Results for 'underrepresentation of women'

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  1. The Underrepresentation of Women in Prestigious Ethics Journals.Meena Krishnamurthy, Shen‐yi Liao, Monique Deveaux & Maggie Dalecki - 2017 - Hypatia 32 (4):928-939.
    It has been widely reported that women are underrepresented in academic philosophy as faculty and students. This article investigates whether this representation may also occur in the domain of journal article publishing. Our study looked at whether women authors were underrepresented as authors in elite ethics journals — Ethics, Philosophy & Public Affairs, the Journal of Political Philosophy, and the Journal of Moral Philosophy — between 2004-2014, relative to the proportion of women employed in academic ethics (broadly (...)
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  2. Experimental Philosophy and the Underrepresentation of Women.Carrie Figdor & Matt L. Drabek - 2016 - In W. Buckwalter & J. Sytsma (eds.), A Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 590-602.
    This paper summarizes recent and ongoing experimental work regarding the reality, nature, effects, and causes of the underrepresentation of women in academic philosophy. We first present empirical data on several aspects of underrepresentation, and then consider various reasons why this gender imbalance is problematic. We then turn to the published and preliminary results of empirical work aimed at identifying factors that might explain it.
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  3. Quantifying the Gender Gap: An Empirical Study of the Underrepresentation of Women in Philosophy.Molly Paxton, Carrie Figdor & Valerie Tiberius - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (4):949-957.
    The lack of gender parity in philosophy has garnered serious attention recently. Previous empirical work that aims to quantify what has come to be called “the gender gap” in philosophy focuses mainly on the absence of women in philosophy faculty and graduate programs. Our study looks at gender representation in philosophy among undergraduate students, undergraduate majors, graduate students, and faculty. Our findings are consistent with what other studies have found about women faculty in philosophy, but we were able (...)
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  4. Fair Numbers: What Data Can and Cannot Tell Us About the Underrepresentation of Women in Philosophy.Yann Benétreau-Dupin & Guillaume Beaulac - 2015 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 2:59-81.
    The low representation (< 30%) of women in philosophy in English-speaking countries has generated much discussion, both in academic circles and the public sphere. It is sometimes suggested (Haslanger 2009) that unconscious biases, acting at every level in the field, may be grounded in gendered schemas of philosophers and in the discipline more widely, and that actions to make philosophy a more welcoming place for women should address such schemas. However, existing data are too limited to fully warrant (...)
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  5.  63
    Pre-College Causes of Women's Underrepresentation in Philosophy.Christopher Dobbs - 2015 - Dissertation, Georgia State University
    Recent work on women’s underrepresentation in philosophy has focused on a distinction between “in class” and “pre-university” effects as the primary cause of women’s underrepresentation in philosophy. This paper reports from a large dataset from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program that shows that, of the American students that intended to major in philosophy before they started college, about two-thirds are men. This lends credence to the pre-university effects explanation for women’s underrepresentation in philosophy. This (...)
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  6.  90
    Evidence Supporting Pre‐University Effects Hypotheses of Women's Underrepresentation in Philosophy.Christopher Dobbs - 2017 - Hypatia 32 (4):940-945.
    In this short essay, I report results from a representative national dataset from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program that shows that significantly more men than women intend to major in philosophy at the high-school and pre-university level. This lends credence to pre-university effects hypotheses of women's underrepresentation in philosophy and successfully replicates a smaller analysis performed by Cheshire Calhoun at Colby College in 2009. I also defend my analysis against an objection that claims that intention to major (...)
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  7. Do Men and Women Have Different Philosophical Intuitions? Further Data.Toni Adleberg, Morgan Thompson & Eddy Nahmias - 2015 - Philosophical Psychology 28 (5):615-641.
    To address the underrepresentation of women in philosophy effectively, we must understand the causes of the early loss of women. In this paper we challenge one of the few explanations that has focused on why women might leave philosophy at early stages. Wesley Buckwalter and Stephen Stich offer some evidence that women have different intuitions than men about philosophical thought experiments. We present some concerns about their evidence and we discuss our own study, in which (...)
