Switch to: Citations

References in:

Disagreement, Certainties, Relativism

Topoi 40 (5):1097-1105 (2018)

Add references

You must login to add references.
  1. Scientific Pluralism and the Chemical Revolution.Martin Kusch - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 49:69-79.
    In a number of papers and in his recent book, Is Water H₂O? Evidence, Realism, Pluralism (2012), Hasok Chang has argued that the correct interpretation of the Chemical Revolution provides a strong case for the view that progress in science is served by maintaining several incommensurable “systems of practice” in the same discipline, and concerning the same region of nature. This paper is a critical discussion of Chang's reading of the Chemical Revolution. It seeks to establish, first, that Chang's assessment (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  • Disagreement, Evidence, and Agnosticism.Jason Decker - 2012 - Synthese 187 (2):753-783.
    In this paper, I respond to recent attempts by philosophers to deny the existence of something that is both real and significant: reasonable disagreements between epistemic peers. In their arguments against the possibility of such disagreements, skeptical philosophers typically invoke one or more of the following: indifference reasoning , equal weight principles , and uniqueness theses . I take up each of these in turn, finding ample reason to resist them. The arguments for indifference reasoning and equal weight principles tend (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   24 citations  
  • Moore and Wittgenstein on Certainty.John V. Canfield - 1997 - Philosophical Review 106 (2):281.
    I can’t help but like a book that calls Wittgenstein the greatest philosopher since Kant and then proceeds to show how On Certainty, a manifestly brilliant but understudied book, sheds light on matters under current debate. It is pleasant to see a highly skilled contemporary put texts from the later philosophy under close scrutiny and mine them for insight, and that outside the bounds of familiar Wittgenstein scholarship.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   25 citations  
  • Inclusiveness in the Face of Anticipated Disagreement.Sanford C. Goldberg - 2013 - Synthese 190 (7):1189-1207.
    This paper discusses the epistemic outcomes of following a belief-forming policy of inclusiveness under conditions in which one anticipates systematic disagreement with one’s interlocutors. These cases highlight the possibility of distinctly epistemic costs of inclusiveness, in the form of lost knowledge of or a diminishment in one’s rational confidence in a proposition. It is somewhat controversial whether following a policy of inclusiveness under such circumstances will have such costs; this will depend in part on the correct account of the epistemic (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Summa Contra Scepticos.Martin Kusch - 2018 - Philosophical Quarterly 68 (270):184-193.
    This critical notice concerns Duncan Pritchard's Epistemic Angst. After a summary of the book, I offer some brief critical comments on five issues: the distinction between overriding and undercutting strategies against scepticism, epistemic relativism, foundationalist hinge epistemology, the relationship between hinge propositions and evidence, and the universality of rational evaluation. Epistemic Angst is Duncan Pritchard's to-date most comprehensive attempt to defuse Cartesian epistemic scepticism. The argument builds on Pritchard's more than sixty previous publications on the same general topic. Given limitations (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Reflection and Disagreement.Adam Elga - 2007 - Noûs 41 (3):478–502.
    How should you take into account the opinions of an advisor? When you completely defer to the advisor's judgment, then you should treat the advisor as a guru. Roughly, that means you should believe what you expect she would believe, if supplied with your extra evidence. When the advisor is your own future self, the resulting principle amounts to a version of the Reflection Principle---a version amended to handle cases of information loss. When you count an advisor as an epistemic (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   469 citations  
  • Wittgenstein on Mathematics and Certainties.Martin Kusch - 2016 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 6 (2-3):120-142.
    _ Source: _Volume 6, Issue 2-3, pp 120 - 142 This paper aims to contribute to the debate over epistemic versus non-epistemic readings of the ‘hinges’ in Wittgenstein’s _On Certainty_. I follow Marie McGinn’s and Daniele Moyal-Sharrock’s lead in developing an analogy between mathematical sentences and certainties, and using the former as a model for the latter. However, I disagree with McGinn’s and Moyal-Sharrock’s interpretations concerning Wittgenstein’s views of both relata. I argue that mathematical sentences as well as certainties are (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  • Understanding Wittgenstein's on Certainty.Danièle Moyal-Sharrock - 2004 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This radical reading of Wittgenstein's third and last masterpiece, On Certainty, has major implications for philosophy. It elucidates Wittgenstein's ultimate thoughts on the nature of our basic beliefs and his demystification of scepticism. Our basic certainties are shown to be nonepistemic, nonpropositional attitudes that, as such, have no verbal occurrence but manifest themselves exclusively in our actions. This fundamental certainty is a belief-in, a primitive confidence or ur-trust whose practical nature bridges the hitherto unresolved categorial gap between belief and action.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   91 citations  
  • Epistemic Angst: Radical Skepticism and the Groundlessness of Our Believing.Duncan Pritchard - 2016 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 93 (3):70-90.
