Results for 'science policy'

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  1. Different Motivations, Similar Proposals: Objectivity in Scientific Community and Democratic Science Policy.Jaana Eigi - 2017 - Synthese 194 (12):4657-4669.
    The aim of the paper is to discuss some possible connections between philosophical proposals about the social organisation of science and developments towards a greater democratisation of science policy. I suggest that there are important similarities between one approach to objectivity in philosophy of science—Helen Longino’s account of objectivity as freedom from individual biases achieved through interaction of a variety of perspectives—and some ideas about the epistemic benefits of wider representation of various groups’ perspectives in (...) policy, as analysed by Mark Brown. Given these similarities, I suggest that they allow one to approach developments in science policy as if one of their aims were epistemic improvement that can be recommended on the basis of the philosophical account; analyses of political developments inspired by these ideas about the benefits of inclusive dialogue can then be used for understanding the possibility to implement a philosophical proposal for improving the objectivity of science in practice. Outlining this suggestion, I also discuss the possibility of important differences between the developments in the two spheres and show how the concern about the possible divergence of politically motivated and epistemically motivated changes may be mitigated. In order to substantiate further the suggestion I make, I discuss one example of a development where politically motivated and epistemically motivated changes converge in practice—the development of professional ethics in American archaeology as analysed by Alison Wylie. I suggest that analysing such specific developments and getting involved with them can be one of the tasks for philosophy of science. In the concluding part of the paper I discuss how this approach to philosophy of science is related to a number of arguments about a more politically relevant philosophy of science. (shrink)
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  2.  44
    On the Kind of Problems Tackled by Science, Technology, and Professions. Building Foundations of Science Policy.Luis Marone - 2020 - Mεtascience 1:online.
    Science, technology, and professions form a system with strong interactions. Yet, these activities attack different kinds of problems which require different kinds of solutions. The problems that trigger scientific and technological research remain insufficiently solved or unsolved, therefore their possible solutions must be invented (i. e. they are partially or totally original) and, consequently, they should be tested against reality by researchers before considering them as true or useful. On the contrary, the problems that trigger professional inquiry are already (...)
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  3. Policy Response, Social Media and Science Journalism for the Sustainability of the Public Health System Amid the COVID-19 Outbreak: The Vietnam Lessons.La Viet Phuong, Pham Thanh Hang, Manh-Toan Ho, Nguyen Minh Hoang, Nguyen Phuc Khanh Linh, Vuong Thu Trang, Nguyen To Hong Kong, Tran Trung, Khuc Van Quy, Ho Manh Tung & Quan-Hoang Vuong - 2020 - Sustainability 12:2931.
    Vietnam, with a geographical proximity and a high volume of trade with China, was the first country to record an outbreak of the new Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2. While the country was expected to have a high risk of transmission, as of April 4, 2020—in comparison to attempts to contain the disease around the world—responses from Vietnam are being seen as prompt and effective in protecting the interests of its citizens, (...)
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  4.  6
    Following the Science: Pandemic Policy Making and Reasonable Worst-Case Scenarios.Richard Bradley & Joe Roussos - 2021 - LSE Public Policy Review 1 (4):6.
    The UK has been ‘following the science’ in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in line with the national framework for the use of scientific advice in assessment of risk. We argue that the way in which it does so is unsatisfactory in two important respects. Firstly, pandemic policy making is not based on a comprehensive assessment of policy impacts. And secondly, the focus on reasonable worst-case scenarios as a way of managing uncertainty results in a loss of (...)
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  5. Science and Policy in Extremis: The UK's Initial Response to COVID-19.Jonathan Birch - manuscript
    Drawing on the SAGE minutes and other documents, I consider the wider lessons for norms of scientific advising that can be learned from the UK’s initial response to coronavirus in the period January-March 2020. I highlight three key issues: the normative force of scientific advice, the role of reasonable worst-case scenarios, and the limits of independence and neutrality. A recurring theme is the difference between normal scientific advising and scientific advising in extremis, when a significant fraction of a country’s population (...)
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  6. Second-Order Science and Policy.Anthony Hodgson & Graham Leicester - 2017 - World Futures 73 (3):119-178.
