Results for 'Types'

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  1. Analyzing Types of Cherry Using Deep Learning.Izzeddin A. Alshawwa, Hosni Qasim El-Mashharawi, Mohammed Elkahlout, Mohammed O. Al-Shawwa & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2020 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 4 (1):1-5.
    A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit), Michigan's Northwest Lower Peninsula is the largest producer of tart cherries in the United States. In fact, grow 75% of the country's variety of mighty Montmorency cherries. We use these Ruby Red Morsels of Joy in over 200 cherry products like Salsas, Chocolate Covered Cherries, Cherry Nut Mixes, and much more. Cherry fruits are rich in vitamins and minerals, and it is (...)
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  2. Repeatable Artworks as Created Types.Lee Walters - 2013 - British Journal of Aesthetics 53 (4):461-477.
    I sketch here an intuitive picture of repeatable artworks as created types, which are individuated in part by historical paths (re)production. Although attractive, this view has been rejected by a number of authors on the basis of general claims about abstract objects. On consideration, however, these general claims are overgeneralizations, which whilst true of some abstracta, are not true of all abstract objects, and in particular, are not true of created types. The intuitive picture of repeatable artworks as (...)
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  3. Recognizing Argument Types and Adding Missing Reasons.Christoph Lumer - 2019 - In Bart J. Garssen, David Godden, Gordon Mitchell & Jean Wagemans (eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth Conference of the International Society for the Study of Argumentation (ISSA). [Amsterdam, July 3-6, 2018.]. Amsterdam (Netherlands): pp. 769-777.
    The article develops and justifies, on the basis of the epistemological argumentation theory, two central pieces of the theory of evaluative argumentation interpretation: 1. criteria for recognizing argument types and 2. rules for adding reasons to create ideal arguments. Ad 1: The criteria for identifying argument types are a selection of essential elements from the definitions of the respective argument types. Ad 2: After presenting the general principles for adding reasons (benevolence, authenticity, immanence, optimization), heuristics are proposed (...)
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  4.  78
    Cell Types as Natural Kinds.Matthew H. Slater - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (2):170-179.
    Talk of different types of cells is commonplace in the biological sciences. We know a great deal, for example, about human muscle cells by studying the same type of cells in mice. Information about cell type is apparently largely projectible across species boundaries. But what defines cell type? Do cells come pre-packaged into different natural kinds? Philosophical attention to these questions has been extremely limited [see e.g., Wilson (Species: New Interdisciplinary Essays, pp 187–207, 1999; Genes and the Agents of (...)
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  5. Originalism About Word Types.Luca Gasparri - 2016 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 5 (2):126-133.
    According to Originalism, word types are non-eternal continuants which are individuated by their causal-historical lineage and have a unique possible time of origination. This view collides with the intuition that individual words can be added to the lexicon of a language at different times, and generates other problematic consequences. The paper shows that such undesired results can be accommodated without abandoning Originalism.
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  6.  75
    An Improved Ontological Representation of Dendritic Cells as a Paradigm for All Cell Types.Masci Anna Maria, N. Arighi Cecilia, D. Diehl Alexander, E. Lieberman Anne, Mungall Chris, H. Scheuermann Richard, Barry Smith & G. Cowell Lindsay - 2009 - BMC Bioinformatics 10 (1):70.
    The Cell Ontology (CL) is designed to provide a standardized representation of cell types for data annotation. Currently, the CL employs multiple is_a relations, defining cell types in terms of histological, functional, and lineage properties, and the majority of definitions are written with sufficient generality to hold across multiple species. This approach limits the CL’s utility for cross-species data integration. To address this problem, we developed a method for the ontological representation of cells and applied this method to (...)
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  7.  41
    A Uniform, Concretist Metaphysics for Linguistic Types.Giorgio Lando - 2019 - Metaphysica 20 (2):195-221.
    I argue that it is not acceptable to restrict the claim that linguistic types are concrete entities to some categories of linguistic types, while at the same time conceding that other categories of linguistic types are abstract entities. Moreover, I suggest a way in which type-concretism can be extended to every linguistic type, thereby responding to the so-called productivity objection to type-concretism, according to which, whenever tokens of a type t are produced in different, causally isolated circumstances, (...)
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  8. Intensional Models for the Theory of Types.Reinhard Muskens - 2007 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 72 (1):98-118.
    In this paper we define intensional models for the classical theory of types, thus arriving at an intensional type logic ITL. Intensional models generalize Henkin's general models and have a natural definition. As a class they do not validate the axiom of Extensionality. We give a cut-free sequent calculus for type theory and show completeness of this calculus with respect to the class of intensional models via a model existence theorem. After this we turn our attention to applications. Firstly, (...)
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  9.  92
    Ideal Types and the Historical Method.Gene Callahan - 2007 - Collingwood and British Idealism Studies 13 (1):53-68.
    A number of social theorists have contended that the essence of historical analysis is the employment of ideal types to comprehend past goings-on. But, while acknowledging that the study of history through ideal types can yield genuine insight, we may still ask if it represents the full emancipation of historical understanding from other modes of conceiving the past. This paper follows Michael Oakeshott's work on the philosophy of history in arguing that explaining the historical past by means of (...)
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  10. Theater, Representation, Types and Interpretation.John Dilworth - 2002 - American Philosophical Quarterly 39 (2):197-209.
    In the performing arts, including music, theater, dance and so on, theoretical issues both about artworks and about performances of them must be dealt with, so that their theoretical analysis is inherently more complex and troublesome than that of nonperforming arts such as painting or film, in which primarily only artworks need to be discussed. Thus it is especially desirable in the case of the performing arts to look for defensible broad theoretical simplifications or generalizations that could serve to unify (...)
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  11. The Points of Concepts: Their Types, Tensions, and Connections.Matthieu Queloz - 2019 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 49 (8):1122-1145.
    In the literature seeking to explain concepts in terms of their point, talk of ‘the point’ of concepts remains under-theorised. I propose a typology of points which distinguishes practical, evaluative, animating, and inferential points. This allows us to resolve tensions such as that between the ambition of explanations in terms of the points of concepts to be informative and the claim that mastering concepts requires grasping their point; and it allows us to exploit connections between types of points to (...)
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  12.  50
    Assessing the Wellbeing Impacts of Te COVID-19 Pandemic and Three Policy Types: Suppression, Control, and Uncontrolled Spread.Matthew D. Adler, Richard Bradley, Maddalena Ferranna, Marc Fleurbaey, James Hammitt & Alex Voorhoeve - forthcoming - Thinktank 20 Policy Briefs for the G20 Meeting in Saudi Arabia 2020.
    The COVID-19 crisis has forced a difficult trade-off between limiting the health impacts of the virus and maintaining economic activity. Welfare economics offers tools to conceptualize this trade-off so that policy-makers and the public can see clearly what is at stake. We review four such tools: the Value of Statistical Life (VSL); the Value of Statistical Life Years (VSLYs); Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs); and social welfare analysis, and argue that the latter are superior. We also discuss how to choose policies that (...)
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  13. Classifying Nuts Types Using Convolutional Neural Network.Ibtesam M. Dheir, Alaa Soliman Abu Mettleq, Abeer A. Elsharif & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2020 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 3 (12):12-18.
    Abstract: Nuts are nutrient-dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty and other bioactive compounds. By virtue of their unique composition, all types of nuts are likely to beneficially impact health outcomes. In this paper, we classified five types of Nuts with a dataset that contains 2868 images. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) algorithms, a deep learning technique extensively applied to image recognition was used for this task. The trained model achieved an accuracy of 98% on a held-out (...)
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  14. Two Types of Epistemic Instrumentalism.Charles Côté-Bouchard - forthcoming - Synthese:1-21.
    Epistemic instrumentalism (EI) views epistemic norms and epistemic normativity as essentially involving the instrumental relation between means and ends. It construes notions like epistemic normativity, norms, and rationality, as forms of instrumental or means-end normativity, norms, and rationality. I do two main things in this paper. In part 1, I argue that there is an under-appreciated distinction between two independent types of epistemic instrumentalism. These are instrumentalism about epistemic norms (norm-EI) and instrumentalism about epistemic normativity (source-EI). In part 2, (...)
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  15. Two Types of Psychological Hedonism.Justin Garson - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 56:7-14.
    I develop a distinction between two types of psychological hedonism. Inferential hedonism (or “I-hedonism”) holds that each person only has ultimate desires regarding his or her own hedonic states (pleasure and pain). Reinforcement hedonism (or “R–hedonism”) holds that each person's ultimate desires, whatever their contents are, are differentially reinforced in that person’s cognitive system only by virtue of their association with hedonic states. I’ll argue that accepting R-hedonism and rejecting I-hedonism provides a conciliatory position on the traditional altruism debate, (...)
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  16. Endurant Types in Ontology-Driven Conceptual Modeling: Towards OntoUML 2.0.Giancarlo Guizzardi, Tiago Prince Sales, Claudenir M. Fonseca, Daniele Porello, Joao Paulo Almeida & Nicola Guarino - 2018 - In J. C. Trujillo, K. C. Davis, X. Du, Z. Li, T. W. Ling, G. Li & M. L. Lee (eds.), Conceptual Modeling - 37th International Conference, {ER} 2018, Xi'an, China, October 22-25, 2018, Proceedings. Springer. pp. 136--150.
    For over a decade now, a community of researchers has contributed to the development of the Unified Foundational Ontology (UFO) - aimed at providing foundations for all major conceptual modeling constructs. This ontology has led to the development of an Ontology-Driven Conceptual Modeling language dubbed OntoUML, reflecting the ontological micro-theories comprising UFO. Over the years, UFO and OntoUML have been successfully employed in a number of academic, industrial and governmental settings to create conceptual models in a variety of different domains. (...)
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  17. Social Categories Are Natural Kinds, Not Objective Types (and Why It Matters Politically).Theodore Bach - 2016 - Journal of Social Ontology 2 (2):177-201.
    There is growing support for the view that social categories like men and women refer to “objective types” (Haslanger 2000, 2006, 2012; Alcoff 2005). An objective type is a similarity class for which the axis of similarity is an objective rather than nominal or fictional property. Such types are independently real and causally relevant, yet their unity does not derive from an essential property. Given this tandem of features, it is not surprising why empirically-minded researchers interested in fighting (...)
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  18.  88
    When Does HARKing Hurt? Identifying When Different Types of Undisclosed Post Hoc Hypothesizing Harm Scientific Progress.Mark Rubin - 2017 - Review of General Psychology 21:308-320.
    Hypothesizing after the results are known, or HARKing, occurs when researchers check their research results and then add or remove hypotheses on the basis of those results without acknowledging this process in their research report (Kerr, 1998). In the present article, I discuss three forms of HARKing: (1) using current results to construct post hoc hypotheses that are then reported as if they were a priori hypotheses; (2) retrieving hypotheses from a post hoc literature search and reporting them as a (...)
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  19. Types of Dialogue, Dialectical Relevance and Textual Congruity.Douglas Walton & Fabrizio Macagno - 2007 - Anthropology and Philosophy 8 (1/2):101-120.
    Using tools like argument diagrams and profiles of dialogue, this paper studies a number of examples of everyday conversational argumentation where determination of relevance and irrelevance can be assisted by means of adopting a new dialectical approach. According to the new dialectical theory, dialogue types are normative frameworks with specific goals and rules that can be applied to conversational argumentation. In this paper is shown how such dialectical models of reasonable argumentation can be applied to a determination of whether (...)
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  20. An Enchanting Abundance of Types: Nietzsche’s Modest Unity of Virtue Thesis.Mark Alfano - 2015 - Journal of Value Inquiry 49 (3):417-435.
    Although Nietzsche accepted a distant cousin of Brian Leiter’s “Doctrine of Types,” according to which, “Each person has a fixed psycho-physical constitution, which defines him as a particular type of person,” the details of his actual view are quite different from the flat-footed position Leiter attributes to him. Leiter argues that Nietzsche thought that type-facts partially explain the beliefs and actions, including moral beliefs and actions, of the person whom those type-facts characterize. With this much, I agree. However, the (...)
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  21. Emotional Creativity and Real-Life Involvement in Different Types of Creative Leisure Activities.Radek Trnka, Martin Zahradnik & Martin Kuška - 2016 - Creativity Research Journal 28 (3):348-356.
    The role of emotional creativity in practicing creative leisure activities and in the preference of college majors remains unknown. The present study aims to explore how emotional creativity measured by the Emotional Creativity Inventory (ECI; Averill, 1999) is interrelated with the real-life involvement in different types of specific creative leisure activities and with four categories of college majors. Data were collected from 251 university students, university graduates and young adults (156 women and 95 men). Art students and graduates scored (...)
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  22. Two Types of Qualia Theory.Pär Sundström - 2014 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 20:107-131.
    This paper distinguishes two types of qualia theory, which I call Galilean and non-Galilean qualia theories. It also offers considerations against each type of theory. To my mind the considerations are powerful. In any case, they bring out the importance of distinguishing the two types of theory. For they show that different considerations come into play—or considerations come into play in quite different ways—in assessing the two types of theory.
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  23. Category Theory and Set Theory as Theories About Complementary Types of Universals.David P. Ellerman - 2017 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 26 (2):1-18.
    Instead of the half-century old foundational feud between set theory and category theory, this paper argues that they are theories about two different complementary types of universals. The set-theoretic antinomies forced naïve set theory to be reformulated using some iterative notion of a set so that a set would always have higher type or rank than its members. Then the universal u_{F}={x|F(x)} for a property F() could never be self-predicative in the sense of u_{F}∈u_{F}. But the mathematical theory of (...)
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  24. Aristotle on Various Types of Alteration in De Anima II 5.John Bowin - 2011 - Phronesis 56 (2):138-161.
    In De Anima II 5, 417a21-b16, Aristotle makes a number of distinctions between types of transitions, affections, and alterations. The objective of this paper is to sort out the relationships between these distinctions by means of determining which of the distinguished types of change can be coextensive and which cannot, and which can overlap and which cannot. From the results of this analysis, an interpretation of 417a21-b16 is then constructed that differs from previous interpretations in certain important respects, (...)
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  25. An Improved Ontological Representation of Dendritic Cells as a Paradigm for All Cell Types.Anna Maria Masci, Cecilia N. Arighi, Alexander D. Diehl, Anne E. Liebermann, Chris Mungall, Richard H. Scheuermann, Barry Smith & Lindsay Cowell - 2009 - BMC Bioinformatics 10 (1):70.
    Recent increases in the volume and diversity of life science data and information and an increasing emphasis on data sharing and interoperability have resulted in the creation of a large number of biological ontologies, including the Cell Ontology (CL), designed to provide a standardized representation of cell types for data annotation. Ontologies have been shown to have significant benefits for computational analyses of large data sets and for automated reasoning applications, leading to organized attempts to improve the structure and (...)
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  26.  11
    Kant’s Categories and Jung’s Types as Perspectival Maps To Stimulate Insight in a Counseling Session.Stephen R. Palmquist - 2005 - International Journal of Philosophical Practice 3:1-27.
    After coining the term “philopsychy” to describe a “soul-loving” approach to philosophical practice, especially when it welcomes a creative synthesis of philosophy and psychology, this article identifies a system of geometrical figures (or “maps”) that can be used to stimulate reflection on various types of perspectival differences. The maps are part of the author’s previously established mapping methodology, known as the Geometry of Logic. As an illustration of how philosophy can influence the development of psychology, Immanuel Kant’s table of (...)
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  27. Three Types of Conditionals and Their Verb Forms in English and Portuguese.Gilberto Gomes - 2008 - Cognitive Linguistics 19 (2):219-240.
    An examination of conditionals in di¤erent languages leads to a distinction of three types of conditionals instead of the usual two (indicative and subjunctive). The three types can be explained by the degree of acceptance or as-if acceptance of the truth of the antecedent. The labels subjunctive and indicative are shown to be inadequate. So-called indicative conditionals comprise two classes, the very frequent uncertain-fact conditionals and the quite rare accepted-fact conditionals. Uncertain-fact conditionals may have a time shift in (...)
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  28. Molinism, Creature-Types, and the Nature of Counterfactual Implication.Daniel Murphy - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (1):65-86.
    Granting that there could be true subjunctive conditionals of libertarian freedom (SCLs), I argue (roughly) that there could be such conditionals only in connection with individual "possible creatures" (in contrast to types). This implies that Molinism depends on the view that, prior to creation, God grasps possible creatures in their individuality. In making my case, I explore the notions of counterfactual implication (that relationship between antecedent and consequent of an SCL which consists in its truth) and counterfactual relevance (that (...)
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  29. 1983 Review in Mathematical Reviews 83e:03005 Of: Cocchiarella, Nino “The Development of the Theory of Logical Types and the Notion of a Logical Subject in Russell's Early Philosophy: Bertrand Russell's Early Philosophy, Part I”. Synthese 45 (1980), No. 1, 71-115.John Corcoran - 1983 - MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS 83:03005.
    CORCORAN RECOMMENDS COCCHIARELLA ON TYPE THEORY. The 1983 review in Mathematical Reviews 83e:03005 of: Cocchiarella, Nino “The development of the theory of logical types and the notion of a logical subject in Russell's early philosophy: Bertrand Russell's early philosophy, Part I”. Synthese 45 (1980), no. 1, 71-115 .
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  30. Are All Types of Morality Compromised in Psychopathy.Andrea Glenn, R. Lyer, J. Graham, S. Koleva & Jonathan Haidt - 2009 - Journal of Personality Disorders 23:384–398.
    A long-standing puzzle for moral philosophers and psychologists alike is the concept of psychopathy, a personality disorder marked by tendencies to defy moral norms despite cognitive knowledge about right and wrong. Previously, discussions of the moral deficits of psychopathy have focused on willingness to harm and cheat others as well as reasoning about rule-based transgressions. Yet recent research in moral psychology has begun to more clearly define the domains of morality, en- compassing issues of harm, fairness, loyalty, authority, and spiritual (...)
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  31. Types of Boltzmann Brains.Alexey Turchin & Roman Yampolskiy - manuscript
    Abstract. Boltzmann brains (BBs) are minds which randomly appear as a result of thermodynamic or quantum fluctuations. In this article, the question of if we are BBs, and the observational consequences if so, is explored. To address this problem, a typology of BBs is created, and the evidence is compared with the Simulation Argument. Based on this comparison, we conclude that while the existence of a “normal” BB is either unlikely or irrelevant, BBs with some ordering may have observable consequences. (...)
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  32.  9
    Sur les types de problèmes rencontrés en science, en technologie et dans les professions: fondements d’une politique scientifique.Luis Marone - 2020 - Mεtascience 1:105-120.
    La science, la technologie et les professions forment un système de fortes interactions. Pourtant, ces activités s’attaquent à différents types de problèmes qui nécessitent différentes solutions. Les problèmes qui aiguillonnent la recherche scientifique et technologique demeurent insuffisamment résolus ou non résolus, donc leurs possibles solutions doivent être inventées (c.-à-d. qu’elles sont partiellement ou totalement originales) et, par conséquent, elles doivent être testées contre la réalité par les chercheurs avant de les considérer comme vraies ou utiles. Par contre, les problèmes (...)
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  33. Phenomenological Distinctions: Two Types of Envy and Their Difference From Covetousness.Michael R. Kelly - 2016 - In J. Aaron Simmons & J. Edward Hackett (eds.), Phenomenology for the Twenty-first Century. Palgrave-Macmillan.
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  34. Spatial Opinion Dynamics and the Effects of Two Types of Mixing.Bert Baumgaertner, Peter A. Fetros, Stephen M. Krone & Rebecca T. Tyson - 2018 - Physical Review E 98 (2):022310.
    Spatially situated opinions that can be held with different degrees of conviction lead to spatiotemporal patterns such as clustering (homophily), polarization, and deadlock. Our goal is to understand how sensitive these patterns are to changes in the local nature of interactions. We introduce two different mixing mechanisms, spatial relocation and nonlocal interaction (“telephoning”), to an earlier fully spatial model (no mixing). Interestingly, the mechanisms that create deadlock in the fully spatial model have the opposite effect when there is a sufficient (...)
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  35. Types of Concept Fuzziness.Vladimir Kuznetsov & Elena Kuznetsova - 1998 - Fuzzy Sets and Systems 96 (2):129-138.
    The short exposition of the triplet model of concepts and some definitions connected with it are given. In this model any concept may be depicted as having three characteristics: a base, a representing part and the linkage between them. The paper introduces the fuzzification of concepts in terms of the triplet model.
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  36. The Feel of the World: Exograms, Habits, and the Confusion of Types of Memory.John Sutton - 2009 - In Andrew Kania (ed.), Philosophers on *Memento*. New York: Routledge. pp. 65-86.
    A philosophical analysis of different kinds of memory used in the film Memento.