    Support is canvassed for a novel solution to the sceptical problem regarding our knowledge of the external world. Key to this solution is the claim that what initially looks like a single problem is in fact two logically distinct problems. In particular, there are two putative sceptical paradoxes in play here, which each trade on distinctive epistemological theses. It is argued that the ideal solution to radical scepticism would thus be a biscopic proposal—viz., a two-pronged, integrated, undercutting treatment of both (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   88 citations  
  • Was Wittgenstein an Epistemic Relativist?Annalisa Coliva - 2010 - Philosophical Investigations 33 (1):1-23.
    The paper reviews the grounds for relativist interpretations of Wittgenstein's later thought, especially in On Certainty . It distinguishes between factual and virtual forms of epistemic relativism and argues that, on closer inspection, Wittgenstein's notes don't support any form of relativism – let it be factual or virtual. In passing, it considers also so-called "naturalist" readings of On Certainty , which may lend support to a relativist interpretation of Wittgenstein's ideas, finds them wanting, and recommends to interpret his positive proposal (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   22 citations  
  • Epistemic Angst: Radical Skepticism and the Groundlessness of Our Believing.Duncan Pritchard - 2015 - Princeton University Press.
    Epistemic Angst offers a completely new solution to the ancient philosophical problem of radical skepticism—the challenge of explaining how it is possible to have knowledge of a world external to us. Duncan Pritchard argues that the key to resolving this puzzle is to realize that it is composed of two logically distinct problems, each requiring its own solution. He then puts forward solutions to both problems. To that end, he offers a new reading of Wittgenstein's account of the structure of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   76 citations  
  • Wittgenstein, Ethics and Basic Moral Certainty.Nigel Pleasants - 2008 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 51 (3):241 – 267.
    Alice Crary claims that “the standard view of the bearing of Wittgenstein's philosophy on ethics” is dominated by “inviolability interpretations”, which often underlie conservative readings of Wittgenstein. Crary says that such interpretations are “especially marked in connection with On Certainty”, where Wittgenstein is represented as holding that “our linguistic practices are immune to rational criticism, or inviolable”. Crary's own conception of the bearing of Wittgenstein's philosophy on ethics, which I call the “intrinsically-ethical reading”, derives from the influential New Wittgenstein school (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  • Proof of an External World.George Edward Moore - 1939 - Proceedings of the British Academy 25 (5):273--300.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   184 citations  
  • The Internalist Conception of Justification.Alvin Goldman - 1980 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 5 (1):27-51.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   53 citations  
  • The Internalist Conception of Justification.Alvin Goldman - 1980 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 5 5 (1):27-51.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   67 citations  
  • The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.Thomas S. Kuhn - 1962 - University of Chicago Press.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3899 citations  
  • Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics.Robert D. Mack - 1951 - Journal of Philosophy 48 (16):507-508.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   92 citations  
  • Fear of Knowledge: Against Relativism and Constructivism.Paul Boghossian - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    Relativist and constructivist conceptions of knowledge have become orthodoxy in vast stretches of the academic world in recent times. This book critically examines such views and argues that they are fundamentally flawed. The book focuses on three different ways of reading the claim that knowledge is socially constructed, one about facts and two about justification. All three are rejected. The intuitive, common sense view is that there is a way things are that is independent of human opinion, and that we (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   209 citations  
  • Distant Peers.Mark Vorobej - 2011 - Metaphilosophy 42 (5):708-722.
    What is the nature of rational disagreement? A number of philosophers have recently addressed this question by examining how we should respond to epistemic conflict with a so-called epistemic peer—that is, someone over whom you enjoy no epistemic advantage. Some say that you're rationally required to suspend judgment in these cases—thereby denying the very possibility of a certain kind of rational disagreement. Others say that it's permissible to retain your beliefs even in the face of epistemic conflict. By distinguishing between (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  • Reasonable Religious Disagreements.Richard Feldman - 2006 - In Louise Antony (ed.), Philosophers Without Gods: Meditations on Atheism and the Secular Life. Oxford University Press. pp. 194-214.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   253 citations  
  • Epistemology of Disagreement: The Good News.David Christensen - 2007 - Philosophical Review 116 (2):187-217.