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  8. Leaky Pipeline Myths: In Search of Gender Effects on the Job Market and Early Career Publishing in Philosophy (Draft).Sean Allen-Hermanson - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
    That philosophy is an outlier in the humanities when it comes to the underrepresentation of women has been the occasion for much discussion about possible effects of subtle forms of prejudice, including implicit bias and stereotype threat. While these ideas have become familiar to the philosophical community, there has only recently been a surge of interest in acquiring field-specific data. This paper adds to quantitative findings bearing on hypotheses about the effects of unconscious prejudice on two important stages (...)
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  9. Implicit Bias and the Idealized Rational Self.Nora Berenstain - 2018 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 5:445-485.
    The underrepresentation of women, people of color, and especially women of color—and the corresponding overrepresentation of white men—is more pronounced in philosophy than in many of the sciences. I suggest that part of the explanation for this lies in the role played by the idealized rational self, a concept that is relatively influential in philosophy but rarely employed in the sciences. The idealized rational self models the mind as consistent, unified, rationally transcendent, and introspectively transparent. I hypothesize (...)
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  10. Philosophy’s gender gap and argumentative arena: an empirical study.Moti Mizrahi & Michael Adam Dickinson - 2022 - Synthese 200 (2):1-34.
    While the empirical evidence pointing to a gender gap in professional, academic philosophy in the English-speaking world is widely accepted, explanations of this gap are less so. In this paper, we aim to make a modest contribution to the literature on the gender gap in academic philosophy by taking a quantitative, corpus-based empirical approach. Since some philosophers have suggested that it may be the argumentative, “logic-chopping,” and “paradox-mongering” nature of academic philosophy that explains the underrepresentation of women in (...)
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  11. IMPLICIT BIAS, STEREOTYPE THREAT, AND POLITICAL CORRECTNESS IN PHILOSOPHY.Sean Allen-Hermanson - 2017 - Philosophies 2 (2).
    This paper offers an unorthodox appraisal of empirical research bearing on the question of the low representation of women in philosophy. It contends that fashionable views in the profession concerning implicit bias and stereotype threat are weakly supported, that philosophers often fail to report the empirical work responsibly, and that the standards for evidence are set very low—so long as you take a certain viewpoint.
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  12. The Intellectual Capacity of Women.David Stove - 1990 - Proceedings of the Russellian Society 15:1-16.
    I BELIEVE THAT the intellectual capacity of women is on the whole inferior to that of men. By "on the whole," I do not mean just "on the average"; though I do mean that much. My belief is, if you take any degree of intellectual capacity which is above the average for the human race, as a whole, then a possessor of that degree of intellectual capacity is a good deal more likely to be man than a woman.
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  13. Contested Terrains of Women of Color and Third World Women.Saba Fatima, Kristie Dotson, Ranjoo Seodu Herr, Serene J. Khader & Stella Nyanzi - 2017 - Hypatia 32 (3):731-742.
    This piece contextualizes a discussion by liminal feminists on the identifiers ‘women of color’ and ‘Third World women’ that emerged from some uncomfortable and constructive conversations at the 2015 FEAST conference. I focus on concerns of marginalization and gatekeeping that are far too often reiterated within the uneasy racial dynamics among feminist philosophers.
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  14.  53
    ROLE OF WOMEN IN ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY AND CONSERVATION IN INDIA.Rashmee Yadav - 2020 - In A. K. Verma (ed.), ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY. Prayagraj: Government P.G. College Saidabad, Prayagraj (U.P.). pp. 252-256.
    Women are significant actors in natural resources management and they are major contributors to environment rehabilitation and conservation. Women are not only knowledgeable about the environment; they are also protective and caring. Women being primarily responsible for domestic and household management interact more intensively with both the natural and built environment. This study was carried out on role of women in environmental security in India with the objective to socio-economic status of women.
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  15. Prestige Bias: An Obstacle to a Just Academic Philosophy.Helen De Cruz - 2018 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 5.
    This paper examines the role of prestige bias in shaping academic philosophy, with a focus on its demographics. I argue that prestige bias exacerbates the structural underrepresentation of minorities in philosophy. It works as a filter against (among others) philosophers of color, women philosophers, and philosophers of low socio-economic status. As a consequence of prestige bias our judgments of philosophical quality become distorted. I outline ways in which prestige bias in philosophy can be mitigated.
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  16. Portrayal of Women in Indian Mass Media:An Investigation.Himashree Patowary - 2014 - Journal of Education and Social Policy 1 (1):84-92.
    Media's role towards women is becoming the growing concern of the feminist writers, basically regarding participation, performances and portrayal of women. Because different circumstances relating to media's role towards portraying the fair sex have opened up a new angle by leaps and bounds to think precisely about it.
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  17.  47
    The Pattern of Women's Reliance on Family Planning Providers in Egypt.Hassan H. M. Zaky - manuscript
    Understanding choice of family planning provider is fundamental for policy makers and program managers as they seek ways to both improve the coverage and increase the sustainability and efficiency of family planning services for Egypt to achieve its population objectives. This study focuses first on providing a descriptive profile of the patterns of reliance on sources of family planning services during the early 2000s. Binomial logit models are then estimated to obtain a more in depth understanding of the determinants of (...)
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  18.  68
    Status of Women in Sikh Theology.Devinder Pal Singh - 2021 - The Sikh Bulletin 23 (1):34.
    Women represent half of all humanity, yet they continue to face discrimination in various parts of the world. The feminist movement has done much to lessen gender discrimination in western societies. However, women in much of the world still face severe difficulties, such as violence, illiteracy, economic and social deprivation. It is increasingly recognized that better education and economic empowerment of women can play a significant role in uplifting the economic level of impoverished areas of the world (...)
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  19. Women and the Knife: Cosmetic Surgery and the Colonization of Women's Bodies.Kathryn Pauly Morgan - 1991 - Hypatia 6 (3):25 - 53.
    The paper identifies the phenomenal rise of increasingly invasive forms of elective cosmetic surgery targeted primarily at women and explores its significance in the context of contemporary biotechnology. A Foucauldian analysis of the significance of the normalization of technologized women's bodies is argued for. Three "Paradoxes of Choice" affecting women who "elect" cosmetic surgery are examined. Finally, two utopian feminist political responses are discussed: a Response of Refusal and a Response of Appropriation.
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  20.  58
    Sexual Refusal: The Fragility of Women’s Authority.Elinor Mason - forthcoming - Hypatia.
    I expand on and defend a particular account of silencing that has been identified by Mary Kate McGowan. She suggests that one sort of silencing occurs when men do not think that women have the authority to refuse. I develop this proposal, arguing that it is usefully distinct from other forms of silencing, which attribute a radical misunderstanding to the perpetrator. Authority silencing, by contrast, allows that the perpetrator understands that the woman is trying to refuse. I examine the (...)
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  21. Potentiality of Women Unveiled: Microfinance...... A Study on Gobardhana Block of Barpeta District, Assam.Bhabananda Deb Nath - 2012 - Pratidhwani the Echo (I):31-44.
    Privation of exposure, women cluster of our society were ignored, their potentiality and credentials never note-of for productive utilization, thus, their qualities remains unveiled. The SHG movement of microfinance (mF),bring an exception and has able to reach all over the world for her easy factors of financing , where women occupied the major share, as such, the entrepreneurial and other potentialities of this neglected cluster, become a case of concern. Same instance is in the Gobardhana Block, where woman’s (...)
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  22. Texts Less Travelled: The Case of Women Philosophers.Tove Pettersen - 2017 - In Isis Herrero Lópes, Johanna Akujarvi, Cecilia Alvstad & Synnøve Lindtner (eds.), Gender and Translation: Understanding Agents in Transnational Reception. York University: pp. 153-178.
    This chapter discusses several possible reasons why works by women philosophers have traveled significantly less than those written by men, although women’s contributions go back to the start of European history of philosophy. Differentiating between geographic, linguistic, historic and philosophical travels, Tove Pettersen claims that gender is particularly significant with regard to historical and philosophical traveling. As the case of women philosophers clearly demonstrate, gender hampers the circulation of certain texts and inhibit transhistorical exchange of knowledge and (...)
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  23. ‘Am I That Name?’: Feminism and the Category of ‘Women’ in History.Denise Riley - 1988 - Springer.
    Writing about changes in the notion of womanhood, Denise Riley examines, in the manner of Foucault, shifting historical constructions of the category of "women" in relation to other categories central to concepts of personhood: the soul, the mind, the body, nature, the social. Feminist movements, Riley argues, have had no choice but to play out this indeterminacy of women. This is made plain in their oscillations, since the 1790s, between concepts of equality and of difference. To fully recognize (...)