    In March 2016, an interdisciplinary group met for two days and two evenings to explore the implications for policy making of second-order science. The event was sponsored by SITRA, the Finnish Parliament's Innovation Fund. Their interest arose from their concern that the well-established ways, including evidence-based approaches, of policy and decision making used in government were increasingly falling short of the complexity, uncertainty, and urgency of needed decision making. There was no assumption that second-order science or (...)
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  7. Well-Ordered Science’s Basic Problem.Cristian Larroulet Philippi - 2020 - Philosophy of Science 87 (2):365-375.
    Kitcher has proposed an ideal-theory account—well-ordered science (WOS)— of the collective good that science’s research agenda should promote. Against criticism regarding WOS’s action-guidance, Kitcher has advised critics not to confuse substantive ideals and the ways to arrive at them, and he has defended WOS as a necessary and useful ideal for science policy. I provide a distinction between two types of ideal-theories that helps clarifying WOS’s elusive nature. I use this distinction to argue that the action-guidance (...)
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  8.  26
    Political Theory, Political Science and Public Policy: An Interdisciplinary Approach. A Conversation with Robert Goodin.Giulia Bistagnino - 2016 - Notizie di Politeia 121 (32).
    In this interview, Robert Goodin discusses some of the main issues he has tackled in his work, with a particular focus on the relation between political theory and political science, and the challenges and benefits of an interdisciplinary approach for political philosophers.
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  9.  58
    An Ethical Framework for Presenting Scientific Results to Policy-Makers.S. Andrew Schroeder - forthcoming - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal.
    Scientists have the ability to influence policy in important ways through how they present their results. Surprisingly, existing codes of scientific ethics have little to say about such choices. I propose that we can arrive at a set of ethical guidelines to govern scientists’ presentation of information to policymakers by looking to bioethics: roughly, just as a clinician should aim to promote informed decision-making by patients, a scientist should aim to promote informed decision-making by policymakers. Though this may sound (...)
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  10. Human Ecology and Public Policy: Overcoming the Hegemony of Economics.Arran Gare - 2002 - Democracy and Nature 8 (1):131-141.
    The thinking of those with the power to formulate and implement public policy is now almost totally dominated by the so-called science of economics. While efforts have been made to supplement or modify economics to make it less brutal or less environmentally blind, here it is suggested that economics is so fundamentally flawed and that it so completely dominates the culture of late modern capitalism (or postmodernity) that a new master human science is required to displace it (...)
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  11. Between Reason and Coercion: Ethically Permissible Influence in Health Care and Health Policy Contexts.J. S. Blumenthal-Barby - 2012 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 22 (4):345-366.
    In bioethics, the predominant categorization of various types of influence has been a tripartite classification of rational persuasion (meaning influence by reason and argument), coercion (meaning influence by irresistible threats—or on a few accounts, offers), and manipulation (meaning everything in between). The standard ethical analysis in bioethics has been that rational persuasion is always permissible, and coercion is almost always impermissible save a few cases such as imminent threat to self or others. However, many forms of influence fall into the (...)
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  12.  98
    Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy.O. Kaaronen Roope - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
    Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition ‘to the brain,’ focusing (...)
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  13. Divergent Perspectives on Expert Disagreement: Preliminary Evidence From Climate Science, Climate Policy, Astrophysics, and Public Opinion.James R. Beebe, Maria Baghramian, Luke Drury & Finnur Dellsén - 2019 - Environmental Communication 13:35-50.
    We report the results of an exploratory study that examines the judgments of climate scientists, climate policy experts, astrophysicists, and non-experts (N = 3367) about the factors that contribute to the creation and persistence of disagreement within climate science and astrophysics and about how one should respond to expert disagreement. We found that, as compared to non-experts, climate experts believe that within climate science (i) there is less disagreement about climate change, (ii) methodological factors play less of (...)
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  14.  99
    Open Science, Open Data, and Open Scholarship: European Policies to Make Science Fit for the Twenty-First Century.Rene Von Schomberg, Jean-Claude Burgelman, Corina Pascu, Kataezyna Szkuta, Athanasios Karalopoulos, Konstantinos Repanas & Michel Schouppe - 2019 - Frontiers in Big Data 2:43.
