Results for 'Business and Professional Ethics'

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  1. In Defence Of Wish Lists: Business Ethics, Professional Ethics, and Ordinary Morality.Matthew Sinnicks - 2023 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 42 (1):79-107.
    Business ethics is often understood as a variety of professional ethics, and thus distinct from ordinary morality in an important way. This article seeks to challenge two ways of defending this claim: first, from the nature of business practice, and second, from the contribution of business. The former argument fails because it undermines our ability to rule out a professional-ethics approach to a number of disreputable practices. The latter argument fails because the (...)
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  2. MacIntyre and Business Ethics.Matthew Sinnicks - 2017 - In Alex Michalos and Debora Poff (ed.), Encyclopedia of Business and Professional Ethics. Springer. pp. 1278-1282.
    Entry on MacIntyre and Business Ethics (2023). In Poff, D. C. & Michalos, A. C. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Business and Professional Ethics. Springer.
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  3. Honor Among Thieves: Some Reflections on Professional Codes of Ethics.John T. Sanders - 1993 - Professional Ethics, a Multidisciplinary Journal 2 (3):83-103.
    As complicated an affair as it may be to give a fully acceptable general characterization of professional codes of ethics that will capture every nuance, one theme that has attracted widespread attention portrays them as contrivances whose primary function is to secure certain obligations of professionals to clients, or to the external community. In contrast to such an "externalist" characterization of professional codes, it has occasionally been contended that, first and foremost, they should be understood as internal (...)
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  4. The Ethical Importance of Conflicts of Interest: Accounting and Finance Examples.John B. Dilworth - 1994 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 13 (1-2):25-40.
    The general area of business and professional ethics is full of vexing and confusing problems. For example, questions concerning the im portance of ethical standards, whether ethics is unnecessary given appropriate legal enforcement, whether it is imperative to teach ethical behavior in professional education, and similar questions are all controversial. The specific ethical problems to be found in the areas of accounting and finance are at least as difficult as those in other areas. However, there (...)
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  5. IMPLICATIONS FOR BUSINESS ETHICS OF AN INTERRELIGIOUS APPROACH TO SPIRITUALITY OF WORK: BHAGAVADGITA AND CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING.Ferdinand Tablan - manuscript
    This essay is an interreligious study of spirituality of work and its implications for business ethics. It considers the normative / doctrinal teachings on human work in Bhagavadgita (BG) and Catholic Social Teaching (CST). In as much as the focus of this study is spirituality of work, it does not present an in-depth and comprehensive comparison of Hindu and Catholic religions. Similarities and differences between the texts under consideration will be examined, but such examination will be limited to (...)
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  6. Management Students’ Attitudes Toward Business Ethics: A Comparison Between France and Romania.Daniel Bageac, Olivier Furrer & Emmanuelle Reynaud - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 98 (3):391-406.
    This study focuses on the differences in the perception of business ethics across two groups of management students from France and Romania (n = 220). Data was collected via the ATBEQ to measure preferences for three business philosophies: Machiavellianism, Social Darwinism, and Moral Objectivism. The results show that Romanian students present more favorable attitudes toward Machiavellianism than French students; whereas, French students valued Social Darwinism and Moral Objectivism more highly. For Machiavellianism and Moral Objectivism the results are (...)
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  7. The Law and Ethics of K Street.Daniel T. Ostas - 2007 - Business Ethics Quarterly 17 (1):33-63.
    This article explores the law and ethics of lobbying. The legal discussion examines disclosure regulations, employment restrictions,bribery laws, and anti-fraud provisions as each applies to the lobbying context. The analysis demonstrates that given the social value placed on the First Amendment, federal law generally affords lobbyists wide latitude in determining who, what, when, where, and how to lobby.The article then turns to ethics. Lobbying involves deliberate attempts to effect changes in the law. An argument is advanced that because (...)
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  8. What is Business Ethics ?Shriniwas Hemade - 2014 - Daily Loksatta Column - Tattvabhan - The Philosophical Consciousness:10.
    What is Business Ethics ? Read the difference between Business Ethics and Professional Ethics. व्यवसाय आणि धंदा एकत्र आले की त्यांच्या मिसळणीतून नवेच प्रश्न निर्माण होतात. मालकाला धंदा हवा असतो आणि व्यावसायिक असलेल्या नोकराला अधिक वेतन हवे असते.. इथे व्यवस्थापनाचे, पण मूलत: नैतिक प्रश्न येतात..
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  9. Does Global Business Have a Responsibility to Promote Just Institutions?Nien-hê Hsieh - 2009 - Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (2):251-273.
    ABSTRACT:Drawing upon John Rawls's framework inThe Law of Peoples,this paper argues that MNEs have a responsibility to promote well-ordered social and political institutions in host countries that lack them. This responsibility is grounded in a negative duty not to cause harm. In addition to addressing the objection that promoting well-ordered institutions represents unjustified interference by MNEs, the paper provides guidance for managers of MNEs operating in host countries that lack just institutions. The paper argues for understanding corporate responsibility in relation (...)
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  10. The Virtues Appropriate to Business.R. E. Ewin - 1995 - Business Ethics Quarterly 5 (4):833-842.
    Robert Solomon has presented a version of business ethics in terms of virtues theory. It is a good thing that business ethics should be understood in terms of virtues theory, but the account that Solomon gives is seriously misleading in important respects. "A virtue is a pervasive trait of character that allows one to 'fit into' a particular society and to excel in it," he says. This is something that we might query: what a society will (...)
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  11. Africapitalism, Ubuntu, and Sustainability.Matthew Crippen - 2021 - Environmental Ethics 43 (3):235-259.
    Ubuntu originated in small-scale societies in precolonial Africa. It stresses metaphysical and moral interconnectedness of humans, and newer Africapitalist approaches absorb ubuntu ideology, with the aims of promoting community wellbeing and restoring a love of local place that global free trade has eroded. Ecological degradation violates these goals, which ought to translate into care for the nonhuman world, in addition to which some sub-Saharan thought systems promote environmental concern as a value in its own right. The foregoing story is reinforced (...)
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  12. The Ethics of Trigger Warnings.Wendy Wyatt - 2016 - Teaching Ethics 16 (1):17-35.
    Trigger warnings captured national attention in 2014 when students from several U.S. universities called for inclusion of the warnings on course syllabi and in classrooms. Opinions spread through news outlets across the spectrum, and those weighing in were quick to pronounce trigger warnings as either unnecessary coddling and an affront to free speech, or as a responsible pedagogical practice that treats students with respect and minimizes harm. Put simply, the debate about trigger warnings has followed the trajectory of many debates (...)
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  13. A Promenade on the Ethics and Ethical Decision.Kiyoung Kim - 2014 - International Journal of Advanced Research 2 (10):15-23.
    The studies of ethics had long been under-dealt although it is the kind of primary in sustaining a civility. It is hardly deniable that the concept of efficiency and productivity has hailed on the mindedness and interest of academic community. The narrative of ethics or social justice would be ridiculed as the kind of Greek juggle on philosophy or put to be on neglect for its lacking or default on the modern disciplinary frame in the academics. A cure, (...)
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  14. Does Milton Friedman Support a Vigorous Business Ethics?Christopher Cosans - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (3):391-399.
    This paper explores the level of obligation called for by Milton Friedman’s classic essay “The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase Profits.” Several scholars have argued that Friedman asserts that businesses have no or minimal social duties beyond compliance with the law. This paper argues that this reading of Friedman does not give adequate weight to some claims that he makes and to their logical extensions. Throughout his article, Friedman emphasizes the values of freedom, respect for law, and (...)
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  15. Beyond Business Ethics: An Agenda for the Trustworthy Teachers and Practitioners of Business.Ann Congleton - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 119 (2):151-172.
    Societies need markets, so just as trustworthy professionals are needed in fields such as healthcare, law and education, modern societies need trustworthy market managers, including corporate officers and directors. But in its screening of candidates, U.S. corporate business has lagged behind fields such as medicine and law, which in the nineteenth century addressed their need for screening by upgrading professional education and establishing licensing of individual practitioners. Corporate business, by contrast, has been too tolerant of problematic executives, (...)
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  16. Levinasian ethics in business.V. Blok - 2021 - In Deborah C. Poff & Alex C. Michalos (eds.), Encyclopedia of Business and Professional Ethics. Springer Verlag.
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  17. The ethics of sex and power asymmetries.Francesco Orsi - manuscript
    The recent #metoo movement has turned public attention to the problem of sex under conditions of power inequality. Is consent impaired, when you have plenty to lose (e.g. a great professional opportunity) from saying “no” to a sexual advance? And even if consent is valid, is this a morally acceptable situation, especially if one party is aware that their position of relative power will influence the other’s decision to have sex? Such situations bring to the fore not only the (...)
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  18. A New Take on Deceptive Advertising.Andrew Johnson - 2010 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 29 (1-4):5-32.
    The publication of Harry Frankfurt’s 1986 essay “On Bullshit,” and especially its republication as a book in 2005, have sparked a great deal of interest in the philosophical analysis of the concept of bullshit. The present essay seeks to contribute to the ever-widening discussion of the concept by applying it to the realm of advertising. First, it is argued that Frankfurt’s definition of bullshit is too narrow, and an alternative definition is defended that accommodates both Frankfurt’s truth-indifferent bullshit and what (...)
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  19. Adorno’s Critique of Work in Market Society.Craig Reeves & Matthew Sinnicks - 2022 - Business Ethics Journal Review 10 (1):1-7.
    Jaakko Nevasto has offered a number of thoughtful criticisms of our attempt to show that Adorno’s work can fruitfully be brought to bear on topics in business ethics. After welcoming his constructive clarifications, we attempt to defuse Nevasto’s main objections and defend our application of Adorno, focusing in particular on the topics of moral epistemology, needs, and the possibility of genuine activity – and thus good work – within capitalist society.
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  20. Adam Smith’s Bourgeois Virtues in Competition.Thomas Wells & Johan Graafland - 2012 - Business Ethics Quarterly 22 (2):319-350.
    Whether or not capitalism is compatible with ethics is a long standing dispute. We take up an approach to virtue ethics inspired by Adam Smith and consider how market competition influences the virtues most associated with modern commercial society. Up to a point, competition nurtures and supports such virtues as prudence, temperance, civility, industriousness and honesty. But there are also various mechanisms by which competition can have deleterious effects on the institutions and incentives necessary for sustaining even these (...)
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  21. Armchair versus Armchair: Let's not Try to Guess the Social Value of Corporate Objectives.Hasko von Kriegstein - 2016 - Business Ethics Journal Review 4 (3):14-20.
    Jones and Felps claim that social welfare would be enhanced, if corporate managers adopted the goal of directly improving the happiness of their stakeholders instead of profit maximization. I argue that their argument doesn’t establish this. They show that a utilitarian case for profit orientation cannot be made from the armchair. But neither can the case for Jones and Felps’ preferred alternative. And their defense of it relies on empirically unsubstantiated assumptions.
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  22. Applied Ethics: Strengthening Ethical Practices.Peter Bowden (ed.) - 2012 - Tilde Publishing and Distribution.
    The claim is made in the book, Applied Ethics, published under the auspices of the Australian Association for Professional and Applied Ethics (AAPAE), that it can strengthen ethical behaviour. That claim, embodied in the subtitle, is based on more than a half dozen practices set out in the book. In total, they are drawn from an examination of ethical practices across fourteen different disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to outline and support that claim, drawing primarily (...)
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  23. Reframing the Purpose of Business Education: Crowding-in a Culture of Moral Self-Awareness.Julian Friedland & Tanusree Jain - 2022 - Journal of Management Inquiry 31 (1):15-29.
    Numerous high-profile ethics scandals, rising inequality, and the detrimental effects of climate change dramatically underscore the need for business schools to instill a commitment to social purpose in their students. At the same time, the rising financial burden of education, increasing competition in the education space, and overreliance on graduates’ financial success as the accepted metric of quality have reinforced an instrumentalist climate. These conflicting aims between social and financial purpose have created an existential crisis for business (...)
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  24. The Peculiar Nature of the Duty to Help During a Pandemic.Santiago Mejia - 2021 - Business Ethics Journal Review 9 (2):8-13.
    Duties of beneficence are said to allow for leeway to discharge them. By distinguishing between two different types of leeway, Mejia identified three structurally different duties of beneficence. In this Commentary I deploy those distinctions to clarify the nature of a fourth type of duty of beneficence, one prompted by a global pandemic, a duty with a peculiar, and seldom recognized, conceptual logic. I provide some guidelines that should orient managers when they take themselves to be fulfilling such a duty (...)
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  25. Expressive Objections to Markets: Normative, Not Symbolic.Daniel Layman - 2016 - Business Ethics Journal Review 4 (1):1-6.
    Jason Brennan and Peter Jaworski reject expressive objections to markets on the grounds that market symbolism is culturally contingent, and contingent cultural symbols are less important than the benefits markets offer. I grant and, but I deny that these points suffice as grounds to dismiss expressive critiques of markets. For many plausible expressive critiques of markets are not symbolic critiques at all. Rather, they are critiques grounded in the idea that some market transactions embody morally inappropriate normative stances toward the (...)
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  26. Dealing with the Wicked Problem of Sustainability: The Role of Individual Virtuous Competence.Vincent Blok, Bart Gremmen & Renate Wesselink - 2015 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 34 (3):297-327.
    Over the past few years, individual competencies for sustainability have received a lot of attention in the educational, sustainability and business administration literature. In this article, we explore the meaning of two rather new and unfamiliar moral competencies in the field of corporate sustainability: normative competence and action competence. Because sustainability can be seen as a highly complex or ‘wicked’ problem, it is unclear what ‘normativity’ in the normative competence and ‘responsible action’ in the action competence actually mean. In (...)
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  27. Bribery and Business.J. Drake - 2021 - Encyclopedia of Business and Professional Ethics.
    The concept of bribery is important to our thinking about ethics, especially in professional contexts. This is in no small part due to the thought that, as Seamus Miller has put it, bribery is “a paradigm of corruption”. Business persons and corporate entities are often evaluated by how well they remain free from, root out, and punish corruption – especially in democratic societies. It is a common thought, for example, that a democratic institution ought to be free (...)
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  28. The New Definitions of Death for Organ Donation: A Multidisciplinary Analysis from the Perspective of Christian Ethics by Doyen Nguyen. [REVIEW]Adam Omelianchuk - 2021 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 21 (1):180-182.
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  29. Beyond Empiricism: Realizing the Ethical Mission of Management.Julian Friedland - 2012 - Business and Society Review 117 (3):329-356.
    Research into the proper mission of business falls within the context of theoretical and applied ethics. And ethics is fast becoming a part of required business school curricula. However, while business ethics research occasionally appears in high‐profile venues, it does not yet enjoy a regular place within any top management journal. I offer a partial explanation of this paradox and suggestions for resolving it. I begin by discussing the standard conception of human nature given (...)
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  30. From Grace to Disgrace.N. Craig Smith & Michelle Quirk - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics Education 1 (1):91-130.
    In June 2002, Arthur Andersen LLP became the first accounting firm in history to be criminally convicted. The repercussions were immense. From a position as one of the leading professional services firms in the world, with 85,000 staff in 84 countries and revenues in excess of $9 billion, Andersen effectively ceased to exist within a matter of months. Although Andersen’s conviction related specifically to a charge of obstructing justice, public attention focused on the audit relationship between Andersen and its (...)
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  31. Microsoft’s Partnership with UNHCR—Pro Bono Publico?Gabriele Suder & Nina Marie Nicolas - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics Education 6:183-198.
    The discussion of ethics, corporate responsibility and its educational dimensions focuses primarily on CSR, corporate citizenship and philanthropic theory and practise. The partnership between Microsoft Corporation and UNHCR was launched to help the victims of the Kosovo crisis, at the same time as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation gained momentum, and in particular, at the same time as Microsoft experienced a decrease in stock value. This case study sheds light on a decade of Microsoft Corp. efforts to align (...)
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  32. Dawkins, Richard, A Devil's Chaplain: Reflections on Hope, Lies, Science, and Love. [REVIEW]W. Malcolm Byrnes - 2004 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 4 (1):216-218.
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  33. Ruse, Michael. Can a Darwinian Be a Christian?: The Relationship between Science and Religion. [REVIEW]W. Malcolm Byrnes - 2002 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 2 (3):564-566.
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  34. Why Environmental Philosophers Should Be "Buck-Passers" about Value.Espen Dyrnes Stabell - 2021 - Environmental Ethics 43 (4):339-354.