    How should one react when one has a belief, but knows that other people—who have roughly the same evidence as one has, and seem roughly as likely to react to it correctly—disagree? This paper argues that the disagreement of other competent inquirers often requires one to be much less confident in one’s opinions than one would otherwise be.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   478 citations  
  • Lectures & Conversations on Aesthetics, Psychology and Religious Belief.Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (ed.) - 1966 - Berkeley and Los Angeles: Blackwell.
    In 1938 Wittgenstein delivered a short course of lectures on aesthetics to a small group of students at Cambridge. The present volume has been compiled from notes taken down at the time by three of the students: Rush Rhees, Yorick Smythies, and James Taylor. They have been supplemented by notes of conversations on Freud (to whom reference was made in the course on aesthetics) between Wittgenstein and Rush Rhees, and by notes of some lectures on religious belief. As very little (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   111 citations  
  • Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics.Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein - 1956 - Oxford, England: Blackwell.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   390 citations  
  • Annalisa Coliva on Wittgenstein and Epistemic Relativism.Martin Kusch - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (1):37-49.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  • Proof of an External World.G. E. Moore - 1939 - H. Milford.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   188 citations  
  • The Illusion of Doubt.Genia Schönbaumsfeld - 2016 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press UK.
    The Illusion of Doubt confronts one of the most important questions in philosophy and beyond: what can we know? The radical sceptic's answer is 'not very much' if we cannot prove that we are not subject to deception. For centuries philosophers have been impressed by the radical sceptic's move, but this book shows that the radical sceptical problem turns out to be an illusion created by a mistaken picture of our evidential situation. This means that we don't need to answer (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   18 citations  
  • Is Water H2O? Evidence, Realism and Pluralism.Hasok Chang - 2012 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science.
    This book exhibits deep philosophical quandaries and intricacies of the historical development of science lying behind a simple and fundamental item of common sense in modern science, namely the composition of water as H2O. Three main phases of development are critically re-examined, covering the historical period from the 1760s to the 1860s: the Chemical Revolution, early electrochemistry, and early atomic chemistry. In each case, the author concludes that the empirical evidence available at the time was not decisive in settling the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   153 citations  
  • The Empirical Stance.Bas C. Van Fraassen - 2002 - Yale University Press.
    What is empiricism and what could it be? Bas C. van Fraassen, one of the world’s foremost contributors to philosophical logic and the philosophy of science, here undertakes a fresh consideration of these questions and offers a program for renewal of the empiricist tradition. The empiricist tradition is not and could not be defined by common doctrines, but embodies a certain stance in philosophy, van Fraassen says. This stance is displayed first of all in a searing, recurrent critique of metaphysics, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   137 citations  
  • Philosophische Untersuchungen: Kritisch-Genetische Edition.Ludwig Wittgenstein - 2001
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   18 citations  
  • The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.Thomas Samuel Kuhn - 1962 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    A scientific community cannot practice its trade without some set of received beliefs. These beliefs form the foundation of the "educational initiation that prepares and licenses the student for professional practice". The nature of the "rigorous and rigid" preparation helps ensure that the received beliefs are firmly fixed in the student's mind. Scientists take great pains to defend the assumption that scientists know what the world is like...To this end, "normal science" will often suppress novelties which undermine its foundations. Research (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2692 citations  
  • Epistemic Relativism, Scepticism, Pluralism.Martin Kusch - 2017 - Synthese 194 (12):4687-4703.
    There are a number of debates that are relevant to questions concerning objectivity in science. One of the eldest, and still one of the most intensely fought, is the debate over epistemic relativism. —All forms of epistemic relativism commit themselves to the view that it is impossible to show in a neutral, non-question-begging, way that one “epistemic system”, that is, one interconnected set of epistemic standards, is epistemically superior to others. I shall call this view “No-metajustification”. No-metajustification is commonly taken (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  • Entitlement and Mutually Recognized Reasonable Disagreement.Allan Hazlett - 2013 - Episteme (1):1-25.
    Most people not only think that it is possible for reasonable people to disagree, but that it is possible for people to recognize that they are parties to a reasonable disagreement. The aim of this paper is to explain how such mutually recognized reasonable disagreements are possible. I appeal to an which implies a form of relativism about reasonable belief, based on the idea that whether a belief is reasonable for a person can depend on the fact that she has (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  • The Epistemic Significance of Disagreement.Tom Kelly - 2005 - In Tamar Szabo Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Oxford Studies in Epistemology Volume 1. Oxford University Press.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   153 citations  
  • Wittgenstein.G. H. von Wright - 1982 - University of Minnesota Press.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   30 citations  
  • Sense and Certainty: A Dissolution of Scepticism.Marie McGinn - 1989 - Blackwell.