    Open science will make science more efficient, reliable, and responsive to societal challenges. The European Commission has sought to advance open science policy from its inception in a holistic and integrated way, covering all aspects of the research cycle from scientific discovery and review to sharing knowledge, publishing, and outreach. We present the steps taken with a forward-looking perspective on the challenges laying ahead, in particular the necessary change of the rewards and incentives system for researchers (...)
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  15. Hume’s Two Causalities and Social Policy: Moon Rocks, Transfactuality, and the UK’s Policy on School Absenteeism.Leigh Price - 2014 - Journal of Critical Realism 13 (4):385-398.
    Hume maintained that, philosophically speaking, there is no difference between exiting a room out of the first-floor window and using the door. Nevertheless, Hume’s reason and common sense prevailed over his scepticism and he advocated that we should always use the door. However, we are currently living in a world that is more seriously committed to the Humean philosophy of empiricism than he was himself and thus the potential to act inappropriately is an ever-present potential. In this paper, I explore (...)
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  16. The Social Organisation of Science as a Question for Philosophy of Science.Jaana Eigi - 2016 - Dissertation, University of Tartu
    Philosophy of science is showing an increasing interest in the social aspects and the social organisation of science—the ways social values and social interactions and structures play a role in the creation of knowledge and the ways this role should be taken into account in the organisation of science and science policy. My thesis explores a number of issues related to this theme. I argue that a prominent approach to the social organisation of science—Philip (...)
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  17.  31
    Local Authorities and Communicators Engaged in Science: PLACES Impact Assessment Case Study of Prague.Adolf Filáček & Jakub Pechlát - 2013 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 35 (1):29-54.
    Regional aspects of science communication represent a potential asset and as such are quite suitable topic for further examination with respect to future social and economic development in Prague based on the city's main development strategies. Closer analysis of SCIP aspects at re- gional level can present a suitable complement for development of suitable measures and projects of the regional innovation and education policies. This study focuses on research questions related to regional dimension of science communication, its impacts (...)
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  18. Public Misunderstanding of Science? Reframing the Problem of Vaccine Hesitancy.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (5):552-581.
    The public rejection of scientific claims is widely recognized by scientific and governmental institutions to be threatening to modern democratic societies. Intense conflict between science and the public over diverse health and environmental issues have invited speculation by concerned officials regarding both the source of and the solution to the problem of public resistance towards scientific and policy positions on such hot-button issues as global warming, genetically modified crops, environmental toxins, and nuclear waste disposal. The London Royal Society’s (...)
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  19. On Identifying Plausibility and Deliberative Public Policy.René Schomberg - 2011 - Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (4):739-742.
    The identification of plausible epistemic approaches in science as well as the social problem definitions with which scientists implicitly work is essential for the quality of a deliberative public policy. While responding to the Nanofutures project, I will reflect on the essential elements of such a policy.
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  20. The Moral Basis for Public Policy Encouraging Sport Hunting.Margaret Van de Pitte - 2003 - Journal of Social Philosophy 34 (2):256–266.
    This essay seeks to see if one side or the other in the hunting debate gets more purchase if we first ask what gives the state the moral right to promote sport hunting when the practice is in deep decline. We look at the dominant economic and political reasons for state support, none of which settle the moral matter. We then look at various state appeals to moral justification (ethical hunting, the right to hunt, the value of heritage, etc.) and (...)
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  21. Science and Informed, Counterfactual, Democratic Consent.Arnon Keren - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):1284-1295.
    On many science-related policy questions, the public is unable to make informed decisions, because of its inability to make use of knowledge obtained by scientists. Philip Kitcher and James Fishkin have both suggested therefore that on certain science-related issues, public policy should not be decided on by actual democratic vote, but should instead conform to the public’s counterfactual informed democratic decision. Indeed, this suggestion underlies Kitcher’s specification of an ideal of a well-ordered science. This article (...)
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  22. A Qualitative Analysis of Universal Basic Education Policy Implementation Strategies in Nigeria: Effective Management for Goals Realization.Festus Obun Arop, Valentine Joseph Owan & Martin Akan Ekpang - 2018 - International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science 2 (9):48-54.