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  24. Diversifying science: comparing the benefits of citizen science with the benefits of bringing more women into science.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2022 - Synthese 200 (4):1-20.
    I compare two different arguments for the importance of bringing new voices into science: arguments for increasing the representation of women, and arguments for the inclusion of the public, or for “citizen science”. I suggest that in each case, diversifying science can improve the quality of scientific results in three distinct ways: epistemically, ethically, and politically. In the first two respects, the mechanisms are essentially the same. In the third respect, the mechanisms are importantly different. Though this might appear (...)
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  25.  97
    An Empirical Study on Socio-Economic Status of Women Labor in Rice Husking Mill of Bangladesh.Riffat Ara Zannat Tama, Liu Ying, Fardous Ara Happy & Md Mahmudul Hoque - 2018 - South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics 2 (2):1-9.
    The economy of Bangladesh mainly depends on agriculture. Any development can’t be possible because females and males are equally distributed in the country. Women can play a vital role if they properly participated in farm activities as well as in other income-generating activities outside the home. Rice mills are very much dependent on human labour, and almost 5 millions of unorganised workers are working in different rice mills, and more than 60 per cent of them is a female worker. (...)
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  26. Women in Philosophy: The Costs of Exclusion—Editor's Introduction.Alison Wylie - 2011 - Hypatia 26 (2):374-382.
    Philosophy has the dubious distinction of attracting and retaining proportionally fewer women than any other field in the humanities, indeed, fewer than in all but the most resolutely male-dominated of the sciences. This short article introduces a thematic cluster that brings together five short essays that probe the reasons for and the effects of these patterns of exclusion, not just of women but of diverse peoples of all kinds in Philosophy. It summarizes some of the demographic measures of (...)
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  27. Rousseau on the Education, Domination and Violation of Women.John Darling & Maaike Van De Pijpekamp - 1994 - British Journal of Educational Studies 42 (2):115 - 132.
    This article argues that Rousseau's endorsement of male domination and his illiberal views of rape, punishment and the education of women have been seriously underestimated by twentieth century commentators who tend to produce expoisitions of his work that evade, ignore or marginalise this 'darker side' of his educational philosophy.
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  28.  31
    Plato on the Social Role of Women: Critical Reflections.Irina Deretić - 2013 - International Journal Skepsis 1 (XXIII):152-168.
    Plato was the first philosopher who gave an account for the highly controversial claim that both genders are principally equal in respect to their talents and abilities. Consequently, one may advocate the thesis that in Plato’s view, the gender differences are rather the outcomes of social, cultural and political influences, than of natural factors. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the meaning and validity of Plato’s arguments for the gender equality in the Republic, which will be supplemented with (...)
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  29. A Study of Women Self-Help Group Members in North District of Tripura, India.Biplab Kumar Dey - 2014 - SOCRATES 2 (1):120-133.
    The study attempted to analyze the reasons for joining SHG’s, socioeconomic condition of women self-help group members before and after joining the SHGs and their satisfaction level. For the analysis, primary data collected from 120 women SHG members of north district, Tripura. The chisquare test is used as statistical tools for analyzing the data and testing the hypothesis. The hypothetical analysis shows that there is no significant relationship between the age, profession, income level and level of satisfaction. But (...)
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  30. Controversial Role of Women Notepad in the Industry of Arab History.Abduljaleel Alwali - 2018 - Arabic Scientific Heritage Journal 4 (39):69-94.
    The leadership of women thought has been one of the topics that did not interest to researchers as other women topics such as Beauty, Equality and Gender. The thought has different value of human activities. It has two parties, personal and subject, and it needs a capacity distinct. The question arises whether human beings different among themselves in the intellectual capacity? This question is discussed in this paper by followup the history of women thinkers, models and their (...)
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  31. "Opinio Copiae Inter Maximas Causas Inopiae Est": On Mistranslating a Latin Quotation in Mill's The Subjection of Women.David Riesbeck - 2017 - Reason Papers 39 (1):137-142.
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  32. Under Western Eyes: On Farris's In the Name of Women's Rights.Baraneh Emadian - 2019 - Critique: Journal of Socialist Theory 47 (1):143-158.