    This dissertation aims to construct a non-dogmatic defence of common sense. It tries to show why the absence of justification for the judgements of common sense, which the sceptic reveals, does not invalidate them.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   36 citations  
  • Exploring Certainty: Wittgenstein and Wide Fields of Thought.Robert Greenleaf Brice - 2014 - Lexington Books.
    Exploring Certainty: Wittgenstein and Wide Fields of Thought considers how, where, and to what extent the thoughts and ideas found in Wittgenstein’s On Certainty can be applied to other areas of thought, including: ethics, aesthetics, religious belief, mathematics, cognitive science, and political theory. Robert Greenleaf Brice opens new avenues of thought for scholars and students of the Wittgensteinian tradition, while introducing original philosophies about human knowledge and cognition.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • "Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics". By Ludwig Wittgenstein.G. D. Duthie - 1957 - Philosophical Quarterly 7 (29):368-373.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   169 citations  
  • A Justificationist View of Disagreement’s Epistemic Significance.Jennifer Lackey - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 53:145-154.
    The question that will be the focus of this paper is this: what is the significance of disagreement between those who are epistemic peers? There are two answers to this question found in the recent literature. On the one hand, there are those who hold that one can continue to rationally believe that p despite the fact that one’s epistemic peer explicitly believes that not-p. I shall call those who hold this view nonconformists. In contrast, there are those who hold (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   46 citations  
  • Fear of Knowledge: Against Relativism and Constructivism.Peter McLaughlin - 2008 - Erkenntnis 69 (1):141-144.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   105 citations  
  • Knowledge and Certainties in the Epistemic State of Nature.Martin Kusch - 2011 - Episteme 8 (1):6-23.
    This paper seeks to defend, develop, and revise Edward Craig's “genealogy of knowledge”. The paper first develops the suggestion that Craig's project is naturally thought of as an important instance of “social cognitive ecology”. It then introduces the genealogy of knowledge and some of its main problems and weaknesses, suggesting that these are best taken as challenges for further work rather than as refutations. The central sections of the paper conduct a critical dialogue between Craig's theory and Wittgenstein's claim–familiar from (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   26 citations  
  • Wittgenstein as a Commentator on the Psychology and Anthropology of Colour.Martin Kusch - 2014 - In Stefan Riegelnik & Frederik A. Gierlinger (eds.), Wittgenstein on Colour. De Gruyter. pp. 93-108.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  • Analysing Holocaust Survivor Testimony.Martin Kusch - 2017 - In S. Krämer & S. Weigel (eds.), Testimony / Bearing Witness. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefied. pp. 137-167.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  • Moore and Wittgenstein on Certainty.Avrum Stroll - 1994 - Philosophy 70 (273):466-469.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   40 citations  
  • A Justificationist View of Disagreement’s Epistemic Significance.Jennifer Lackey - 2008 - In Alan Millar Adrian Haddock & Duncan Pritchard (eds.), Social Epistemology. Oxford University Press. pp. 145-154.
    The question that will be the focus of this paper is this: what is the significance of disagreement between those who are epistemic peers? There are two answers to this question found in the recent literature. On the one hand, there are those who hold that one can continue to rationally believe that p despite the fact that one’s epistemic peer explicitly believes that not-p. I shall call those who hold this view nonconformists. In contrast, there are those who hold (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   56 citations  
  • Lectures and Conversations on Aesthetics, Psychology and Religious Belief.Ludwig Wittgenstein & Cyril Barrett - 1968 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 26 (4):554-557.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   136 citations  
  • Sense and Certainty.Marie Mcginn - 1989 - Mind 98 (392):635-637.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   33 citations  
  • The Logic of Deep Disagreements.Robert Fogelin - 2005 - Informal Logic 25 (1):3-11.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   81 citations  
  • Wittgensteinian Certainties.Crispin Wright - 2004 - In Denis McManus (ed.), Wittgenstein and Scepticism. Routledge. pp. 22--55.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   49 citations  
  • The Logic of Deep Disagreements.Robert Fogelin - 1985 - Informal Logic 7 (1):3-11.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   106 citations  
  • A Branch of Human Natural History.Martin Kusch - 2015 - In Oliver Schlaudt and Lara Huber (ed.), Standardization in Measurement. London: Pickering & Chatto. pp. 11-24.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations