Results for 'Formalism'

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  1. Logicism, Formalism, and Intuitionism.A. P. Bird - 2021 - Cantor's Paradise (00):00.
    This paper objectively defines the three main contemporary philosophies of mathematics: formalism, logicism, and intuitionism. Being the three leading scientists of each: Hilbert (formalist), Frege (logicist), and Poincaré (intuitionist).
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  2. Formalism.Frederick Schauer - 1988 - Yale Law Journal 97 (4):509-548.
    Legal decisions and theories are frequently condemned as formalistic, yet little discussion has occurred regarding exactly what the term "'formalism" means. In this Article, Professor Schauer examines divergent uses of the term to elucidate its descriptive content. Conceptions offormalism, he argues, involve the notion that rules constrict the choice of the decisionmaker. Our aversion to formalism stems from denial that the language of rules either can or should constrict choice in this way. Yet Professor Schauer argues that this (...)
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  3. The Inauguration of Formalism: Aestheticism and the Productive Opacity Principle.Michalle Gal - 2022 - Journal of Comparative Literature and Aesthetics 2 (24):20-30.
    This essay presents the Aestheticism of the 19th century as the foundational movement of modernist-formalist aesthetics of the 20th century. The main principle of this movement is what I denominate “productive opacity”. Aestheticism has not been recognized as a philosophical aesthetic theory. However, its definition of artwork as an exclusive kind of form—a deep, opaque form—is among the most precise ever given in the discipline. This essay offers an interpretation of aestheticism as a formalist theory, referred to here as “deep (...)
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  4. Frege, Thomae, and Formalism: Shifting Perspectives.Richard Lawrence - 2023 - Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 11 (2):1-23.
    Mathematical formalism is the the view that numbers are "signs" and that arithmetic is like a game played with such signs. Frege's colleague Thomae defended formalism using an analogy with chess, and Frege's critique of this analogy has had a major influence on discussions in analytic philosophy about signs, rules, meaning, and mathematics. Here I offer a new interpretation of formalism as defended by Thomae and his predecessors, paying close attention to the mathematical details and historical context. (...)
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  5. Frege, Hankel, and Formalism in the Foundations.Richard Lawrence - 2021 - Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 9 (11).
    Frege says, at the end of a discussion of formalism in the Foundations of Arithmetic, that his own foundational program “could be called formal” but is “completely different” from the view he has just criticized. This essay examines Frege’s relationship to Hermann Hankel, his main formalist interlocutor in the Foundations, in order to make sense of these claims. The investigation reveals a surprising result: Frege’s foundational program actually has quite a lot in common with Hankel’s. This undercuts Frege’s claim (...)
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  6. A Critique of Moderate Formalism.Simon Fokt - 2013 - Estetika: The European Journal of Aesthetics 50 (1):41-52.
    Moderate formalism is the view that all artworks which have aesthetic properties have formal aesthetic properties, and some but not all of those works also have non-formal aesthetic properties. Nick Zangwill develops this view in his Metaphysics of Beauty after having argued against its alternatives – extreme formalism and anti-formalism. This article reviews his arguments against the rivals of moderate formalism, and argues that the rejection of anti-formalism is unjustified. Zangwill does not succeed in proving (...)
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  7. Schopenhauerian Musical Formalism: Meaningfulness without Meaning.Chenyu Bu - 2023 - Journal of Comparative Literature and Aesthetics 46 (4):70-79.
    I develop Schopenhauerian musical formalism. First, I present a Schopenhauerian account of music with a background of his metaphysical framework. Then, I define meaningfulness as an analog to a Kantian notion of purposiveness and argue that, in light of Schopenhauer, music is meaningful as a direct manifestation of the universal will. Given the ineffable nature of what music points to, its form lacks any representation of meaning. Music is therefore the mere form of meaningfulness, and it is precisely this (...)
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  8. Legal Formalism, Legal Realism, and the Interpretation of Statutes and the Constitution.Richard Posner - 1986 - Case Western Reserve Law Review 37 (2):179–217.
    A current focus of legal debate is the proper role of the courts in the interpretation of statutes and the Constitution. Are judges to look solely to the naked language of an enactment, then logically deduce its application in simple syllogistic fashion, as legal formalists had purported to do? Or may the inquiry into meaning be informed by perhaps unbridled and unaccountable judicial notions of public policy, using legal realism to best promote the general welfare? Judge Posner considers the concepts (...)
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  9. Eduard Hanslick's Formalism and His Most Influential Contemporary Critics.Sanja Sreckovic - 2014 - Belgrade Philosophical Annual 27:113-134.
