophical analyses have suggested that we should release our partner from a joint activity anytime the activity conflicts with fulfilling a moral obligation. To probe young children’s understanding of this aspect, we investigated whether 3-year-old children (N = 60) are sensitive to the legitimacy of motives (selfish condition vs. moral condition) leading agents to intentionally interrupt their joint activity. We measured whether (...)
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  22. Aesthetic Formalism, Reactions and Solutions.Khosrow Bagheri Noaparast & Mohammad Zoheir Bagheri Noaparast - 2011 - Wisdom and Philosophy 6 (4):101-112.
    It seems necessary to introduce the basic concepts used in this article i.e. formalism, anti-formalism and moderate formalism. Formalists believe that the aesthetic appreciation of an art work generally involves an attentive awareness of its sensory or conceptual qualities and does not require knowledge about its non-perceptual properties. Anti-formalists on the hand hold that noon of the aesthetic properties in the work of art are formal. A number of philosophers have recently advocated a more moderate formalism. According to this view (...)
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  23. Beyond the Brave New Nudge: Activating Ethical Reflection Over Behavioral Reaction.Julian Friedland, Kristian Myrseth & David Balkin - 2023 - Academy of Management Perspectives 37 (4):297-313.
    Behavioral intervention techniques leveraging reactive responses have gained popularity as tools for promoting ethical behavior. Choice architects, for example, design and present default opt-out options to nudge individuals into accepting preselected choices deemed beneficial to both the decision-maker and society. Such interventions can also employ mild financial incentives or affective triggers including joy, fear, empathy, social pressure, and reputational rewards. We argue, however, that ethical competence is achieved via reflection, and that heavy reliance on reactive behavioral interventions can undermine the (...)
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  24. To Suspend Finitude Itself: Hegel’s Reaction to Kant’s First Antinomy.Reed Winegar - 2016 - Hegel Bulletin 37 (1):81-103.
    Hegel famously criticizes Kant’s resolution of the antinomies. According to Sedgwick, Hegel primarily chastises Kant’s resolution for presupposing that concepts are ‘one-sided’, rather than identical to their opposites. If Kant had accepted the dialectical nature of concepts, then (according to Sedgwick) Kant would not have needed to resolve the antinomies. However, as Ameriks has noted, any such interpretation faces a serious challenge. Namely, Kant’s first antinomy concerns the universe’s physical dimensions. Even if we grant that the concept of the finite (...)
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  25. Gene regulation, quantitative genetics and the evolution of reaction norms.Carl Schlichting & Massimo Pigliucci - 1995 - Evolutionary Ecology 9:154-168.
    A discussion of plasticity genes and the genetic architecture of gene-environment interactions.
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  26. Commentary on: Marcin Lewiński’s “‘You’re moving from irrelevant to irrational’—Critical Reactions in Internet Discussion Forums”.Gilbert Plumer - 2009 - In Juho Ritola (ed.), Argument Cultures. Proceedings of the 8th OSSA Conference [CD-ROM]. Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation. pp. 1-3.
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  27. The Absolute Primacy of the Intellect in Aquinas: A Reaction to Fabro’s Position.Andres Ayala - 2023 - The Incarnate Word 10 (2):41-122.
    St. Thomas Aquinas has always considered intelligence a potency higher than the will, absolutely speaking. That being said, and in my view, the existential primacy of the will in the act of freedom (particularly in choosing the existential end) is also indisputably Thomistic, as Cornelio Fabro has shown. This paper endeavors to explain Aquinas' doctrine on the absolute primacy of the intellect and thus show that these two primacies can be affirmed coherently, that is, the intellect’s absolute primacy and the (...)
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  28. On Ramsey’s reason to amend Principia Mathematica’s logicism and Wittgenstein’s reaction.Anderson Nakano - 2020 - Synthese 2020 (1):2629-2646.
