Results for 'Capone Alessandro'

97 found
Order:
  1. Interpretative Disputes, Explicatures, and Argumentative Reasoning.Fabrizio Macagno & Alessandro Capone - 2016 - Argumentation 30 (4):399-422.
    The problem of establishing the best interpretation of a speech act is of fundamental importance in argumentation and communication in general. A party in a dialogue can interpret another’s or his own speech acts in the most convenient ways to achieve his dialogical goals. In defamation law this phenomenon becomes particularly important, as the dialogical effects of a communicative move may result in legal consequences. The purpose of this paper is to combine the instruments provided by argumentation theory with the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  2. On the social practice of indirect reports.Alessandro Capone - 2010 - Journal of Pragmatics 42: 377-391.
    I propose some rules that regiment substitutions of NPs.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   16 citations  
  3. Are explicatures cancellable?Alessandro Capone - 2009 - Intercultural Pragmatics 6 (1):55-83.
    Explicatures are not cancellable. Theoretical considerations.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  4. The attributive/referential distinction, pragmatics, modularity of mind and modularization.Alessandro Capone - 2011 - Australian Journal of Linguistics 31 (2): 153-186.
    attributive/referential. Pragmatic intrusion.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  5. Default semantics and the architecture of the mind.Alessandro Capone - 2011 - Journal of Pragmatics 43:1741–1754..
    Relationship between default semantics and modularity of mind (in particular mind reading through the principle of Relevance).
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  6. Belief reports and pragmatic intrusion: the case of null appositives.Alessandro Capone - 2008 - Journal of Pragmatics 40:2019-2040.
    In this paper, I explore Bach’s idea (Bach, 2000) that null appositives, intended as expanded qua-clauses, can resolve the puzzles of belief reports. These puzzles are crucial in understanding the semantics and pragmatics of belief reports and are presented in a section. I propose that Bach’s strategy is not only a way of dealing with puzzles, but also an ideal way of dealing with belief reports. I argue that even simple unproblematic cases of belief reports are cases of pragmatic intrusion, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  7. On Grice's circle.Alessandro Capone - 2006 - Journal of Pragmatics 38:645-669.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  8. The pragmatics of indirect reports and slurring.Alessandro Capone - 2013 - In Perspectives on Linguistic Pragmatics. Springer. pp. 153-184.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  9.  26
    uncommon ground.Fabrizio Macagno & Alessandro Capone - 2016 - Intercultural Pragmatics 2 (13):151–180.
    The purpose of this paper is to show how micro-argumentation mechanisms of presumptive reasoning and reasoning from best explanation can be used for explaining some cases of presupposition cancellation. It will be shown how the relationship between presupposition triggers and pragmatic presuppositions can be analyzed in terms of presumptive and non-presumptive polyphonic articulation of an utterance, resulting in different types of commitments for the interlocutors. This approach is grounded on the two interconnected notions of presumptions and commitments. In some complex (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  10. The pragmatics of pronominal clitics and propositional attitudes.Alessandro Capone - 2013 - Intercultural Pragmatics 10 (3):459-485.
    pronominal clitics, pragmatics and propositional attitudes.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  11.  94
    Presuppositions as conversational phenomena.Alessandro Capone - 2017 - Intercultural Pragmatics 198 (198):22-37.
    In this paper, I distinguish between linguistic and non-linguistic presuppositions. I also propose that we should be interested in conversational presuppositions, which could also be called speaker-meant presuppositions or speaker's presuppositions. I also distinguish between potential and actual presuppositions. I propose that, in some cases, presuppositions can be conversationally implicated and cancellation is possible. I specify what the hard cases are and I try to explain them through ontological considerations. I try to reduce the hard cases through (a) the notion (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  12. Barack Obama’s South Carolina Speech.Alessandro Capone - 2010 - Journal of Pragmatics 42:2964–2977.
    Analysis of Barack Obama's rhetorical strategies.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  13. Knowing how and pragmatic intrusion.Alessandro Capone - 2011 - Intercultural Pragmatics 8 (4):543-570.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  14. Futher reflections on semantic minimalism: Reply to Wedgwood.Alessandro Capone - 2013 - In Perspectives on Pragmatics and Philosophy. Springer. pp. 437-474..
    semantic minimalism and moderte contextualism.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  15. On the tension between semantics and pragmatics.Alessandro Capone - 2013 - RASK: International Journal of Language and Communication 37:5-38.
    Loci of pragmatic intrusion signal the tension between semantics and pragmatics. -/- .
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  16. Consequences of the pragmatics of 'de se'.Alessandro Capone - 2013 - In Alessandro Capone & Neil Feit (eds.), Attitudes 'de se': linguistics, epistemology and metaphysics. pp. 209-244..
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  17. review of Higginbotham ed. Speaking of events. [REVIEW]Alessandro Capone - 2001 - Linguistics 39 (6): 1179–1192..
    review of Higginbotham et al. -/- A Davidsonian approach.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18. The Problem of De Se Attitudes: An Introduction to the Issues and the Essays.Neil Feit & Alessandro Capone - 2013 - In Neil Feit & Alessandro Capone (eds.), Attitudes De Se: Linguistics, Epistemology, Metaphysics. CSLI Publications. pp. 1-25.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  19.  48
    Presupoositions as pragmames: the case of exemplification acts.Alessandro Capone - 2020 - Intercultural Pragmatics (17-1):53-75.
    This paper is an example of how contextual information interacts with the interpretation of noun phrases (NPs) in discourse. When we encounter an NP escorted by the definite article or a proper name, the expectation is triggered that the speaker is referring to some referent x that the hearer can normally identify. Strawson and Russell have agreed that a referent must be associated with a definite description so that the assertion containing it can be said to be true. In the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20.  42
    Inquiries in Philosophical Pragmatics: Issues in Linguistics.Fabrizio Macagno & Alessandro Capone (eds.) - 2021 - Springer.
    Together with the first volume “Inquiries in philosophical pragmatics: Theoretical developments,” this book collects contributions that represent the state of the art on the interconnection between pragmatics and philosophy. While the first volume presents the philosophical dimension of pragmatics, showing the path from theoretical advances to practical uses and approaches, this second volume offers a specular view on this discipline. Instead of adopting the top-down view of the first volume, this collection of eleven chapters starts from the analysis of linguistic (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21.  59
    Inquiries in philosophical pragmatics. Theoretical developments.Fabrizio Macagno & Alessandro Capone (eds.) - 2021 - Cham: Springer.
    Together with the volume “Inquiries in philosophical pragmatics: Linguistic and theoretical issues,” this book collects selected contributions to the conference Pragmasophia II held in Lisbon in 2018. This first volume intends to contribute to the dialogue between philosophers and linguists, trying to broaden the boundaries of this discipline defined by the crucial notions of context and verbal action. To this purpose, the contributions are collected in an order that reflects the core and the frontiers of pragmatics, the former constituted by (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22. INDIRECT REPORTS, SLURS, AND THE POLYPHONIC SPEAKER.Capone Alessandro - 2014 - Reti, Saperi, Linguaggi: Italian Journal of Cognitive Sciences 2:301-318.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23. Viewing-as explanations and ontic dependence.William D’Alessandro - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (3):769-792.
    According to a widespread view in metaphysics and philosophy of science, all explanations involve relations of ontic dependence between the items appearing in the explanandum and the items appearing in the explanans. I argue that a family of mathematical cases, which I call “viewing-as explanations”, are incompatible with the Dependence Thesis. These cases, I claim, feature genuine explanations that aren’t supported by ontic dependence relations. Hence the thesis isn’t true in general. The first part of the paper defends this claim (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  24. Explicitism about Truth in Fiction.William D’Alessandro - 2016 - British Journal of Aesthetics 56 (1):53-65.
    The problem of truth in fiction concerns how to tell whether a given proposition is true in a given fiction. Thus far, the nearly universal consensus has been that some propositions are ‘implicitly true’ in some fictions: such propositions are not expressed by any explicit statements in the relevant work, but are nevertheless held to be true in those works on the basis of some other set of criteria. I call this family of views ‘implicitism’. I argue that implicitism faces (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  25. Arithmetic, Set Theory, Reduction and Explanation.William D’Alessandro - 2018 - Synthese 195 (11):5059-5089.
    Philosophers of science since Nagel have been interested in the links between intertheoretic reduction and explanation, understanding and other forms of epistemic progress. Although intertheoretic reduction is widely agreed to occur in pure mathematics as well as empirical science, the relationship between reduction and explanation in the mathematical setting has rarely been investigated in a similarly serious way. This paper examines an important particular case: the reduction of arithmetic to set theory. I claim that the reduction is unexplanatory. In defense (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  26.  40
    Knowledge-of-own-factivity, the definition of surprise, and a solution to the Surprise Examination paradox.Alessandro Aldini, Samuel Allen Alexander & Pierluigi Graziani - forthcoming - CIFMA 2022.
    Fitch's Paradox and the Paradox of the Knower both make use of the Factivity Principle. The latter also makes use of a second principle, namely the Knowledge-of-Factivity Principle. Both the principle of factivity and the knowledge thereof have been the subject of various discussions, often in conjunction with a third principle known as Closure. In this paper, we examine the well-known Surprise Examination paradox considering both the principles on which this paradox rests and some formal characterisations of the surprise notion, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. Explanation in mathematics: Proofs and practice.William D'Alessandro - 2019 - Philosophy Compass 14 (11):e12629.
    Mathematicians distinguish between proofs that explain their results and those that merely prove. This paper explores the nature of explanatory proofs, their role in mathematical practice, and some of the reasons why philosophers should care about them. Among the questions addressed are the following: what kinds of proofs are generally explanatory (or not)? What makes a proof explanatory? Do all mathematical explanations involve proof in an essential way? Are there really such things as explanatory proofs, and if so, how do (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  28. Vague Existence.Alessandro Torza - 2017 - In Dean Zimmerman & Karen Bennett (eds.), Oxford Studies in Metaphysics vol. 10. Oxford University Press. pp. 201-234.
    Ted Sider has famously argued that existence, in the unrestricted sense of ontology, cannot be vague, as long as vagueness is modeled by means of precisifications. The first section of Chapter 9 exposes some controversial assumptions underlying Sider’s alleged reductio of vague existence. The upshot of the discussion is that, although existence cannot be vague, it can be super-vague, i.e. higher-order vague, for all orders. The second section develops and defends a novel framework, dubbed negative supervaluationary semantics, which makes room (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  29. Proving Quadratic Reciprocity: Explanation, Disagreement, Transparency and Depth.William D’Alessandro - 2020 - Synthese (9):1-44.
    Gauss’s quadratic reciprocity theorem is among the most important results in the history of number theory. It’s also among the most mysterious: since its discovery in the late 18th century, mathematicians have regarded reciprocity as a deeply surprising fact in need of explanation. Intriguingly, though, there’s little agreement on how the theorem is best explained. Two quite different kinds of proof are most often praised as explanatory: an elementary argument that gives the theorem an intuitive geometric interpretation, due to Gauss (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  30. Is It Bad to Prefer Attractive Partners?William D'Alessandro - forthcoming - Journal of the American Philosophical Association:1-20.
    Philosophers have rightly condemned lookism—that is, discrimination in favor of attractive people or against unattractive people—in education, the justice system, the workplace and elsewhere. Surprisingly, however, the almost universal preference for attractive romantic and sexual partners has rarely received serious ethical scrutiny. On its face, it’s unclear whether this is a form of discrimination we should reject or tolerate. I consider arguments for both views. On the one hand, a strong case can be made that preferring attractive partners is bad. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31. Have Reforms Reconciled Health Rights Litigation and Priority Setting in Costa Rica?Alessandro Luciano & Alex Voorhoeve - 2019 - Health and Human Rights 21 (2):283-293.
    The experience of Costa Rica highlights the potential for conflicts between the right to health and fair priority setting. For example, one study found that most favorable rulings by the Costa Rican constitutional court concerning claims for medications under the right to health were either for experimental treatments or for medicines that should have low priority based on health gain per unit of expenditure and severity of disease. In order to better align rulings with priority setting criteria, in 2014, the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32.  72
    Necessarily Maybe. Quantifiers, Modality and Vagueness.Alessandro Torza - 2015 - In Quantifiers, Quantifiers, and Quantifiers. Themes in Logic, Metaphysics and Language. (Synthese Library vol 373). Springer. pp. 367-387.
    Languages involving modalities and languages involving vagueness have each been thoroughly studied. On the other hand, virtually nothing has been said about the interaction of modality and vagueness. This paper aims to start filling that gap. Section 1 is a discussion of various possible sources of vague modality. Section 2 puts forward a model theory for a quantified language with operators for modality and vagueness. The model theory is followed by a discussion of the resulting logic. In Section 3, the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  33.  67
    Derivative Metaphysical Indeterminacy and Quantum Physics.Alessandro Torza - 2022 - In Valia Allori (ed.), Quantum Mechanics and Fundamentality: Naturalizing Quantum Theory between Scientific Realism and Ontological Indeterminacy. Cham: Springer. pp. 337-350.
    This chapter argues that quantum indeterminacy can be construed as a merely derivative phenomenon. The possibility of merely derivative quantum indeterminacy undermines both a recent argument against quantum indeterminacy due to David Glick, and an argument against the possibility of merely derivative indeterminacy due to Elizabeth Barnes.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34. From times to worlds and back again: a transcendentist theory of persistence.Alessandro Giordani & Damiano Costa - 2013 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 2 (1):210-220.
    Until recently, an almost perfect parallelism seemed to hold between theories of identity through time and across possible worlds,as every account in the temporal case(endurantism,perdurantism, exdurantism) was mirrored by a twin account in the modal case (trans-world identity, identity-via-parts, identity-via-counterparts). Nevertheless, in the recent literature, this parallelism has been broken because of the implementation in the debate of the relation of location. In particular, endurantism has been subject to a more in-depth analysis, and different versions of it, corresponding to different (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  35. A Logic of Justification and Truthmaking.Alessandro Giordani - 2013 - Review of Symbolic Logic 6 (2):323-342.
    In the present paper we propose a system of propositional logic for reasoning about justification, truthmaking, and the connection between justifiers and truthmakers. The logic of justification and truthmaking is developed according to the fundamental ideas introduced by Artemov. Justifiers and truthmakers are treated in a similar way, exploiting the intuition that justifiers provide epistemic grounds for propositions to be considered true, while truthmakers provide ontological grounds for propositions to be true. This system of logic is then applied both for (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  36.  36
    A compendium of paradoxes. [REVIEW]William D’Alessandro - 2022 - Metascience 31 (3):1-4.
    A review of Matt Cook's book Sleight of Mind: 75 Ingenious Paradoxes in Mathematics, Physics, and Philosophy.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  37. A New Semantics for Systems of Logic of Essence.Alessandro Giordani - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (3):411-440.
    The purpose of the present paper is to provide a way of understanding systems of logic of essence by introducing a new semantic framework for them. Three central results are achieved: first, the now standard Fitting semantics for the propositional logic of evidence is adapted in order to provide a new, simplified semantics for the propositional logic of essence; secondly, we show how it is possible to construe the concept of necessary truth explicitly by using the concept of essential truth; (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  38. Modeling Measurement: Error and Uncertainty.Alessandro Giordani & Luca Mari - 2014 - In Marcel Boumans, Giora Hon & Arthur Petersen (eds.), Error and Uncertainty in Scientific Practice. Pickering & Chatto. pp. 79-96.
    In the last few decades the role played by models and modeling activities has become a central topic in the scientific enterprise. In particular, it has been highlighted both that the development of models constitutes a crucial step for understanding the world and that the developed models operate as mediators between theories and the world. Such perspective is exploited here to cope with the issue as to whether error-based and uncertainty-based modeling of measurement are incompatible, and thus alternative with one (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  39. Teaching and Learning Guide for: Explanation in Mathematics: Proofs and Practice.William D'Alessandro - 2019 - Philosophy Compass 14 (11):e12629.
    This is a teaching and learning guide to accompany "Explanation in Mathematics: Proofs and Practice".
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40. A new framework for justification logic.Alessandro Giordani - 2015 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 25 (4):308-323.
    The logic of justification provides an in-depth analysis of the epistemic states of an agent. This paper aims at solving some of the problems to which the common interpretation of the operators of justification logic is subject by providing a framework in which a crucial distinction between potential and explicit justifiers is exploited. The paper is subdivided into three sections. The first section offers an introduction to a basic system LJ of justification logic and to the problems concerning its interpretation. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  41. Practical Abilities and Logic Notes on a Pragmatist Approach to Logical Constants.Alessandro Moscaritolo - 2014 - Episteme NS: Revista Del Instituto de Filosofía de la Universidad Central de Venezuela 55 (1):65-83.
    This paper’s aim is to help winnow out some ideas about the role of formal logic in human doings at large. I start by discussing some metaphysical presuppositions of logical theory; specifically, I attempt to work towards a clearer understanding of the role of modalities, together with the notions of meaning and truth, in mainstream logical theory. I then appeal to a modal formal semantics (Brandom, 2007a) in order to outline the cognitive role of logical constants in general. From these (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42. Basic Action Deontic Logic.Alessandro Giordani & Ilaria Canavotto - 2016 - In O. Roy, T. Allard & W. Malte (eds.), Deontic Logic and Normative Systems. College Publications. pp. 80-92.
    The aim of this paper is to introduce a system of dynamic deontic logic in which the main problems related to the de finition of deontic concepts, especially those emerging from a standard analysis of permission in terms of possibility of doing an action without incurring in a violation of the law, are solved. The basic idea is to introduce two crucial distinctions allowing us to differentiate (i) what is ideal with respect to a given code, which fixes the types (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  43.  47
    Transferable and Fixable Proofs.William D'Alessandro - forthcoming - Episteme.
    A proof P of a theorem T is transferable when a typical expert can become convinced of T solely on the basis of their prior knowledge and the information contained in P. Easwaran has argued that transferability is a constraint on acceptable proof. Meanwhile, a proof P is fixable when it’s possible for other experts to correct any mistakes P contains without having to develop significant new mathematics. Habgood-Coote and Tanswell have observed that some acceptable proofs are both fixable and (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44. La topologica.Alessandro Afriat - 2013 - In Isabella Tassani (ed.), Oltre la fisica normale. Interpretazioni alternative e teorie non standard nella fisica moderna. pp. 14-19.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  45. The Truthmaker Solution to the Gettier Problems.Alessandro Giordani - 2015 - Epistemologia 38:66-78.
    A truthmaker solution to the Gettier problems is based on the idea that knowledge can be defined as justified true belief provided that the source of one’s justification is suitably connected with what makes the believed proposition true. Different developments of this basic intuition have been recently criticized on the basis of a series of arguments aiming at showing that no truthmaker theory can allow us to solve Gettier problems, since the very idea underlying such solution is ineffective. In this (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46. An Internal Limit of the Structural Analysis of Causation.Alessandro Giordani - 2016 - Axiomathes 26 (4):429-450.
    Structural models of systems of causal connections have become a common tool in the analysis of the concept of causation. In the present paper I offer a general argument to show that one of the most powerful definitions of the concept of actual cause, provided within the structural models framework, is not sufficient to grant a full account of our intuitive judgements about actual causation, so that we are still waiting for a comprehensive definition. This is done not simply by (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47. On the factivity of implicit intersubjective knowledge.Alessandro Giordani - 2014 - Synthese 191 (8):1909-1923.
    The concept of knowledge can be modelled in epistemic modal logic and, if modelled by using a standard modal operator, it is subject to the problem of logical omniscience. The classical solution to this problem is to distinguish between implicit and explicit knowledge and to construe the knowledge operator as capturing the concept of implicit knowledge. In addition, since a proposition is said to be implicitly known just in case it is derivable from the set of propositions that are explicitly (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48.  43
    Unrealistic Models in Mathematics.William D'Alessandro - 2022 - Philosophers’ Imprint.
    Models are indispensable tools of scientific inquiry, and one of their main uses is to improve our understanding of the phenomena they represent. How do models accomplish this? And what does this tell us about the nature of understanding? While much recent work has aimed at answering these questions, philosophers' focus has been squarely on models in empirical science. I aim to show that pure mathematics also deserves a seat at the table. I begin by presenting two cases: Cramér’s random (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  49. On a New Tentative Solution to Fitch’s Paradox.Alessandro Giordani - 2016 - Erkenntnis 81 (3):597-611.
    In a recent paper, Alexander argues that relaxing the requirement that sound knowers know their own soundness might provide a solution to Fitch’s paradox and introduces a suitable axiomatic system where the paradox is avoided. In this paper an analysis of this solution is proposed according to which the effective move for solving the paradox depends on the axiomatic treatment of the ontic modality rather than the limitations imposed on the epistemic one. It is then shown that, once the ontic (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50.  15
    Entre a filosofia e as ciências sociais.Alessandro Cavassin Alves - 2019 - Basilíade - Revista de Filosofia 1 (2):09-21.
    O presente artigo busca pensar os limites entre Filosofia e Ciências Sociais, e que, apesar de serem conhecimentos distintos, estão muito mais imbricadas do que separadas, devido ao seu caráter reflexivo e lógico sobre os temas que intrigam a humanidade. Um problema conjunto é o próprio caráter do que fundamentaria a sociedade. Tal motivação provém de um exemplo particular, que é pensar a existência de um ente superior e anterior aos indivíduos, capaz de dar sentido à existência, mas também de (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 97