    The paper deals with the formalistic view on music presented in Eduard Hanslick’s treatise On the Musically Beautiful, which is taken to be the foundingwork of the aesthtetics of music. In the paper I propose an interpretation of Hanslick’s treatise which differs on many points from the interpretations displayed in the works of several most influential contemporary aestheticians of music. My main thesis is that Hanslick’s treatise is misunderstood and incorrectly presented by these authors. I try to demonstrate this thesis (...)
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  10. Hanslick's Formalism as the Beginning of Contemporary Aesthetics of Music.Sanja Sreckovic - 2021 - Kritika 2 (2):299-314.
    The article presents Hanslick’s aesthetic formalism as the starting point of the contemporary aesthetics of music. His book, written in the 19th century, is considered contemporary because it still proves to be influential and fruitful in the contemporary theoretical circles, especially in the modern analytic aesthetics of music, where it is widely cited and discussed. The article positions Hanslick’s book in relation to his nearest predecessors Kant and Herbart, and to the neighbouring area where the formalistic view appeared, namely (...)
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  11. The Formalist Picture of Cognition. Towards a Total Demystification.Karlis Podnieks - manuscript
    This paper represents a philosophical experiment inspired by the formalist philosophy of mathematics. In the formalist picture of cognition, the principal act of knowledge generation is represented as tentative postulation – as introduction of a new knowledge construct followed by exploration of the consequences that can be derived from it. Depending on the result, the new construct may be accepted as normative, rejected, modified etc. Languages and means of reasoning are generated and selected in a similar process. In the formalist (...)
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  12. Aesthetic Formalism, Reactions and Solutions.Khosrow Bagheri Noaparast & Mohammad Zoheir Bagheri Noaparast - 2011 - Wisdom and Philosophy 6 (4):101-112.
    It seems necessary to introduce the basic concepts used in this article i.e. formalism, anti-formalism and moderate formalism. Formalists believe that the aesthetic appreciation of an art work generally involves an attentive awareness of its sensory or conceptual qualities and does not require knowledge about its non-perceptual properties. Anti-formalists on the hand hold that noon of the aesthetic properties in the work of art are formal. A number of philosophers have recently advocated a more moderate formalism. (...)
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  13. Wittgenstein and Musical Formalism: A Case Revisited.Hanne Appelqvist - 2019 - Apeiron 1 (10):9-27.
    This article defends a formalist interpretation of Wittgenstein’s later thought on music by comparing it with Eduard Hanslick’s musical formalism. In doing so, it returns to a disagreement I have had with Bela Szabados who, in his book Wittgenstein as a Philosophical Tone-Poet, claims that the attribution of formalism obscures the role that music played in the development of Wittgenstein’s thought. The paper scrutinizes the four arguments Szabados presents to defend his claim, pertaining to alleged differences between Wittgenstein (...)
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  14. Art and Ethics: Formalism, in James Harold (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Ethics and Art.Michalle Gal (ed.) - 2023 - London: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter presents the formalist account of the moral status of an artwork as an aesthetically significant and autonomous form, with due emphasis on the Anglo-American art-for-art’s-sake aesthetic, as it developed between 1870 and 1960. The author shows that the formalist art-is-above-morals approach is a substantive moral stance in itself. Formalist aesthetics is usually presented in the literature as evincing a purist indifference to ethics, construing moral properties as external to art, in opposition to the internal pure properties of art’s (...)
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  15. Formalism, History & Reflections: Math & Logic (translated).Jesús Aparicio de Soto - 2022 - ResearchGate GmbH.
    Developments in the realm of formal sciences and math foundations during the twentieth century were marked by important methodological advances. Such new approaches partialy owe their appearance to the abandonment of the previous paradigm. To identify how this transition occured, in this essay we observe some aspects regarding the works of Gödel and Tarski, who, under a certain interpretations, restructure epistemological bases of math's formalisms. It'll be argued that the theoretical variabilities produced in abstract sciences upon weakening previous viewpoints forced (...)
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  16. An interpretation of the formalism of quantum mechanics in terms of realism.Arthur Jabs - 1992 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43 (3):405-421.
    We present an alternative to the Copenhagen interpretation of the formalism of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. The basic difference is that the new inter- pretation is formulated in the language of epistemological realism. It involves a change in some basic physical concepts. Elementary particles are considered as extended objects and nonlocal effects are included. The role of the new concepts in the problems of measurement and of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations is described. Experiments to distinguish the proposed interpretation from the Copenhagen (...)