    In the Foundations of Mathematics, Ramsey attempted to amend Principia Mathematica’s logicism to meet serious objections raised against it. While Ramsey’s paper is well known, some questions concerning Ramsey’s motivations to write it and its reception still remain. This paper considers these questions afresh. First, an account is provided for why Ramsey decided to work on his paper instead of simply accepting Wittgenstein’s account of mathematics as presented in the Tractatus. Secondly, evidence is given supporting that Wittgenstein was not moved (...)
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  29. Porphyry the Apostate: Assessing Porphyry's Reaction to Plotinus's Doctrine of the One.Seamus O'Neill - 2011 - Heythrop Journal 52 (1):1-10.
    Although recent scholarship has begun to clarify Porphyry’s position on the first principle in its distinction from that of Plotinus we must be careful not to gloss over the crucial ramifications of Porphyry’s developments. The Plotinian One is beyond Being, and thus beyond all relation and difference. In his attempt to understand how such a principle can be productive of all else that follows from it, Porphyry considers the Plotinian One in both its transcendent and creative aspects, introducing the notions (...)
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  30. The Epistemology of Theistic Philosophers’ Reactions to the Problem of Evil.Bryan Frances - 2020 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 94 (4):547-572.
    I first argue that, contrary to many atheistic philosophers, there is good reason to think the typical theistic philosopher’s retaining of her theism when faced with the Problem of Evil is comparatively epistemically upstanding even if both atheism is true and the typical theistic philosopher has no serious criticism of the atheist’s premises in the PoE argument. However, I then argue that, contrary to many theistic philosophers, even if theism is true, the typical theistic philosopher has no good non-theistic reasons (...)
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  31. THE PROBLEMATIC SEARCH FOR THE NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE: PHILOSOPHICAL REACTIONS AND PROJECTIONS.Asodun Fatai - 2019 - Ifiok: Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 3 (1):141-161.
    The question, “What is intelligence?” is deceptively simple. However, scholars have engaged in series of research in order to answer it. Till date there is no simple answer accepted by experts in the relevant disciplines. Attempt to identify a standard definition has been very challenging. This failure is connected with the fact that defining intelligence requires the application of problematic and abstract concepts. Consequently, some researchers decided to put forward theories as an attempt to capture the nature of intelligence. However, (...)
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  32. Feminist Perspectives in the book ,“Women, Property, and Confucian Reaction in Sung and Yuan China (960-1368)’’ by Bettine Burge.Fawad Ullah - manuscript
    Song Dynasty, revival of Confucianism,Women oppression.
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  33. Crucial steps to life: From chemical reactions to code using agents.Witzany Guenther - 2016 - Biosystems 140:49-57.
    The concepts of the origin of the genetic code and the definitions of life changed dramatically after the RNA world hypothesis. Main narratives in molecular biology and genetics such as the “central dogma,” “one gene one protein” and “non-coding DNA is junk” were falsified meanwhile. RNA moved from the transition intermediate molecule into centre stage. Additionally the abundance of empirical data concerning nonrandom genetic change operators such as the variety of mobile genetic elements, persistent viruses and defectives do not fit (...)
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  34. Review of Angel Smith, "Anarchism, Revolution and Reaction: Catalan Labor and the Crisis of the Spanish State, 1898–1923". [REVIEW]Nathan Jun - 2010 - Enterprise and Society 11 (2):430-431.
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  35. How organisms respond to environmental changes: from phenotypes to molecules (and vice versa).Massimo Pigliucci - 1996 - Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11 (4):168-173.
    The concept of reaction norms plays a crucial role in connecting molecular and evolutionary biology.
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  36. Influence of monetary information signals of the USA on the Ukrainian stock market.Roman Pavlov, Tatyana Grynko, Tatyana Pavlova, Levkovich Oksana & Pawliszczy Dariusz - 2020 - Investment Management and Financial Innovations 17 (4):327-340.
    The stronger the level of economic integration between countries, the greater the need to study the formation patterns of the stock market reaction to the financial information signals. This concerns the Ukrainian stock market, which is now in its infancy, and which reaction to financial information signals is sometimes ambiguous. The research aims to identify the formation patterns of return and volatility indicators of the Ukrainian stock market reaction to the US financial information signals. To assess the direct nature of (...)