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  37. Two Types of Autonomy.J. S. Swindell Blumenthal-Barby - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics-Neuroscience 9 (1):52-53.
    Although I agree with Sabine Muller’s conclusion that we should first seek to find alternatives to amputation for patients suffering from Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID), I disagree with one of the major premises that she uses to argue for her claim. Muller argues that patients with BIID are likely not autonomous when they request that the limb be amputated. Muller’s argument that BIID suffers are not autonomous is flawed because she conflates philosophical conceptions of autonomy with the conception of (...)
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  38.  31
    O typach kawy. Kontekstualizm DeRose’a jako strategia antysceptycka (On types of coffee. DeRose's contextualism as an anti-sceptical strategy).Tomasz Szubart - 2018 - Analiza I Egzystencja 4 (44):61-81.
    Semantic contextualism is often used in order to offer solutions for problems in other branches of philosophy, including epistemology. One of such attempts is epistemic contextualism, according to which the semantic value of the word “knows” changes with the context of its utterance. The aim of this paper is to critically investigate Keith DeRose’s contextualism to see up to what extent does it provide a valid anti-sceptical strategy. I argue that while it can be seen as a good rival for (...)
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  39.  41
    Types of Freedom and Submission in Tacitus' Agricola.Jula Wildberger - 2016 - In Aldo Setaioli (ed.), Apis Matina: Studi in onore di Carlo Santini. Trieste: EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste. pp. 715-726.
    Discusses conceptions of freedom displayed in Tacitus' Agricola. Tacitus seems to have had a clear-cut conceptual grid in which the German defectors, the Usipi, mirror the futile demonstrations of freedom by senators seeking a "ambitious death." The British provincials, including Calgacus and his followers, correspond to the ordinary Roman people and their leadership. It is in the army that a form of non-debasing hierarchy for the common benefit can be conceived, as long as the army and their leader is in (...)
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  40. Two Types of Ontological Frame and Gödel’s Ontological Proof.Sergio Galvan - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (2):147--168.
    The aim of this essay is twofold. First, it outlines the concept of ontological frame. Secondly, two models are distinguished on this structure. The first one is connected to Kant’s concept of possible object and the second one relates to Leibniz’s. Leibniz maintains that the source of possibility is the mere logical consistency of the notions involved, so that possibility coincides with analytical possibility. Kant, instead, argues that consistency is only a necessary component of possibility. According to Kant, something is (...)
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  41.  64
    La teoría de los tipos de representación en Leibniz y sus principales influencias en la estética y la lógica de la Ilustración alemanaThe view of the types of representation in Leibniz and their main influences.Manuel Sánchez-Rodríguez - 2013 - Cultura:271-295.
    Aunque no es posible ofrecer aquí un análisis detallado de las diferentes cues tionesimplicadas en la teoría de las representaciones en la Modernidad, sí pode mos atender auno de sus aspectos más relevantes, presente en la exposición de Leibniz, Wolff,Baumgarten y Kant, a saber: el reconocimiento progresivo y la vin dicación de unconocimiento específicamente sensible como un tipo específico de conocimiento en lafilosofía escolar alemana del siglo XVIII. A pesar de que Leibniz atribuye al conocimiento claro y confuso el grado (...)
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  42.  5
    Anisotropy of Different Types of Alloys.Fae’Q. A. A. Radwan & Ijeais Ijarw - 2018 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 2 (2):18-23.
    Abstract: The norm of elastic constant tensor and the norms of the irreducible parts of the elastic constants of the alloys Iron-Silicon at different percentages of Silicon, Lead-Indium at different percentages of Indium, Molybdenum-Rhenium at different percentages of Rhenium, Niobium- Hydrogen at different percentages of Hydrogen, Niobium-Molybdenum at different percentages of Molybdenum, Niobium-Oxygen at different percentages of Oxygen, Niobium-Zirconium at different percentages of Zirconium, Palladium-Rhodium at different percentages of Rhodium, Palladium- Rhodium at different percentages of Rhodium, and Palladium-Silver at different (...)