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  17. The Classical Trinity and Kant's Aesthetic Formalism.Jennifer A. McMahon - 2010 - Critical Horizons 11 (3):419-441.
    I identify two mutually exclusive notions of formalism in Kant’s Critique of Aesthetic Judgement: a thin concept of aesthetic formalism and a thick concept of aesthetic formalism. Arguably there is textual support for both concepts in Kant’s third critique. I offer interpretations of three key elements in the Critique of Aesthetic Judgement which support a thick formalism. The three key elements are: Harmony of the Faculties, Aesthetic Ideas and Sensus Communis. I interpret these concepts in relation (...)
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  18. Fourteen Arguments in Favour of a Formalist Philosophy of Real Mathematics.Karlis Podnieks - 2015 - Baltic Journal of Modern Computing 3 (1):1-15.
    The formalist philosophy of mathematics (in its purest, most extreme version) is widely regarded as a “discredited position”. This pure and extreme version of formalism is called by some authors “game formalism”, because it is alleged to represent mathematics as a meaningless game with strings of symbols. Nevertheless, I would like to draw attention to some arguments in favour of game formalism as an appropriate philosophy of real mathematics. For the most part, these arguments have not yet (...)
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  19. Beyond Formalism[REVIEW]Michael McKinsey - 1997 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (3):709-713.
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    Formalism expanded. [REVIEW]Byron Davies - 2024 - Necsus 2024.
    Review essay of The Shape of Motion: Cinema and the Aesthetics of Movement by Jordan Schonig (Oxford University Press, 2022) and Disformations: Affects, Media, Literature by Tomáš Jirsa (Bloomsbury Academic, 2021).
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  21. Evaluation of post-Einsteinian gravitational theories through parameterized post-Newtonian formalism.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Right after the elaboration and success of general relativity (GR), alternative theories for gravity began to appear. In order to verify and classify all these theories, specific tests have been developed, based on self-consistency and on completeness. In the field of experimental gravity, one of the important applications is formalism. For the evaluation of gravity models, several sets of tests have been proposed. Parameterized post-Newtonian formalism considers approximations of Einstein's gravity equations by the lowest order deviations from Newton's (...)
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  22. Visual Metaphors and Aesthetics: A Formalist Theory of Metaphor.Michalle Gal - 2022 - London, UK: Bloomsbury Puplishing.
    This book offers a new definition of metaphor-as an ontological and visual construction, whose roots are external visual forms, and its motivation is our attachment to forms. This definition, which Michalle Gal names “visualist,” challenges the ruling conceptualist theory of metaphors and places a new emphasis on how we experience rather than understand metaphors. In doing so, she responds to the visual turn that is taking place in literature and the media, demanding that the visual become a site of philosophical (...)
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  23. Why Judicial Formalism is Incompatible with the Rule of Law.Matczak Marcin - manuscript
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  24. Review of Susan Haack, Deviant Logic, Fuzzy Logic: Beyond the Formalism[REVIEW]Achille C. Varzi - 1998 - Philosophical Review 107 (3):468-471.
    Book information: Deviant Logic, Fuzzy Logic: Beyond The Formalism. By SUSAN HAACK. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1996. Pp. xxvi, 291.
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  25. The dynamics of stock exchange based on the formalism of weak continuous quantum measurement.S. I. Melnyk & I. G. Tuluzov - 2010 - Journal of Physics 238 (012035):1-9.
    The problem of measurement in economic models and the possibility of their quantum-mechanical description are considered. It is revealed that the apparent paradox of such a description is associated with a priori requirement of conformity of the model to all the alternatives of free choice of the observer. The measurement of the state of a trader on a stock exchange is formally defined as his responses to the proposals of sale at a fixed price. It is shown that an analogue (...)
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  26. Some resonances between Eastern thought and Integral Biomathics in the framework of the WLIMES formalism for modelling living systems.Plamen L. Simeonov & Andree C. Ehresmann - forthcoming - Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 131 (Special).
    Forty-two years ago, Capra published “The Tao of Physics” (Capra, 1975). In this book (page 17) he writes: “The exploration of the atomic and subatomic world in the twentieth century has …. necessitated a radical revision of many of our basic concepts” and that, unlike ‘classical’ physics, the sub-atomic and quantum “modern physics” shows resonances with Eastern thoughts and “leads us to a view of the world which is very similar to the views held by mystics of all ages and (...)
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  27. Refuting Tarski and Gödel with a Sound Deductive Formalism.P. Olcott - manuscript
    The conventional notion of a formal system is adapted to conform to the sound deductive inference model operating on finite strings. Finite strings stipulated to have the semantic value of Boolean true provide the sound deductive premises. Truth preserving finite string transformation rules provide the valid deductive inference. Sound deductive conclusions are the result of these finite string transformation rules.
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  28. Legal causation.Thomas Byrne - 2022 - Jurisprudence 14 (1):55-75.
    I propose a new formalist account of legal (/proximate) causation – one that holds legal causation to be a matter of amoral, descriptive fact. The account starts with a metaphysical relation, akin to but distinct from common-sense causation, and it argues that legal causation aligns exactly with that relation; it is unified and principled.
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  29. The Default Theory of Aesthetic Value.James Shelley - 2019 - British Journal of Aesthetics 59 (1):1-12.
    The default theory of aesthetic value combines hedonism about aesthetic value with strict perceptual formalism about aesthetic value, holding the aesthetic value of an object to be the value it has in virtue of the pleasure it gives strictly in virtue of its perceptual properties. A standard theory of aesthetic value is any theory of aesthetic value that takes the default theory as its theoretical point of departure. This paper argues that standard theories fail because they theorize from the (...)
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  30. Art and Form: From Roger Fry to Global Modernism.Sam Rose - 2019 - University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
    From the publisher: -/- This important new study reevaluates British art writing and the rise of formalism in the visual arts from 1900 to 1939. Taking Roger Fry as his starting point, Sam Rose rethinks how ideas about form influenced modernist culture and the movement’s significance to art history today. -/- In the context of modernism, formalist critics are often thought to be interested in art rather than life, a stance exemplified in their support for abstract works that exclude (...)
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  31. Moved by Music Alone.Tom Cochrane - 2021 - British Journal of Aesthetics 61 (4):455-470.
    In this paper I present an account of musical arousal that takes into account key demands of formalist philosophers such as Peter Kivy and Nick Zangwill. Formalists prioritise our understanding and appreciation of the music itself. As a result, they demand that any feelings we have in response to music must be directed at the music alone, without being distracted by non-musical associations. To accommodate these requirements I appeal to a mechanism of contagion which I synthesize with the expectation-based arousal (...)
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  32. Czy matematyka jest składnią języka? Kurta Gödla argument przeciwko formalizmowi.Maciej Głowacki - 2021 - Filozofia Nauki 29 (113):43-61.
    In this paper, I critically examine Kurt Gödel’s argument against the syntactic interpretation of mathematics. While the main aim is to analyze the argument, I also wish to underscore the relevance of the original elements of Gödel’s philosophical thought. The paper consists of four parts. In the first part, I introduce the reader to Gödel’s philosophy. In the second part, I reconstruct the formalist stance in the philosophy of mathematics, which is the object of Gödel’s criticism. In the third part, (...)
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  33. Balancing Freedom and Restraint: The Role of Virtue in Legal Analysis.Harold Anthony Lloyd - 2023 - Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal 32:315-353.
    Even if one sees the law as “a self-contained system of legal reasoning” from which we deduce “neutral,” non-political conclusions from “general principles and analogies among cases and doctrines” (including formalist claims that judges simply call “balls and strikes” like umpires in a baseball game), one should still consider certain characteristics of the party making such deductions or calling such “balls and strikes.” [Relevant citations to quoted language are in the Article.] If such decision maker has questionable motivations, lacks proper (...)
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  34. Český Greenberg? Mukařovský a estetický formalismus.Tomas Hribek - 2015 - Sešit Pro Umění, Teorii a Příbuzné Zóny 19:6-26.
    [A Czech Greenberg? Mukařovský and Aesthetic Formalism] This article revisits Tomáš Pospiszyl’s discussion of the split between the North American and the Czechoslovak postwar modernism as a difference between the views of two critics who dominated the American and the Czechoslovak art scene, respectively--Clement Greenberg and Jindřich Chalupecký. Pospiszyl convincingly traces the evolution of American art to what has been called Greenberg’s “formalism,” and the developments on the Czechoslovak scene to Chalupecký’s ideas about art as part of social (...)
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  35. Visuality of Metaphors.Michalle Gal - 2020 - Cognitive Linguistic Study 7 (1):58 - 77.
    This paper proposes to define metaphor as a visual-material structure, the sphere of which is ontological rather than cognitive or conceptual. It argues that the essence of metaphor, as either an aesthetic or a communicative unit or both, resides in the qualitative dimension and appearance, or even materiality, of the metaphorical medium and its form. The paper thus offers a new theory of metaphor, focusing on the medium of metaphor, which composes and transfigures or reconstructs its target anew: a composition (...)
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  36. The Ecology of Form.Devin Griffiths - 2021 - Critical Inquiry 48 (1):68-93.
    This article intervenes in recent formalist and ecocritical debates, drawing on the philosophy of Charles Darwin and Édouard Glissant to develop an ecopoetic theory of relational form. Gathering perspectives from ecocriticism and new materialism, literary criticism and comparative literature, the history and philosophy of science, postcolonial theory, critical race theory, and Black studies, it reads form as an interdisciplinary object that is part of the world, rather than an imposed feature of human language or perception. In this way, it produces (...)
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  37. Phenomenological perspectives on economics: Schütz versus Düppe.Petr Špecián - 2019 - HORIZON. Studies in Phenomenology 8 (2):613-631.
    The article explores novel directions in the phenomenology of economics. It analyzes how the approaches of Till Düppe and Alfred Schütz, both inspired by Edmund Husserl, may shed light on the historical development of economics. I examine the substance and meaning of economics in the context of the forceful criticism of the whole discipline recently raised by Düppe. This examination uncovers important weaknesses and omissions inherent in Düppe’s argument against the economists’ scientific aspirations. The analysis of the social scientific endeavors (...)
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  38. Reason Alone Cannot Identify Moral Laws.Noriaki Iwasa - 2013 - Journal of Value Inquiry 47 (1-2):67-85.
    Immanuel Kant's moral thesis is that reason alone must identify moral laws. Examining various interpretations of his ethics, this essay shows that the thesis fails. G. W. F. Hegel criticizes Kant's Formula of Universal Law as an empty formalism. Although Christine Korsgaard's Logical and Practical Contradiction Interpretations, Barbara Herman's contradiction in conception and contradiction in will tests, and Kenneth Westphal's paired use of Kant's universalization test all refute what Allen Wood calls a stronger form of the formalism charge, (...)
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  39. Making Good Sense: Pragmatism's Mastery of Meaning, Truth, and Workable Rule of Law.Harold Anthony Lloyd - forthcoming - Wake Forest Journal of Law and Policy.
    The hermeneutic pragmatism explored in this article timely examines how “post-truth” claims over-estimate semantic freedoms while at the same time underestimating semantic and pre-semantic restraints. Such pragmatism also timely examines how formalists err by committing the reverse errors. Drawing on insights from James, Peirce, Putnam, Rorty, Gadamer, Derrida, and others, such hermeneutic pragmatism explores (1) the necessary role of both internal and objective experience in meaning, (2) the resulting instrumental nature of concepts required to deal with such experience, (3) the (...)
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  40. Toward an Archetypal Narrative: A Jungian-inspired Archetypal Criticism of Propp’s Recurring Narratemes Thesis.Hicham Jakha - 2022 - Beyond Philology: An International Journal of Linguistics, Literary Studies and English Language Teaching 19 (3):111-149.
    In this paper, I attempt to find a middle ground between the formalist critic, Vladimir Propp, and the psychoanalytic critic, Carl Jung. I argue that, instead of regarding Russian formalism and psychoanalysis as irreconcilable adversaries, the theories of the two figures can (and should) be unified; the result of which can be devised to establish a theory of what I call an ‘‘archetypal narrative’’. To be more explicit, Propp’s Morphology and Jung’s archetypal psychoanalysis are reconciled to bring about an (...)
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  41. Impurely Musical Make-Believe.Eran Guter & Inbal Guter - 2015 - In Alexander Bareis & Lene Nordrum (eds.), How to Make-Believe: The Fictional Truths of the Representational Arts. De Gruyter. pp. 283-306.
    In this study we offer a new way of applying Kendall Walton’s theory of make-believe to musical experiences in terms of psychologically inhibited games of make-believe, which Walton attributes chiefly to ornamental representations. Reading Walton’s theory somewhat against the grain, and supplementing our discussion with a set of instructive examples, we argue that there is clear theoretical gain in explaining certain important aspects of composition and performance in terms of psychologically inhibited games of make-believe consisting of two interlaced game-worlds. Such (...)
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  42. Summa iniuria. O błędzie formalizmu w stosowaniu prawa.Marcin Matczak - 2007 - Scholar.
    The study is focused on analysing formalism which is a strategy of applying laws by stressing the formal features of the law, even if the consequences of the strategy like that are difficult to accept in light of legal principles and the general requirement of equity. Contrary to the common view presented in the legal literature, the study sets out arguments that the formalism is neither justified in the tradition of legal positivism, neither in the idea of the (...)
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  43. Langdell and the Eclipse of Character.Harold Anthony Lloyd - forthcoming - University of Pittsburgh Law Review.
    Christopher Columbus Langdell has not only damaged the study of law with his three follies: his legal formalism, his redacted appellate case method, and his notion that legal practice taints the professor of law. His three follies have also impaired character development critical for legal actors. This Article focuses on four such critical character traits and virtues impaired by Langdell: (i) imagination, (ii) empathy, (ii) balance, and (iv) integrity. -/- This Article also calls out potential character issues with two (...)
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  44. Scientia formalitatum. The Emergence of a New Discipline in the Renaissance.Claus A. Andersen - 2024 - Noctua 11 (2):200-257.
    The Formalist tradition in late-scholastic philosophy has gone unnoticed in standard historiography. This article’s overall objective is to add the Formalist tradition to what we know about Renaissance philosophy. I first show how the Formalist tradition was born out of some innovative considerations of hierarchies of distinctions in the wake of the Franciscan John Duns Scotus’s teaching on the formal distinction in the beginning of the fourteenth century (especially Francis of Meyronnes’s model of four distinctions and Petrus Thomae’s more elaborate (...)
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  45. A theory of the epigenesis of neuronal networks by selective stabilization of synapses.Jean Pierre Changeux, Philippe Courrège & Antoine Danchin - 1973 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Usa 70 (10):2974-8.
    A formalism is introduced to represent the connective organization of an evolving neuronal network and the effects of environment on this organization by stabilization or degeneration of labile synapses associated with functioning. Learning, or the acquisition of an associative property, is related to a characteristic variability of the connective organization: the interaction of the environment with the genetic program is printed as a particular pattern of such organization through neuronal functioning. An application of the theory to the development of (...)
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  46. Non-mathematical Content by Mathematical Means.Sam Adam-Day - manuscript
    In this paper, I consider the use of mathematical results in philosophical arguments arriving at conclusions with non-mathematical content, with the view that in general such usage requires additional justification. As a cautionary example, I examine Kreisel’s arguments that the Continuum Hypothesis is determined by the axioms of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory, and interpret Weston’s 1976 reply as showing that Kreisel fails to provide sufficient justification for the use of his main technical result. If we take the perspective that mathematical results (...)
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  47. Fictionalising Jurisprudence: An Introduction to Strong Legal Fictionalism.David Gawthorne - 2013 - Australian Journal of Legal Philosophy 38:52-73.
    The proposed theoretical motivation for legal fictionalism begins by focusing upon the seemingly supernatural powers of creation and control that mere mortals exercise over legal things, as a subclass of socially constructed things. This focus brings to the fore a dilemma of uncharitableness concerning the ontological commitments expressed in the discourse of whole societies about such things. Either, there is widespread equivocation as to the fundamental concept expressed by terms such as ‘existence’ or our claims about legal and other institutional (...)
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  48. Standard Quantum Theory Derived from First Physical Principles.Mehran Shaghaghi - manuscript
    The mathematical formalism of quantum theory has been known for almost a century, but its physical foundation has remained elusive. In recent decades, many physicists have noted connections between quantum theory and information theory. In this study, we present a physical account of the derivation of quantum theory's mathematical formalism based on information considerations in physical systems. We postulate that quantum systems are physical systems with only one independent adjustable variable. Using this physical postulate along with the conservation (...)
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  49. Convention and Representation in Music.Hannah H. Kim - 2023 - Philosophers' Imprint 23 (1).
    In philosophy of music, formalists argue that pure instrumental music is unable to represent any content without the help of lyrics, titles, or dramatic context. In particular, they deny that music’s use of convention counts as a genuine case of representation because only intrinsic means of representing counts and conventions are extrinsic to the sound structures making up music. In this paper, I argue that convention should count as a way for music to genuinely represent content for two reasons. First, (...)
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  50. Principles of mathematics.Bertrand Russell - 1931 - New York,: W.W. Norton & Company.
    Published in 1903, this book was the first comprehensive treatise on the logical foundations of mathematics written in English. It sets forth, as far as possible without mathematical and logical symbolism, the grounds in favour of the view that mathematics and logic are identical. It proposes simply that what is commonly called mathematics are merely later deductions from logical premises. It provided the thesis for which _Principia Mathematica_ provided the detailed proof, and introduced the work of Frege to a wider (...)
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