    This essay reflects upon the category of femonationalism as theorised in Sara Farris's book, In the Name of Women's Rights: The Rise of Femonationalism, with a focus on her critique of theories of populism. Farris's approach, it is argued, productively pinpoints the exceptional position of Muslim and non-western migrant women in the reproduction of the material conditions of social reproduction in western Europe. However, the force of Farris's Marxist theorisation of femonationalism is partly undermined by the absence of (...)
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  33. Revolutionizing Agency: Sameness and Difference in the Representation of Women by Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain and Mahasweta Devi.Prasita Mukherjee - 2012 - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 2 (1):117-128.
    In this paper the sameness and difference between two distinguished Indian authors, Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain (1880–1932) and Mahasweta Devi (b. 1926), representing two generations almost a century apart, will be under analysis in order to trace the generational transformation in women’s writing in India, especially Bengal. Situated in the colonial and postcolonial frames of history, Hossain and Mahasweta Devi may be contextualized differently. At the same time their subjects are also differently categorized; the former is not particularly concerned with (...)
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  34. Women of Color Structural Feminisms.Elena Ruíz - forthcoming - In Shirley-Anne Tate (ed.), The Palgrave Handbook on Critical Race And Gender.
    One way to track the many critical impacts of women of color feminisms is through the powerful structural analyses of gendered and racialized oppression they offer. This article discusses diverse lineages of women of color feminisms in the global South that tackle systemic structures of power and domination from their situated perspectives. It offers an introduction to structuralist theories in the humanities and differentiates them from women of color feminist theorizing, which begins analyses of structures from embodied (...)
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  35. Women and Logic: What Can Women’s Studies Contribute to the History of Formal Logic?Andrea Reichenberger & Karin Beiküfner - 2019 - Transversal. International Journal for the Historiography of Science 6:6-14.
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  36. "Trans Women and the Meaning of ‘Woman’".Talia Mae Bettcher - 2013 - In A. Soble, N. Power & R. Halwani (eds.), Philosophy of Sex: Contemporary Readings, Sixth Edition. Rowan & Littlefield. pp. 233-250.
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  37.  83
    An Analytical Account of Women Discrimination in the Society and Church and its Positive Effects of Women Being Recognized as Equal.Paul N. Rengma - manuscript
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  38.  71
    Review of Feminism and Contemporary Art: The Revolutionary Power of Women's Laughter and The Emptiness of the Image: Psychoanalysis and Sexual Differences. [REVIEW]Peg Brand Weiser, Jo Anna Isaak & Parveen Adams - 1998 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 56 (3):299.
    Both books published in 1996 explore the role that gender plays in the psychology of art (dealing with both making and viewing), complicating current philosophical distinctions between the aesthetic and the cognitive, and providing new insights into basic topics in the history and psychology of perception, representation, and disinterestedness.
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  39. Women of Color and Philosophy.Alison Bailey - 2005 - Hypatia 20 (1):220-225.
    Book Review of Naomi Zack's Women of Color and Philosophy.
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  40.  47
    A Paradox of Surprising Female Underrepresentation in Analytic Philosophy.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    In this paper, I raise and respond to the question of why females are underrepresented in parts of philosophy which one might classify as feminine.
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  41.  24
    Explaining Underrepresentation, Then and Now.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    I respond to a list of hypotheses explaining why female undergraduates leave philosophy by drawing attention to the period at which we are at and how it affects the task of explanation. I actually focus on ethnic minority underrepresentation, but what I say crosses over: undergraduates one is hoping to attract might well think, “There has to be some problem if these are the proportions at this stage.”.
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  42.  36
    Muslim Women and the Rhetoric of Freedom.Alia Al-Saji - 2009 - In Mariana Ortega & Linda Martín Alcoff (eds.), Constructing the Nation: A Race and Nationalism Reader. SUNY Press.
    I argue that representations of the Muslim woman in the Western imaginary function as counter-images to the patriarchal ideal of Western woman. Drawing upon the work of Frantz Fanon (and supplementing it with a consideration of the role of gender), I show how the image of the veiled, Muslim woman is both othered and racialized. This “double othering,” I argue, serves: (i) To normalize Western norms of femininity. The social control of women and their bodies by liberal society is (...)
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  43. Barriers and Biases: Under-Representation of Women in Top Leadership Positions in Higher Education in Tanzania.Watende Pius Nyoni & Chen He - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research (IJAMR) 3 (5):20-25.
    Abstract: This article mainly intends to identify barriers that cause the under-representation of women in top leadership positions in higher education in Tanzania. The study comprises the sample of 250 respondents with the use of a case study research design constructed on the application of mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative). Thus, non-probability sampling was applied to qualitative data collection while probability sampling was used in quantitative data. The findings show the fundamental relationship between individual, administrative and societal factors that (...)
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  44.  13
    Underrepresentation and the Hostile Atmosphere Hypothesis: A Distinction.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    Why are some disciplines lacking in members from certain groups, for example why has there been female underrepresentation in English-speaking analytic philosophy or a shortage of ethnic minorities? In this paper, I distinguish between two versions of the hostile atmosphere hypothesis.
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  45.  43
    Women in the History of Analytic Philosophy.Jeanne Peijnenburg & Sander Verhaegh (eds.) - forthcoming - Cham: Springer.
    This book contains a selection of papers from the workshop *Women in the History of Analytic Philosophy* held in October 2019 in Tilburg, the Netherlands. It is the first volume devoted to the role of women in early analytic philosophy. It discusses the ideas of ten female philosophers and covers a period of over a hundred years, beginning with the contribution to the Significs Movement by Victoria, Lady Welby in the second half of the nineteenth century, and ending (...)
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  46.  93
    Negotiating “women”: metalinguistic negotiations across languages.Knoll Viktoria - 2022 - Synthese 200 (4):1-20.
    The metalinguistic approach to conceptual engineering construes disputes between linguistic reformers and linguistic conservatives as metalinguistic disagreements on how best to use particular expressions. As the present paper argues, this approach has various merits. However, it was recently criticised in Cappelen’s seminal Fixing Language. Cappelen raises an important objection against the metalinguistic picture. According to this objection – the Babel objection, as I shall call it – the metalinguistic account cannot accommodate the intuition of disagreement between linguistic conservatives and reformers (...)
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  47. Empowerment of Indigenous Women and Social Exclusion in Combating Poverty in the State of Veracruz Mexico.Carlos Medel-Ramírez, Hilario Medel-López & Juan Ruiz-Ramírez - 2017 - International Journal of Advanced Research 5 (2): 2091-2106.
    In Mexico, the Productive Organization Program for Indigenous Women (POPMI) seeks the empowerment of productive capacities in indigenous women. Our study analyzes POPMI outreach, focusing our attention on women beneficiaries who present a high degree of social exclusion and multidimensional poverty in the State of Veracruz. In the study area, the 542 indigenous women benefited in POPMI, presented a condition of multidimensional poverty and a degree of social exclusion: very high, high and medium, they represent only (...)
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  48. Hermeneutic Labor: The Gendered Burden of Interpretation in Intimate Relationships Between Women and Men.Ellie Anderson - forthcoming - Hypatia.
    In recent years, feminist scholarship on emotional labor has proliferated. I identify a related but distinct form of care labor, hermeneutic labor. Hermeneutic labor is the burdensome activity of: understanding and coherently expressing one’s own feelings, desires, intentions, and movitations; discerning those of others; and inventing solutions for relational issues arising from interpersonal tensions. I argue that hermeneutic labor disproportionately falls on women’s shoulders in heteropatriachal societies, especially in intimate relationships between women and men. I also suggest that (...)
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  49. Are women adult human females?Alex Byrne - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (12):3783-3803.
    Are women (simply) adult human females? Dictionaries suggest that they are. However, philosophers who have explicitly considered the question invariably answer no. This paper argues that they are wrong. The orthodox view is that the category *woman* is a social category, like the categories *widow* and *police officer*, although exactly what this social category consists in is a matter of considerable disagreement. In any event, orthodoxy has it that *woman* is definitely not a biological category, like the categories *amphibian* (...)
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  50. Loose Women, Lecherous Men: A Feminist Philosophy of Sex. [REVIEW]Alan Soble - 1999 - Teaching Philosophy 22 (4):411-416.
    A review of Loose Women, Lecherous Men, by Linda LeMoncheck.
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