    The value of nature has been extensively debated in environmental ethics. There has been less discussion, however, about how one should understand the relation between this value and normativity, or reasons: if something in nature is seen as valuable, how should we understand the relation between this fact and claims about reasons to, for example, protect it or promote its existence? The “commonsense” view is that value gives rise to reasons. The buck-passing account of value, on the other hand, (...)
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  35. Businesses, Technological Innovations, and Responsibility.Aatif Abbas - 2023 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 42 (3):269-290.
    This article argues that businesses are morally responsible for compensating the people harmed by their activities even if they were not negligent, i.e., the businesses took reasonable precautions. Critics of this position maintain that responsibility requires choice, and by taking precautions, businesses choose not to harm others. This article accepts their argument’s first premise but rejects the second premise. It contends that businesses often seek risky or innovative activities to increase profits, and the essence of innovative activities is that precautions (...)
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  36. Not the doctor’s business: Privacy, personal responsibility and data rights in medical settings.Carissa Véliz - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (7):712-718.
    This paper argues that assessing personal responsibility in healthcare settings for the allocation of medical resources would be too privacy-invasive to be morally justifiable. In addition to being an inappropriate and moralizing intrusion into the private lives of patients, it would put patients’ sensitive data at risk, making data subjects vulnerable to a variety of privacy-related harms. Even though we allow privacy-invasive investigations to take place in legal trials, the justice and healthcare systems are not analogous. The duty of doctors (...)
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  37. Selling "The Reason Game".Susan T. Gardner - 2015 - Teaching Ethics 15 (1):129-136.
    There is a clear distinction between genuine and fraudulent reasoning. Being seduced by the latter can result in horrific consequences. This paper explores how we can arm ourselves, and others with the ability to recognize the difference between genuine and pseudo-reasoning, with the motivation to maintain an unbending commitment to follow the “impersonal” “norm-driven” rules of reason even in situations in which “non-reasonable” strategies appear to support short-term bests interests, and with the confidence that genuine reasoning is the best defense (...)
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  38. Is Sexual Abuse by Catholic Clergy Related to Homosexuality?D. Paul Sullins - 2018 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 18 (4):671-697.
    Sexual abuse of minors by Catholic priests has been a persistent and widespread problem in the Church. Although more than 80 percent of victims have been boys, prior studies have rejected the idea that the abuse is related to homosexuality among priests. Available data show, however, that the proportion of homosexual men in the priesthood is correlated almost perfectly with the percentage of male victims and with the overall incidence of abuse. Data also show that while the incidence of abuse (...)
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  39. What should be taught in courses on social ethics?Alan Tapper - 2021 - Research in Ethical Issues in Organisations 24:77-97.
    The purpose of this article is to discuss the concept and the content of courses on “social ethics”. I will present a dilemma that arises in the design of such courses. On the one hand, they may present versions of “applied ethics”; that is, courses in which moral theories are applied to moral and social problems. On the other hand, they may present generalised forms of “occupational ethics”, usually professional ethics, with some business (...) added to expand the range of the course. Is there, then, not some middle ground that is distinctively designated by the term “social ethics”? I will argue that there is such a ground. I will describe that ground as the ethics of “social practices”. I will then illustrate how this approach to the teaching of ethics may be carried out in five domains of social practice: professional ethics, commercial ethics, corporate ethics, governmental ethics, and ethics in the voluntary sector. My aim is to show that “social ethics” courses can have a clear rationale and systematic content. (shrink)
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  40. The alleged incompatibility of business and medical ethics.Judith Andre - 1999 - HEC Forum 11 (4):288-292.
    Business Ethics and medical ethics are in principle compatible: In particular, the tools of business ethics can be useful to those doing healthcare ethics. Health care could be conducted as a business and maintain its moral core.
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  41. Combatting Consumer Madness.Wayne Henry, Mort Morehouse & Susan T. Gardner - 2017 - Teaching Ethics.
    In his 2004 article “Hannah Arendt and Jean Baudrillard: Pedagogy in the Consumer Society,” Trevor Norris bemoans the degree to which contemporary education’s focus can increasingly be described as primarily nurturing “consumers in training.” He goes on to add that the consequences of such “mindless” consumerism is that it “erodes democratic life, reduces education to the reproduction of private accumulation, prevents social resistance from expressing itself as anything other than political apathy, and transforms all human relations into commercial transactions of (...)
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  42. Професійна етика як фактор становлення й розвитку соціально-відповідальної організаційної культури туристичного підприємства.Oleksandr Krupskyi - 2014 - Вісник Дніпропетровського Університету. Сер.: Світове Господарство І Міжнародні Економічні Відносини 6 (22):23-30.
    The purpose of the article is to analyze aspects of organizational culture of professional ethics in the travel and hospitality industry and to work out recommendations for improvement in the context of the transition to sustainable tourism. The methodological basis of the study is: a) a systematic approach that allowed to consider professional ethics not only its structural components, but also with functional connections and relationships; b) professiographic approach, which discovered the specifics of professional work (...)
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  43. Ethics and Artificial Intelligence.Mark Ryan - 2021 - In Deborah C. Poff & Alex C. Michalos (eds.), Encyclopedia of Business and Professional Ethics. Springer Verlag. pp. 1-5.
    A subdiscipline has emerged around AI ethics, which is comprised of a wide array of individuals: computer scientists, ethicists, cognitive scientists, roboticists, legal professionals, economists, sociologists, gender, and race theorists. This has led to a very interesting branch of research, addressing issues surrounding the development and use of AI. This chapter will give a very brief snapshot of some of the most pertinent ethical concerns. Many of the issues in the Big Data Ethics chapter in this collection are (...)
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  44. Forum.Christoph Lütge & Zucheng Zhou - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics Education 3:75-81.
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  45. Stock, Gregory. Redesigning Humans: Our Inevitable Genetic Future. [REVIEW]W. Malcolm Byrnes - 2003 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 3 (2):427-429.
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  46. Scrolling Towards Bethlehem: Conforming to Authoritarian Social Media Laws.Yvonne Chiu - 2024 - In Carl Fox & Joe Saunders (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy and Media Ethics. Routledge. pp. 355–367.
    The social media industry lacks developed principles of professional ethics that it would need in order to better navigate the ethics of conforming to local media laws in authoritarian countries that lack meaningful protections for privacy, personal and political expression, and intellectual property. This chapter analyzes this question through three frameworks of professional ethics—journalism ethics, technology ethics, and business ethics—and the ways that social media resembles and crucially differs from these three (...)
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  47. The Usefulness of a Comprehensive Systematic Moral Theory.Bernard Gert - 2011 - Teaching Ethics 12 (1):25-38.
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  48. Professionalism, Agency, and Market Failures.Hasko von Kriegstein - 2016 - Business Ethics Quarterly 26 (4):445-464.
    According to the Market Failures Approach to business ethics, beyond-compliance duties can be derived by employing the same rationale and arguments that justify state regulation of economic conduct. Very roughly the idea is that managers have a duty to behave as if they were complying with an ideal regulatory regime ensuring Pareto-optimal market outcomes. Proponents of the approach argue that managers have a professional duty not to undermine the institutional setting that defines their role, namely the competitive (...)
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  49. Professional Ethics, Media and Good Governance.Desh Raj Sirswal - 2013 - Intellection (01):Jan-June 2013.
    Philosophy is a vast subject and it is growing day by day in many branches although it has many traditional branches like epistemology, metaphysics, ethics and logic etc. Professional ethics is a discipline of philosophy and a part of subject called as ETHICS. In professional ethics we study the morals and code of conduct to be used while one practices in his/her profession. Media is also a profession and there is also a code of (...)
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  50. Societal-Level Versus Individual-Level Predictions of Ethical Behavior: A 48-Society Study of Collectivism and Individualism.David A. Ralston, Carolyn P. Egri, Olivier Furrer, Min-Hsun Kuo, Yongjuan Li, Florian Wangenheim, Marina Dabic, Irina Naoumova, Katsuhiko Shimizu & María Teresa de la Garza Carranza - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 122 (2):283–306.
    Is the societal-level of analysis sufficient today to understand the values of those in the global workforce? Or are individual-level analyses more appropriate for assessing the influence of values on ethical behaviors across country workforces? Using multi-level analyses for a 48-society sample, we test the utility of both the societal-level and individual-level dimensions of collectivism and individualism values for predicting ethical behaviors of business professionals. Our values-based behavioral analysis indicates that values at the individual-level make a more significant contribution (...)
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