    The study assessed qualitatively, the implementation strategies of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Policy in Nigeria. In order to provide insights into the topic, terms were clarified accordingly. The Universal Basic Education goals were stated as contained in the policy statement of the National Policy on Education. The proposed strategies for the realization of the goals of UBE were stated and analysed accordingly. Relevant literatures were cited to provide understanding of the issues involved. A critique was carried (...)
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  23. The Disconnect Problem, Scientific Authority, and Climate Policy.Matthew J. Brown & Joyce C. Havstad - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (1):67-94.
    The disconnect problem arises wherever there is ongoing and severe discordance between the scientific assessment of a politically relevant issue, and the politics and legislation of said issue. Here, we focus on the disconnect problem as it arises in the case of climate change, diagnosing a failure to respect the necessary tradeoff between authority and autonomy within a public institution like science. After assessing the problematic deployment of scientific authority in this arena, we offer suggestions for how to mitigate (...)
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  24. Philosophy of Social Science: A Contemporary Introduction.Mark Risjord - 2014 - Routledge.
    The Philosophy of Social Science: A Contemporary Introduction examines the perennial questions of philosophy by engaging with the empirical study of society. The book offers a comprehensive overview of debates in the field, with special attention to questions arising from new research programs in the social sciences. The text uses detailed examples of social scientific research to motivate and illustrate the philosophical discussion. Topics include the relationship of social policy to social science, interpretive research, action explanation, game (...)
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  25. Bio-power and bio-policy: Anthropological and socio-political dimensions of techno-humanitarian balance.V. Cheshko & O. Kuss - 2016 - Hyleya 107 (4):267-272.
    The sociobiological and socio-political aspects of human existence have been the subject of techno-rationalistic control and manipulation. The investigation of the mutual complementarity of anthropological and ontological paradigms under these circumstances is the main purpose of present publication. The comparative conceptual analysis of the bio-power and bio-politics in the mentality of the modern technological civilization is a main method of the research. The methodological and philosophical analogy of biological and social engineering allows combining them in the nature and social implications (...)
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  26.  96
    Values and Credibility in Science Communication.Janet Michaud & John Turri - 2018 - Logos and Episteme 9 (2):199-214.
    Understanding science requires appreciating the values it presupposes and its social context. Both the values that scientists hold and their social context can affect scientific communication. Philosophers of science have recently begun studying scientific communication, especially as it relates to public policy. Some have proposed “guiding principles for communicating scientific findings” to promote trust and objectivity. This paper contributes to this line of research in a novel way using behavioural experimentation. We report results from three experiments testing (...)
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  27. From the Ethics of Technology Towards an Ethics of Knowledge Policy.René von Schomberg - 2007 - AI and Society.
    My analysis takes as its point of departure the controversial assumption that contemporary ethical theories cannot capture adequately the ethical and social challenges of scientific and technological development. This assumption is rooted in the argument that classical ethical theory invariably addresses the issue of ethical responsibility in terms of whether and how intentional actions of individuals can be justified. Scientific and technological developments, however, have produced unintentional consequences and side-consequences. These consequences very often result from collective decisions concerning the way (...)
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  28. High Hume (Bio-power and Bio-policy in Society of Risk).V. Cheshko & Valery Glazko (eds.) - 2009 - Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy.
    Human simultaneously is the acting person of a few autonomous and interdepending forms of evolutional process. Accordingly, it is possible to select three forms of adaptation and three constituents of evolutional strategy of survival of humanity – biological, sociocultural and technological adaptations. The actual and potential consequences of development of so-called High Hume technologies (technologies of the guided evolution)  most essential from major technological adaptations of humanity  are analyzed. The phenomenon of bio-power within the framework of global coevolutional (...)
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  29.  70
    U.S. Domsat Policy: A Case Study of Economic Constraints on Technology Assessment.Edmund Byrne - 1980 - In Papers on Science of Science and Forecasting. Wroclaw, Poland: pp. 71-86.
    [Collection title in Polish: Prace Naukoznawcze i Prognostvczne].
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  30. Human Rights: Are They Just a Tweak for the Policy Makers or Administrators?Kiyoung Kim - 2014 - European Academic Research 2 (6):7760-7783.
    The human rights often are cited as an ultimate goal for the discipline of social science. It guides the UN in the pursuit of its organizational mission, and the civil democratic government generally endorses this paradigm of state rule as supreme. Nonetheless, it seems a mishap if the human rights are thought to be valued only in the courtroom or police office. They are the kind of ubiquitous concept that we could share and must share, who would be the (...)
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  31.  52
    Theories and Tenets: An Impalpable Troll for the Policy Makers, Research Officers and Administrators?Kiyoung Kim - 2014 - International Journal of Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary Studies 1 (8):30-50.
    Now we live in the age of professionalism, and the public office in any nation is some reservoir of intelligent competition in their specific field. They are the leaders and paragon of community as a loyal and professional fiduciary. A hybrid nature of officers creates the rules and exercises their professional knowledge to serve a public good. The not unusual word,“scholar practitioner” may reflect the tendency of learning community within the business and government officers. They wish to overcome a bum (...)
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  32. The Ethics of Pro-Poor Poverty Policy: A Critique of the Neo-Liberal Imperative and the Epistemology of Poverty Eradication in Uganda.Kizito Michael George - 2013 - Open Science Repository Philosophy.
    Since the early 1990s, Uganda has been cajoled by the IMF and World Bank to pursue a neo-liberal approach to development as opposed to a liberal development modus operandi. However, in theory the World Bank has pursued a liberal, rights based approach to poverty reduction policy but, in practice, it has implemented a neo-liberal, market centric approach to poverty reduction. This is the reason why pro-poor poverty reduction in Uganda is more of rhetorical than practical. This paper critiques the (...)
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  33. Emotions and Identity as Foreign Policy Determinants: Serbian Approach to Relations with Russia.Artem Patalakh - 2018 - Chinese Political Science Review 3 (4):495-528.
    The paper argues that while the Serbian society and political elite are known for treating their country’s accession to the EU in terms of pragmatic utility maximisation, they generally conceive of Serbian relations with Russia, contrariwise, as an identity-laden issue. To prove it, the author analyses Serbia’s behaviour toward Russia along the features of emotion-driven cooperation, found in the literature on identity and emotions in foreign policy. In particular, the paper focuses on Serbians’ especially strong friendliness vis-à-vis Russia, the (...)
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  34. It Ain’T Necessarily So: The Misuse of 'Human Nature' in Law and Social Policy and Bankruptcy of the 'Nature-Nurture' Debate.Schwartz Justin - 2012 - Texas Journal of Women and the Law 21:187-239.
    Debate about legal and policy reform has been haunted by a pernicious confusion about human nature, the idea that it is a set of rigid dispositions, today generally conceived as genetic, that is manifested the same way in all circumstances. Opponents of egalitarian alternatives argue that we cannot depart far from the status quo because human nature stands in the way. Advocates of such reforms too often deny the existence of human nature because, sharing this conception, they think it (...)
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  35. In Pursuit of Happiness Research: Is It Reliable? What Does It Imply for Policy?Will Wilkinson - 2007 - Cato Institute Policy Analysis 590.
    "Happiness research" studies the correlates of subjective well-being, generally through survey methods. A number of psychologists and social scientists have drawn upon this work recently to argue that the American model of relatively limited government and a dynamic market economy corrodes happiness, whereas Western European and Scandinavian-style social democracies promote it. This paper argues that happiness research in fact poses no threat to the relatively libertarian ideals embodied in the U.S. socioeconomic system. Happiness research is seriously hampered by confusion and (...)
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  36. Theoretical and Methodological Context of (Post)-Modern Econometrics and Competing Philosophical Discourses for Policy Prescription.Emerson Abraham Jackson - 2018 - Journal of Heterodox Economics 4 (2):119-129.
    This research article was championed as a way of providing discourses pertaining to the concept of "Critical Realism (CR)" approach, which is amongst many othe forms of competing postmodern philosophical concepts for the engagement of dialogical discourses in the area of established econonetric methodologies for effective policy prescription in the economic science discipline. On the the whole, there is no doubt surrounding the value of empirical endeavours in econometrics to address real world economic problems, but equally so, the (...)
