Virtue Ethics

Edited by Jason Kawall (Colgate University)
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  1. Assessing Technoscientism: Body Enhancement, Human Experience, and the Missing 'Technomoral' Virtue.Marco Stango & David Agler - 2018 - Sociología y Tecnociencia 8 (1):43-59.
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  2. Exemplarism in Moral Education: Problems with Applicability and Indoctrination.Michel Croce - 2019 - Journal of Moral Education 48 (3):291-302.
    This article introduces an account of moral education grounded in Zagzebski’s recent Exemplarist Moral Theory and discusses two problems that have to be solved for the account to become a realistic alternative to other educational models on the market, namely the limited-applicability problem and the problem of indoctrination. The first problem raises worries about the viability of the account in ordinary circumstances. The second charges the proposed educational model with indoctrinating students. The main goal of this article is to show (...)
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  3. Ressentiment.Andrew Huddleston - manuscript
    In his On the Genealogy of Morality Nietzsche famously discusses a psychological condition he calls ressentiment, a form of toxic, vengeful anger. In this paper, I offer a free-standing theory in philosophical psychology of what is characteristic of this state. My view takes some inspiration from Nietzsche, but this paper will not be a work of exegesis. In the process of developing my account, I will try to chart the terrain around ressentiment and closely-related and sometimes overlapping states (ordinary moral (...)
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  4. Finding Middle Ground Between Intellectual Arrogance and Intellectual Servility: Development and Assessment of the Limitations-Owning Intellectual Humility Scale.Daniel Howard-Snyder - 2018 - Personality and Individual Differences 124:184-193.
    Recent scholarship in intellectual humility (IH) has attempted to provide deeper understanding of the virtue as personality trait and its impact on an individual's thoughts, beliefs, and actions. A limitations-owning perspective of IH focuses on a proper recognition of the impact of intellectual limitations and a motivation to overcome them, placing it as the mean between intellectual arrogance and intellectual servility. We developed the Limitations-Owning Intellectual Humility Scale to assess this conception of IH with related personality constructs. In Studies 1 (...)
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  5. The Puzzle of Humility and Disparity.Dennis Whitcomb, Heather Battaly, Jason Baehr & Daniel Howard-Snyder - forthcoming - In Mark Alfano, Michael Lynch & Alessandra Tanesini (eds.), Handbook on the Philosophy of Humility. Routledge.
    Suppose that you are engaging with someone who is your oppressor, or someone who espouses a heinous view like Nazism or a ridiculous view like flat-earthism. In contexts like these, there is a disparity between you and your interlocutor, a dramatic normative difference across which you are in the right and they are in the wrong. As theorists of humility, we find these contexts puzzling. Humility seems like the *last* thing oppressed people need and the *last* thing we need in (...)
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  6. Is Self-Regulation a Burden or a Virtue? A Comparative Perspective.Hagop Sarkissian - 2014 - In Nancy Snow & Franco V. Trivigno (eds.), The Philosophy and Psychology of Character and Happiness: An Empirical Approach to Character and Happiness. New York, NY, USA: pp. 181-196.
    Confucianism demands that individuals comport themselves according to the strictures of ritual propriety—specific forms of speech, clothing, and demeanor attached to a vast array of life circumstances. This requires self-regulation, a cognitive resource of limited supply. When this resource is depleted, a person can experience undesirable consequences such as social isolation and alienation. However, one’s cultural background may be an important mediator of such costs; East Asians, in particular, seem to have comparatively greater self-regulatory strength. I offer some considerations as (...)
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  7. An Inquiry Into the Relationship Between Public Participation and Moral Education in Contemporary Japan: Who Decides Your Way of Life?Koji Tachibana - 2008 - In Kohji Ishihara & Shunzo Majima (eds.), Applied Ethics: Perspectives from Asia and Beyond. Hokkaido: Hokkaido University. pp. 26-39.
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  8. Review of Michael Sandel's What Money Can't Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2012, 256 Pp. [REVIEW]Thomas R. Wells - 2014 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 7 (1):138-149.
    Michael Sandel’s latest book is not a scholarly work but is clearly intended as a work of public philosophy—a contribution to public rather than academic discourse. The book makes two moves. The first, which takes up most of it, is to demonstrate by means of a great many examples, mostly culled from newspaper stories, that markets and money corrupt—degrade—the goods they are used to allocate. The second follows from the first as Sandel’s proposed solution: we as a society should deliberate (...)