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  37. Attention need not always apply: Mind wandering impedes explicit but not implicit sequence learning.Samuel Murray, Nicholaus Brosowsky, Jonathan Schooler & Paul Seli - 2021 - Cognition 209 (C):104530.
    According to the attentional resources account, mind wandering (or “task-unrelated thought”) is thought to compete with a focal task for attentional resources. Here, we tested two key predictions of this account: First, that mind wandering should not interfere with performance on a task that does not require attentional resources; second, that as task requirements become automatized, performance should improve and depth of mind wandering should increase. Here, we used a serial reaction time task with implicit- and explicit-learning groups to test (...)
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  38. Genetic determinism and the innate-acquired distinction.Maria Kronfeldner - 2009 - Medicine Studies 1 (2):167-181.
    This article illustrates in which sense genetic determinism is still part of the contemporary interactionist consensus in medicine. Three dimensions of this consensus are discussed: kinds of causes, a continuum of traits ranging from monogenetic diseases to car accidents, and different kinds of determination due to different norms of reaction. On this basis, this article explicates in which sense the interactionist consensus presupposes the innate?acquired distinction. After a descriptive Part 1, Part 2 reviews why the innate?acquired distinction is under attack (...)
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  39. Developmental Level of Moral Judgment Influences Behavioral Patterns during Moral Decision-making.Hyemin Han, Kelsie J. Dawson, Stephen J. Thoma & Andrea L. Glenn - forthcoming - Journal of Experimental Education.
    We developed and tested a behavioral version of the Defining Issues Test-1 revised (DIT-1r), which is a measure of the development of moral judgment. We conducted a behavioral experiment using the behavioral Defining Issues Test (bDIT) to examine the relationship between participants’ moral developmental status, moral competence, and reaction time when making moral judgments. We found that when the judgments were made based on the preferred moral schema, the reaction time for moral judgments was significantly moderated by the moral developmental (...)
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  40. On the Integration of Populism into the Democratic Public Sphere.Gheorghe-Ilie Farte - 2017 - Argumentum. Journal of the Seminar of Discursive Logic, Argumentation Theory and Rhetoric 15 (2):87-109.
    The central thesis of this article is that populism is a side effect of liberal democracy and a reliable indicator of the relationship between liberal democracy and its polar opposite ‒ illiberal majoritarianism. As long as liberal democracy prevails over illiberal majoritarianism, populism remains dormant. Populism rises and becomes conspicuous only if certain manifestations of illiberal majoritarianism or illiberal elitism reach a critical point in terms of number and impact. More exactly, populism becomes active when there are too few reasonable (...)
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  41. Emotion Management in Crisis Situations.Gheorghe-Ilie Farte - 2013 - Argumentum. Journal of the Seminar of Discursive Logic, Argumentation Theory and Rhetoric 11 (2):59-70.
    In this paper I try to clarify and systematize some contributions with regard to (a) the main aspects of crisis situations that impose the management of emotions, (b) the correlation of certain social emotions with the factors that trigger them and their related tendencies to act, (c) the essential elements of emotional experience, (d) the differentiation of appropriate emotional reactions to a crisis situation from the inappropriate ones; (e) the in-stances in which emotions can be managed, and (f) the balance (...)
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  42. A new approach in classical electrodynamics to protect principle of causality.Biswaranjan Dikshit - 2014 - Journal of Theoretical Physics and Cryptography 5:1-4.
    In classical electrodynamics, electromagnetic effects are calculated from solution of wave equation formed by combination of four Maxwell’s equations. However, along with retarded solution, this wave equation admits advanced solution in which case the effect happens before the cause. So, to preserve causality in natural events, the retarded solution is intentionally chosen and the advance part is just ignored. But, an equation or method cannot be called fundamental if it admits a wrong result (that violates principle of causality) in addition (...)