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  37. Science, Politics, and Morality: Scientific Uncertainty and Decision Making.René von Schomberg (ed.) - 1993 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Current environmental problems and technological risks are a challenge for a new institutional arrangement of the value spheres of Science, Politics and Morality. Distinguished authors from different European countries and America provide a cross-disciplinary perspective on the problems of political decision making under the conditions of scientific uncertainty. cases from biotechnology and the environmental sciences are discussed. The papers collected for this volume address the following themes: (i) controversies about risks and political decision making; (ii) concepts of science (...)
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  38.  25
    Sur les types de problèmes rencontrés en science, en technologie et dans les professions: fondements d’une politique scientifique.Luis Marone - 2020 - Mεtascience 1:105-120.
    La science, la technologie et les professions forment un système de fortes interactions. Pourtant, ces activités s’attaquent à différents types de problèmes qui nécessitent différentes solutions. Les problèmes qui aiguillonnent la recherche scientifique et technologique demeurent insuffisamment résolus ou non résolus, donc leurs possibles solutions doivent être inventées (c.-à-d. qu’elles sont partiellement ou totalement originales) et, par conséquent, elles doivent être testées contre la réalité par les chercheurs avant de les considérer comme vraies ou utiles. Par contre, les problèmes (...)
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  39. High Hume (Bio-power and Bio-policy in Society of Risk).Cheshko Valentin Glazko Valery I. (ed.) - 2009 - Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy.
    Human simultaneously is the acting person of a few autonomous and interdepending forms of evolutional process. Accordingly, it is possible to select three forms of adaptation and three constituents of evolutional strategy of survival of humanity – biological, sociocultural and technological adaptations. The actual and potential consequences of development of so-called High Hume technologies (technologies of the guided evolution)  most essential from major technological adaptations of humanity  are analyzed. The phenomenon of bio-power within the framework of global coevolutional (...)
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  40. Lightning in a Bottle: Complexity, Chaos, and Computation in Climate Science.Jon Lawhead - 2014 - Dissertation, Columbia University
    Climatology is a paradigmatic complex systems science. Understanding the global climate involves tackling problems in physics, chemistry, economics, and many other disciplines. I argue that complex systems like the global climate are characterized by certain dynamical features that explain how those systems change over time. A complex system's dynamics are shaped by the interaction of many different components operating at many different temporal and spatial scales. Examining the multidisciplinary and holistic methods of climatology can help us better understand the (...)
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  41.  10
    Trust and Professionalism in Science: Medical Codes as a Model for Scientific Negligence?Hugh Desmond & Kris Dierickx - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-11.
    Background Professional communities such as the medical community are acutely concerned with negligence: the category of misconduct where a professional does not live up to the standards expected of a professional of similar qualifications. Since science is currently strengthening its structures of self-regulation in parallel to the professions, this raises the question to what extent the scientific community is concerned with negligence, and if not, whether it should be. By means of comparative analysis of medical and scientific codes of (...)
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  42.  50
    The Science of Fascism Within a Democratic Framework: Part 1: Delinearized History of US Presidency.Rafiq Islam - 2020 - International Journal of Political Theory 4 (1):107-129.
    No USA president in history has received as much opposition as Donald Trump has from all three components of the Establishment, namely the financial establishment, the political establishment and the corporate media establishment. The election of Donald Trump to the office of presidency is marked with dozens of historical first events that are anything but lackluster, yet a bleak picture of Fascism has been painted to describe Trump. This is an extraordinary piece of disinformation, as no modern president has been (...)
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  43. Let’s Do Better: Public Representations of COVID-19 Science.Tania Bubela, Timothy Caulfield, Jonathan Kimmelman & Vardit Ravitsky - 2020 - Ottawa, Canada:
    COVID science is being both done and circulated at a furious pace. While it is inspiring to see the research community responding so vigorously to the pandemic crisis, all this activity has also created a churning sea of bad data, conflicting results, and exaggerated headlines. With representations of science becoming increasingly polarized, twisted and hyped, there is growing concern that the relevant science is being represented to the public in a manner that may cause confusion, inappropriate expectations, (...)