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  9. Moral Advance and Moral Risk -- A Mengzian Reflection.L. K. Gustin Law - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy.
    On one view of moral development, someone not yet virtuous can reliably progress by engaging in what meaningfully resembles virtuous conduct. However, one may also morally degrade from such an attempt precisely because of the way in which one's character still falls short of virtue. This risk of degradation casts doubt on the developmental view. I counter the doubt by refining the developmental view through interpretation and application of the Mengzi. In passage 2A2, invoking the image of a farmer who (...)
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  10. Is Human Virtue a Civic Virtue? A Reading of Aristotle's Politics 3.4.Lok-Chun K. Gustin Law - 2017 - In Aristotle's Practical Philosophy: On the Relationship between His Ethics and Politics. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 93-118.
    Is the virtue of the good citizen the same as the virtue of the good man? Aristotle addresses this in Politics 3.4. His answer is twofold. On the one hand, (the account for Difference) they are not the same both because what the citizen’s virtue is depends on the constitution, on what preserves it, and on the role the citizen plays in it, and because the good citizens in the best constitution cannot all be good men, whereas the good man’s (...)
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  11. The Suberogation Problem for Zhong’s Confucian Virtue Theory of Supererogation.Tsung-Hsing Ho - forthcoming - Philosophy East and West.
    The supererogation problem is that a virtue theory of right action faces difficulty in distinguishing between obligation and supererogation. Lei Zhong (2016) proposes a Confucian virtue theory of supererogation, which solves the supererogation problem nicely. Nevertheless, I argue that Zhong’s theory runs into the suberogation problem.
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  12. Virtue and Asceticism.Brian Besong - 2019 - Philosophy 94 (1):115-138.
    Although one can find a robust philosophical tradition supporting asceticism in the West, from ancient Greece to at least early modernity, very little attention has been paid to what motivated this broad support. Instead, following criticism from figures such as Hume, Voltaire, Bentham, and Nietzsche, asceticism has been largely disregarded as either eccentric or uniquely religious. In this paper, I provide what I take to be the core moral argument that motivated many philosophical ascetics. In brief, acts of deliberate self-denial (...)
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  13. Angelique: An Angel in Distress, Morality in Crisis.Necip Fikri Alican - 2018 - Dialogue and Universalism 28 (2):9–48.
    Michael H. Mitias argues that friendship is a central moral value constituting an integral part of the good life and therefore deserving a prominent place in ethical theory. He consequently calls upon ethicists to make immediate and decisive adjustments toward accommodating what he regards as a neglected organic relationship between friendship and morality. This is not a fanciful amendment to our standard conception of morality but a radical proposal grounded in a unifying vision to recapture the right way of doing (...)
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  14. The Morally Difficult Notion of Heaven.Amir Saemi - 2018 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 92 (3):429-444.
    I will argue that Avicenna’s and Aquinas’s faith-based virtue ethics are crucially different from Aristotle’s virtue ethics, in that their ethics hinges on the theological notion of heaven, which is constitutively independent of the ethical life of the agent. As a result, their faith-based virtue ethics is objectionable. Moreover, I will also argue that the notion of heaven that Avicenna and Aquinas deploy in their moral philosophy is problematic; for it can rationally permit believers to commit morally horrendous actions. Finally, (...)
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  15. Swanton, Christine. The Virtue Ethics of Hume and Nietzsche.Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2015. Pp. 248. $99.95.Mark Alfano - 2016 - Ethics 126 (4):1120-1124.
    This book has a noble aim: to free virtue ethics from the grip of the neo- Aristotelianism that limits its scope in contemporary Anglophone philosophy. Just as there are deontological views that are not Kant’s or even Kantian, just as there are consequentialist views that are not Bentham’s or even utilitarian, so, Swanton contends, there are viable virtue ethical views that are not Aristotle’s or even Aristotelian. Indeed, the history of both Eastern and Western philosophy suggests that the majority of (...)
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  16. The Ethics of Border Guarding: A First Exploration and a Research Agenda for the Future.Peter Olsthoorn - 2018 - Ethics and Education 13 (2):157-171.
    Although the notion of universal human rights allows for the idea that states (and supranational organizations such as the European Union) can, or even should, control and impose restrictions on migration, both notions clearly do not sit well together. The ensuing tension manifests itself in our ambivalent attitude towards migration, but also affects the border guards who have to implement national and supranational policies on migration. Little has been written on the ethics that has to guide these border guards in (...)
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  17. On Luck, the Attribute.Paul Bali - manuscript
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  18. Natureza humana, dever moral e finalidade do Estado em Maquiavel.José Luiz Ames - 2006 - Reflexão 31 (90):63-70.
    Partimos do estudo na noção de homem presente no pensamento de Maquiavel para estabelecer a idéia de Estado e sua relação com a ética. Existe, quanto a esta questão, uma vasta polêmica na tradição interpretativa e que podemos reduzir a duas perspectivas fundamentais. Primeira: Maquiavel compreende a natureza humana como corrompida de forma definitiva, o que transforma o Estado em instrumento puramente coator da malevolência humana. Nesta ótica, não há espaço para pensar em finalidades éticas do Estado. Segunda: mesmo partindo (...)
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  19. Punishment (an Introductory Socratic Dialogue).Brent Silby - manuscript
    In this modern Socratic dialogue, Socrates discusses the nature of punishment with a friend who believes that criminals are dealt with too softly. Socrates argues that retributive punishment is unjust.
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  20. Nature and the Good: An Exploration of Ancient Ethical Naturalism in Cicero’s De Finibus.Juan Pablo Bermúdez-Rey - 2011 - Pensamiento y Cultura 14 (2):145-163.
    This paper investigates the differences between ancient Greek and modern ethical naturalism, through the account of the whole classical tradition provided by Cicero in De finibus bonorum et malorum. Ever since Hume’s remarks on the topic, it is usually held that derivations of normative claims from factual claims require some kind of proper justification. It ́s a the presence of such justifications in the Epicurean, Stoic, and Academic-Peripatetic ethical theories (as portrayed in De finibus), and, after a negative conclusion, I (...)
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  21. The Virtues of Sharing.Nancy J. Matchett - 1998 - Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park
    In "The Virtues of Sharing" I defend two central theses: that sharing is our most overarching ethical ideal, and that virtue ethics is able to serve as a comprehensive and free-standing approach to moral theory. My arguments for these theses are intertwined, because they are also designed to show how a virtue-ethical theory that treats the "Will to Share" as the basis of moral agency helps to resolve the contemporary Justice/Care Debate.
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  22. Honor in Political and Moral Philosophy.Peter Olsthoorn - 2015 - State University of New York Press.
    In this history of the development of ideas of honor in Western philosophy, Peter Olsthoorn examines what honor is, how its meaning has changed, and whether it can still be of use. Political and moral philosophers from Cicero to John Stuart Mill thought that a sense of honor and concern for our reputation could help us to determine the proper thing to do, and just as important, provide us with the much-needed motive to do it. Today, outside of the military (...)
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Varieties of Virtue Ethics
  1. Saving the Contingent. A Dialogue Between Iris Murdoch and Aquinas.Maria S. Vaccarezza - 2016 - New Blackfriars 97 (1067):22-38.
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  2. Moderation in Greek and Islamic Traditions and a Virtue Ethics of the Quran.M. Ashraf Adeel - 2015 - AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ISLAMIC SOCIAL SCIENCES 32 (3).
    This article looks at some of the salient analyses of moderation in the ancient Greek and the Islamic traditions and uses them to develop a contemporary view of the matter. Greek ethics played a huge role in shaping the ethical views of the Muslim philosophers and theologians, and thus the article starts with an overview of the revival of contemporary western virtue ethics--in many ways an extension of Platonic-Aristotelian ethics--and then looks at the place of moderation or temperance in Platonic-Aristotelian (...)
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  3. Virtue Ethics Without Right Action: Anscombe, Foot, and Contemporary Virtue Ethics. [REVIEW]John Hacker-Wright - 2010 - Journal of Value Inquiry 44 (2):209-224.
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Agent-Based Virtue Ethics
  1. Common-Sense Virtue Ethics and Moral Luck.Nafsika Athanassoulis - 2005 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 8 (3):265-276.
    Moral luck poses a problem for out conception of responsibility because it highlights a tension between morality and lack of control. Michael Slote’s common-sense virtue ethics claims to avoid this problem. However there are a number of objections to this claim. Firstly, it is not clear that Slote fully appreciates the problem posed by moral luck. Secondly, Slote’s move from the moral to the ethical is problematic. Thirdly it is not clear why we should want to abandon judgements of moral (...)
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  2. Taking Seriously the Challenges of Agent-Centered Morality.Hye-Ryoung Kang - 2011 - JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL WONKWANG CULTURE 2 (1):43-56.
    Agent-centered morality has been a serious challenge to ethical theories based on agent-neutral morality in defining what is the moral point of view. In this paper, my concern is to examine whether arguments for agent-centered morality, in particular, arguments for agent-centered option, can be justified. -/- After critically examining three main arguments for agent-centered morality, I will contend that although there is a ring of truth in the demands of agent-centered morality, agent-centered morality is more problematic than agent-neutral morality. Nevertheless, (...)
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  3. An Enchanting Abundance of Types: Nietzsche’s Modest Unity of Virtue Thesis.Mark Alfano - 2015 - Journal of Value Inquiry 49 (3):417-435.
    Although Nietzsche accepted a distant cousin of Brian Leiter’s “Doctrine of Types,” according to which, “Each person has a fixed psycho-physical constitution, which defines him as a particular type of person,” the details of his actual view are quite different from the flat-footed position Leiter attributes to him. Leiter argues that Nietzsche thought that type-facts partially explain the beliefs and actions, including moral beliefs and actions, of the person whom those type-facts characterize. With this much, I agree. However, the Doctrine (...)
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  4. Qualified Agent and Agent-Based Virtue Ethics and the Problems of Right Action.Jason Kawall - 2014 - In Stan van Hooft & Nafsika Athanassoulis (eds.), The Handbook of Virtue Ethics. Acumen Publishing.
    An on-going question for virtue ethics is whether it stands as a truly distinctive approach to ethics. In particular, there has been much discussion of whether virtue ethics can provide a viable understanding of right action, one that is a genuine rival to familiar consequentialist and deontological accounts. In this chapter I examine two prominent approaches to virtue ethics, (i) qualified agent and (ii) agent-based virtue ethics, and consider whether either can provide an adequate account of right action. I begin (...)
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  5. Nietzsche's Moral Psychology.Mark Alfano - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    Introduction -/- 1 Précis -/- 2 Methodology: Introducing digital humanities to the history of philosophy 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Core constructs 2.3 Operationalizing the constructs 2.4 Querying the Nietzsche Source 2.5 Cleaning the data 2.6 Visualizations and preliminary analysis 2.6.1 Visualization of the whole corpus 2.6.2 Book visualizations 2.7 Summary -/- Nietzsche’s Socio-Moral Framework -/- 3 From instincts and drives to types 3.1 Introduction 3.2 The state of the art on drives, instincts, and types 3.2.1 Drives 3.2.2 Instincts 3.2.3 Types 3.3 (...)
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  6. Recent Work in Applied Virtue Ethics.Guy Axtell & Philip Olson - 2012 - American Philosophical Quarterly 49 (3):183-204.
    The use of the term "applied ethics" to denote a particular field of moral inquiry (distinct from but related to both normative ethics and meta-ethics) is a relatively new phenomenon. The individuation of applied ethics as a special division of moral investigation gathered momentum in the 1970s and 1980s, largely as a response to early twentieth- century moral philosophy's overwhelming concentration on moral semantics and its apparent inattention to practical moral problems that arose in the wake of significant social and (...)
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  7. Renewing the Moral Life: Some Recent Work in Virtue Theory.Craig Paterson - 2000 - New Blackfriars 81 (952):238-44.
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Ethics of Care
  1. Review of Confronting Postmaternal Thinking. [REVIEW]Shelley M. Park - 2013 - Apa Newsletter on Feminism and Philosophy 13 (1):21-24.
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  2. “Care Drain”. Explaining Bias in Theorizing Women’s Migration.Speranta Dumitru - 2016 - Romanian Journal of Society and Politics 11 (2):7-24.
    Migrant women are often stereotyped. Some scholars associate the feminization of migration with domestic work and criticize the “care drain” as a new form of imperialism that the First World imposes on the Third World. However, migrant women employed as domestic workers in Northern America and Europe represent only 2% of migrant women worldwide and cannot be seen as characterizing the “feminization of migration”. Why are migrant domestic workers overestimated? This paper explores two possible sources of bias. The first is (...)
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  3. The Nature and Ethics of Indifference.Hallvard Lillehammer - 2017 - The Journal of Ethics 21 (1):17-35.
    Indifference is sometimes said to be a virtue. Perhaps more frequently it is said to be a vice. Yet who is indifferent; to what; and in what way is poorly understood, and frequently subject to controversy and confusion. This paper presents a framework for the interpretation and analysis of ethically significant forms of indifference in terms of how subjects of indifference are variously related to their objects in different circumstances; and how an indifferent orientation can be either more or less (...)
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  4. A Virtual Pulse: Cautionary Notes About Public Mourning in the Digital Age.Shelley M. Park - 2016 - APA Newsletter on LGBTQ Issue 16 (1):3-6.
    Reflections on digital mourning in the wake of the mass shooting at the Pulse nightclub in Orlando 2016.
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  5. Infinite Responsibility in the Bedpan: Response Ethics, Care Ethics, and the Phenomenology of Caregiving.Joel Michael Reynolds - 2016 - Hypatia 31 (4):779-794.
    Drawing upon the practice of caregiving and the insights of feminist care ethics, I offer a phenomenology of caregiving. I argue that caregiving is a material dialectic of embodied response involving moments of leveling, attention, and interruption. In this light, the Levinasian opposition between responding to another's singularity and leveling it via parity-based principles is belied in the experience of care. Contra much of response ethics’ and care ethics’ respective literatures, this dialectic suggests that they are complementary in ways that (...)
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  6. Existe-t-il une féminisation de la migration internationale ?‪ Féminisation de la migration qualifiée et invisibilité des diplômes.Speranta Dumitru - 2015 - Hommes Et Migrations 1311 (3):31-41.
    La « féminisation de la migration internationale » constitue la nouvelle formule magique de nombreuses études migratoires. Or, depuis un demi-siècle, la part des femmes dans la migration internationale n’a pas vraiment augmenté. En revanche, les femmes représentent aujourd’hui plus de la moitié des migrants diplômés de l’enseignement supérieur dans les pays de l’OCDE. Pourtant, cette féminisation de la migration qualifiée est moins souvent discutée. Comme si les diplômes des femmes migrantes devaient rester aussi invisibles dans la recherche que sur (...)
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  7. Feministyczna etyka troski. Założenia i aspiracje.Andrzej Waleszczyński - 2013 - Warszawa, Polska: Środkowoeuropejski Instytut Zmiany Społecznej.
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  8. Le care entre dépendance et domination : l’interêt de la théorie néorépublicaine pour penser une « caring society ».Marie Garrau - 2009 - Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 4 (2):25-42.
    L’éthique du care est confrontée à un problème qui a des allures de paradoxe : bien que sa politisation paraisse nécessaire, l’éthique du care ne semble pas pouvoir trouver en elle-même les ressources suffisantes à la formulation d’une théorie politique compréhensive. Il ne semble pas exister de théorie politique du care à part entière. Cet article examine la fécondité d’un rapprochement entre éthique du care et théorie néorépublicaine de la non-domination. Le résultat, non négligeable, serait de garantir des formes importantes (...)
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  9. Pojęcie troski we współczesnej etyce.Andrzej Waleszczyński - 2012 - Studia Philosophiae Christianae 48 (2):143-157.
    Among issues considered in contemporary ethics, apart from concepts such as good, value and justice, there is also the concept of care, discussed extensively in feminism. The article presents and analyses this ethical concept. It shows some problems with the translation of the English word ‘care’ into the Polish equivalent ‘troska’. The focus here, however, is mainly on the way of understanding the concept of care among feminist ethicists, such as Virginia Held, Nel Noddings, Joan Tronto, Diemut Bubeck, and Sara (...)
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  10. Feminist Ethics, Mothering, and Caring.Christine James - 1995 - Kinesis 22 (2):2-16.
    The relationship between feminist theory and traditionally feminine activities like mothering and caring is complex, especially because of the current diversity of feminist scholarship. There are many different kinds of feminist theory, and each approaches the issue of women's oppression from its own angle. The statement, "feminist ethics is about mothering and caring," can be critically evaluated by outlining specific feminist approaches to ethics and showing what role mothering and caring play in each particular view. In this paper, feminine and (...)
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  11. Building Receptivity: Leopold's Land Ethic and Critical Feminist Interpretation.Kathryn J. Norlock - 2011 - Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture 5 (4):493-512.
    Aldo Leopold’s A Sand County Almanac emphasizes values of receptivity and perceptivity that appear to be mutually reinforcing, critical to an ecological conscience, and cultivatable through concrete and embodied experience. His priorities bear striking similarities to elements of the ethics of care elaborated by feminist philosophers, especially Nel Noddings, who notably recommended receptivity, direct and personal experience, and even shared Leopold’s attentiveness to joy and play as sources of moral motivation. These commonalities are so fundamental that ecofeminists can and should (...)
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  12. Abstraction and Justification in Moral Theory.Cynthia A. Stark - 2010 - Hypatia 25 (4):825-833.
    Ethicists of care have objected to traditional moral philosophy's reliance upon abstract universal principles. They claim that the use of abstraction renders traditional theories incapable of capturing morally relevant, particular features of situations. I argue that this objection sometimes conflates two different levels of moral thinking: the level of justification and the level of deliberation. Specifically, I claim that abstraction or attention to context at the level of justification does not entail, as some critics seem to think, a commitment to (...)
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  13. Hard Determinism, Remorse, and Virtue Ethics.Ben Vilhauer - 2004 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 42 (4):547-564.
    When hard determinists reject the claim that people deserve particular kinds of treatment because of how they have acted, they are left with a problem about remorse. Remorse is often represented as a way we impose retribution on ourselves when we understand that we have acted badly. (This view of remorse appears in the work of Freud, and I think it fits our everyday, pretheoretical understanding of one kind of remorse.) Retribution of any kind cannot be appropriate if we do (...)
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  14. Is Confucianism Compatible with Care Ethics? A Critique.Ranjoo Seodu Herr - 2003 - Philosophy East and West 53 (4):471-489.
    This essay critically examines a suggestion proposed by some Confucianists that Confucianism and Care Ethics share striking similarities and that feminism in Confucian societies might take “a new form of Confucianism.” Aspects of Confucianism and Care Ethics that allegedly converge are examined, including the emphasis on human relationships, and it is argued that while these two perspectives share certain surface similarities, moral injunctions entailed by their respective ideals of ren and caring are not merely distinctive but in fact incompatible.
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  15. Do Confucians Really Care? A Defense of the Distinctiveness of Care Ethics: A Reply to Chenyang Li.Daniel Star - 2002 - Hypatia 17 (1):77-106.
    Chenyang Li argues, in an article originally published in Hypatia, that the ethics of care and Confucian ethics constitute similar approaches to ethics. The present paper takes issue with this claim. It is more accurate to view Confucian ethics as a kind of virtue ethics, rather than as a kind of care ethics. In the process of criticizing Li's claim, the distinctiveness of care ethics is defended, against attempts to assimilate it to virtue ethics.
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Eudaimonistic Virtue Ethics
  1. Soldierly Virtue: An Argument for the Restructuring of Western Military Ethics to Align with Aristotelian Virtue Ethics.John Baldari - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Leeds
    Because wars are fought by human beings and not merely machines, a strong virtue ethic is an essential prerequisite for those engaged in combat. From a philosophical perspective, war has historically been seen as separate and outside of the commonly accepted forms of morality. Yet there remains a general, though not well-thought out, sense that those human beings who fight wars should act ethically. Since warfighters are often called upon to contemplate and complete tasks during war that are not normally (...)
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  2. Current Controversies in Virtue Theory, Edited by Mark Alfano. [REVIEW]Alina Beary - 2019 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 16 (1):89-92.
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  3. Virtues for the Imperfect.Ulf Hlobil & Katharina Nieswandt - 2018 - Journal of Value Inquiry 1:1-21.
    We suggest a new neo-Aristotelian account of right action: An action A is right for an agent S in a situation C just in case it is possible for A in C to result from a good practical inference. A practical inference is good if people must have a disposition to make such practical inferences where a society is to flourish. One advantage of this account is that it applies to non-ideal agents. It thus blocks the right-but-not-virtuous objection to virtue (...)
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