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  43. The Newton’s Third Law in Social Relations.Sergei Vasiljev - manuscript
    The regularity in social relations is deduced on the base of natural human reactions. The regularity is similar to the Newton’s Third Law. The new approach to phenomenon and definition of violence is offered as a consequence of the discovered regularity. Violence is considered as an action with an object without consent of the owner. It is shown that a person herself is responsible for significant part of violence against her, namely for the violence which is just reaction for her (...)
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  44. Wittgenstein, Rush Rhees, and the Measure of Language.Zachery A. Carter - 2006 - New Blackfriars 87 (1009):288-301.
    This essay critically examines Rush Rhees’ Wittgensteinian account of language against the backdrop of Plato’s complete reversal of Protagoras’ axiom regarding man as the measure. Rhees jettisons Plato’s notion of Transcendence while retaining his emphasis on dialogue and unity. Despite trenchant points Rhees makes in that regard, it argues that Rhees’ view of language is in the end Protagorean. The essay traces out the problem of autonomy from rules to the practice to discourse itself, addresses Rhees’ missteps in relation to (...)
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  45. On distinguishing epistemic from pragmatic action.David Kirsh & Paul Maglio - 1994 - Cognitive Science 18 (4):513-49.
    We present data and argument to show that in Tetris - a real-time interactive video game - certain cognitive and perceptual problems are more quickly, easily, and reliably solved by performing actions in the world rather than by performing computational actions in the head alone. We have found that some translations and rotations are best understood as using the world to improve cognition. These actions are not used to implement a plan, or to implement a reaction; they are used to (...)
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  46. Frege's Unthinkable Thoughts.Lukas Skiba - 2017 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 117 (3):333–343.
    There are two common reactions to Frege’s claim that some senses and thoughts are private. Privatists accept both private senses and thoughts, while intersubjectivists don’t accept either. Both sides agree on a pair of tacit assumptions: first, that private senses automatically give rise to private thoughts; and second, that private senses and thoughts are the most problematic entities to which Frege’s remarks on privacy give rise. The aim of this paper is to show that both assumptions are mistaken. This will (...)
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  47. An enlightened revolt: On the philosophy of Nicholas Maxwell.Agustin Vicente - 2010 - Philosophia 38 (4):38: 631- 648.
    This paper is a reaction to the book “Science and the Pursuit of Wisdom”, whose central concern is the philosophy of Nicholas Maxwell. I distinguish and discuss three concerns in Maxwell’s philosophy. The first is his critique of standard empiricism (SE) in the philosophy of science, the second his defense of aim-oriented rationality (AOR), and the third his philosophy of mind. I point at some problematic aspects of Maxwell’s rebuttal of SE and of his philosophy of mind and argue in (...)
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  48. Characters and Environments.Massimo Pigliucci - 2000 - In Günter P. Wagner (ed.), The Character Concept in Evolutionary Biology. Academic Press.
    The concepts of reaction norms and phenotypic plasticity help us better understand what a biological trait is.
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  49. Criticism of the ostrich scenes from Milan Kundera.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    This paper presents critical reactions to the use of the ostriches in Milan Kundera’s The Book of Laughter and Forgetting, focusing on the fact that he does not use their most striking quality. But, despite the demand, I struggle to find much to criticize, though I do flag a worry about Kundera’s consistency regarding what is common knowledge.
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  50. Why Retributivism Needs Consequentialism: The Rightful Place of Revenge in the Criminal Justice System.Ken Levy - 2014 - Rutgers Law Review 66:629-684.
    Consider the reaction of Trayvon Martin’s family to the jury verdict. They were devastated that George Zimmerman, the defendant, was found not guilty of manslaughter or murder. Whatever the merits of this outcome, what does the Martin family’s emotional reaction mean? What does it say about criminal punishment – especially the reasons why we punish? Why did the Martin family want to see George Zimmerman go to jail? And why were – and are – they so upset that he didn’t? (...)
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