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  43.  68
    Semantic Information Measure with Two Types of Probability for Falsification and Confirmation.Lu Chenguang - manuscript
    Logical Probability (LP) is strictly distinguished from Statistical Probability (SP). To measure semantic information or confirm hypotheses, we need to use sampling distribution (conditional SP function) to test or confirm fuzzy truth function (conditional LP function). The Semantic Information Measure (SIM) proposed is compatible with Shannon’s information theory and Fisher’s likelihood method. It can ensure that the less the LP of a predicate is and the larger the true value of the proposition is, the more information there is. So the (...)
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  44. Culpable Ignorance in a Collective Setting.Säde Hormio - 2018 - Acta Philosophica Fennica:7-34.
    This paper explores types of organisational ignorance and ways in which organisational practices can affect the knowledge we have about the causes and effects of our actions. I will argue that because knowledge and information are not evenly distributed within an organisation, sometimes organisational design alone can create individual ignorance. I will also show that sometimes the act that creates conditions for culpable ignorance takes place at the collective level. This suggests that quality of will of an agent is (...)
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  45. The Objectivity of Nihilism.Gregor Schiemann - 2016 - Divinatio. Studia Culturologica:1.
    The discourse on nihilism in the German-speaking world continues to take its orientation primarily from Friedrich Nietzsche’s understanding of nihilism as a historical movement of the decline of values. This means that the aspects of nihilism that are not tied to specific epochs and cultures are not accorded due importance (I). In order to make a reappraisal of nihilism that does justice to these objective contents, I will present a classification of types of nihilism and of arguments that support (...)
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  46.  87
    Logic and Ontology of Language.Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska - 2019 - In Bartłomiej Skowron (ed.), Contemporary Polish Ontology. Berlin/Boston: DE GRUYTER, MOUTON. pp. 109-132.
    The main purpose of the paper is to outline the formal-logical, general theory of language treated as a particular ontological being. The theory itself is called the ontology of language, because it is motivated by the fact that the language plays a special role: it reflects ontology and ontology reflects the world. Language expressions are considered to have a dual ontological status. They are understood as either concretes, that is tokens – material, physical objects, or types – classes of (...)
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  47.  63
    Statistical Inference and the Plethora of Probability Paradigms: A Principled Pluralism.Mark L. Taper, Gordon Brittan Jr & Prasanta S. Bandyopadhyay - manuscript
    The major competing statistical paradigms share a common remarkable but unremarked thread: in many of their inferential applications, different probability interpretations are combined. How this plays out in different theories of inference depends on the type of question asked. We distinguish four question types: confirmation, evidence, decision, and prediction. We show that Bayesian confirmation theory mixes what are intuitively “subjective” and “objective” interpretations of probability, whereas the likelihood-based account of evidence melds three conceptions of what constitutes an “objective” probability.
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  48. Revisiting Friedman’s F53: Popper, Knight, and Weber.Hoyningen-Huene Paul - manuscript
    Neither Karl Popper, nor Frank Knight, nor Max Weber are cited or mentioned in Friedman’s famous 1953 essay “On the methodology of positive economics” (F53). However, they play a crucial role in F53. Making their con-tribution explicit suggests that F53 has been seriously misread in the past. I will first show that there are several irritating statements in F53 that are, taken together, not compatible with any of the usual readings of F53. Sec-ond, I show that an alternative reading of (...)
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  49. A Type-Theoretical Approach for Ontologies: The Case of Roles.Patrick Barlatier & Richard Dapoigny - 2012 - Applied Ontology 7 (3):311-356.
    In the domain of ontology design as well as in Knowledge Representation, modeling universals is a challenging problem.Most approaches that have addressed this problem rely on Description Logics (DLs) but many difficulties remain, due to under-constrained representation which reduces the inferences that can be drawn and further causes problems in expressiveness. In mathematical logic and program checking, type theories have proved to be appealing but, so far they have not been applied in the formalization of ontologies. To bridge this gap, (...)
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  50. Husserl’s Theory of Meaning and Reference.Barry Smith - 1994 - In L. Haaparanta (ed.), Mind, Meaning and Mathematics: Essays on the Philosophy of Husserl and Frege. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 163-183.
    This paper is a contribution to the historical roots of the analytical tradition. As Michael Dummett points out in his Origins of Analytic Philosophy, many tendencies in Central European thought contributed to the early development of analytic philosophy. Dummett himself concentrates on just one aspect of this historical complex, namely on the relationship between the theories of meaning and reference developed by Frege and by Husserl in the years around the turn of the century. It is to this specific issue (...)
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