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  44.  58
    Prediction, History and Political Science.Robert Northcott - forthcoming - In Harold Kincaid & Jeroen Van Bouwel (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Political Science. Oxford University Press.
    To succeed, political science usually requires either prediction or contextual historical work. Both of these methods favor explanations that are narrow-scope, applying to only one or a few cases. Because of the difficulty of prediction, the main focus of political science should often be contextual historical work. These epistemological conclusions follow from the ubiquity of causal fragility, under-determination, and noise. They tell against several practices that are widespread in the discipline: wide-scope retrospective testing, such as much large-n statistical (...)
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  45.  51
    Doing Science.Fred Grinnell - 2002 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 15 (1-2):204-210.
    In recent decades, postmodernists and sociologists of science have argued that science is just one of many human activities with social and political aims -- comparable to, say, religion or art. They have questioned the objectivity of science, and whether it has any unique ability to find the truth. Not surprisingly, such claims have evoked a negative response from proponents of the traditional view of science; the debate between the two sides has been called the (...) wars. In the debate, scientists have made few attempts to meet the postmodern critique on its own grounds, through serious reflection on the everyday practice of science. Yet that is the only way to understand the nature of science and the features that distinguish science from other activities. (shrink)
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  46. Scrambling for Higher Metrics in the Journal Impact Factor Bubble Period: A Real-World Problem in Science Management and its Implications.Tran Trung, Hoang Khanh Linh, La Viet Phuong, Manh-Toan Ho & Quan-Hoang Vuong - 2020 - Problems and Perspectives in Management 18 (1):48-56.
    Universities and funders in many countries have been using Journal Impact Factor (JIF) as an indicator for research and grant assessment despite its controversial nature as a statistical representation of scientific quality. This study investigates how the changes of JIF over the years can affect its role in research evaluation and science management by using JIF data from annual Journal Citation Reports (JCR) to illustrate the changes. The descriptive statistics find out an increase in the median JIF for the (...)
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  47.  18
    Gay Science: Assisted Reproductive Technologies and the Sexual Orientation of Children.Timothy F. Murphy - 2005 - Reproductive Biomedicine Online 10 (Sup. 1):102-106.
    There are no technologies at the present time that would allow parents to select the sexual orientation of their children. But what if there were? Some commentators believe that parents should be able to use those techniques so long as they are effective and safe. Others believe that these techniques are unethical because of the dangers they pose to homosexual men and women in general. Both sides point to motives and consequences when trying to analyse the ethics of this question. (...)
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  48.  45
    Cultivating Social Science Research in Vietnam: A Case of Collaboration Between a Private Research Institute with International and Domestic Research Entities.Hiep-Hung Pham & Anh-Duc Hoang - 2020 - EdLab Asia Educational Research and Development Centre.
    Developing research groups within universities and science-technology institutions is one topic that gained a special interest in recent times. In this article, we will present our experience of building a research team in the field of Social Science at EdLab Asia Educational Research and Development Centre (EdLab Asia), a young research institute which achieved several initial results after one year of establishment: 14 published works in the journals from Clarivate WOS and Scopus list, between the time from Sept (...)
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  49.  74
    Where is the Epistemic Community? On Democratisation of Science and Social Accounts of Objectivity.Inkeri Koskinen - 2017 - Synthese 194 (12):4671-4686.
    This article focuses on epistemic challenges related to the democratisation of scientific knowledge production, and to the limitations of current social accounts of objectivity. A process of ’democratisation’ can be observed in many scientific and academic fields today. Collaboration with extra-academic agents and the use of extra-academic expertise and knowledge has become common, and researchers are interested in promoting socially inclusive research practices. As this development is particularly prevalent in policy-relevant research, it is important that the new, more democratic (...)
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  50. The Exemplar Approach to Science and Religion.Seungbae Park - 2019 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 6 (2):183–194.
    We can judge whether some activities are scientific or religious, depending on how similar they are to exemplar scientific activities or to exemplar religious activities, even if we cannot specify the necessary and sufficient conditions for science and religion. The absence of the demarcation between science and religion does not justify the school policy of teaching the creationist hypothesis that God created the universe any more than it justifies the religious policy of teaching evolutionary theory, quantum (...)
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