Results for 'burden of disease'

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  1. Should health research funding be proportional to the burden of disease?Joseph Millum - 2023 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 22 (1):76-99.
    Public funders of health research have been widely criticized on the grounds that their allocations of funding for disease-specific research do not reflect the relative burdens imposed by different diseases. For example, the US National Institutes of Health spends a much greater fraction of its budget on HIV/aids research and a much smaller fraction on migraine research than their relative contribution to the US burden of disease would suggest. Implicit in this criticism is a normative claim: Insofar (...)
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  2. Should health research funding be proportional to the burden of disease?Joseph Millum - 2022 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 1 (1):1-24.
    Public funders of health research have been widely criticized on the grounds that their allocations of funding for disease-specific research do not reflect the relative burdens imposed by different diseases. For example, the US National Institutes of Health spends a much greater fraction of its budget on HIV/AIDS research and a much smaller fraction on migraine research than their relative contribution to the US burden of disease would suggest. Implicit in this criticism is a normative claim: Insofar (...)
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  3. A Conceptual Model: The Impact of Sociodemographic on Coronary Heart Disease.Aza Azlina Md Kassim, Juliza Mohamed & Zainal Azhar Zainal Azim - 2020 - International Journal of Scientific Research and Management (IJSRM) 8 (1).
    The paper aims to examine the conceptual model on the impact of sociodemographic towards coronary heart disease. There is still limited study on the association between cost of living particularly the cost of food and housing and its impact on coronary heart disease. Therefore, this study incorporates five essential sociodemographic attributes namely, cost of food, children education cost, housing cost, smoking habit and gender. The study provides greater understanding on how the cost of living and lifestyle may give (...)
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  4. Predicting Heart Disease using Neural Networks.Ahmed Muhammad Haider Al-Sharif & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2023 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 7 (9):40-46.
    Cardiovascular diseases, including heart disease, pose a significant global health challenge, contributing to a substantial burden on healthcare systems and individuals. Early detection and accurate prediction of heart disease are crucial for timely intervention and improved patient outcomes. This research explores the potential of neural networks in predicting heart disease using a dataset collected from Kaggle, consisting of 1025 samples with 14 distinct features. The study's primary objective is to develop an effective neural network model for (...)
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  5. DISCOURSE ON NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES INTERVENTIONS IN GHANA (1990-2018).Samuel Adu-Gyamfi, Lucky Tomdi & Kwasi Amakye-Boateng - 2020 - Journal of Basic and Applied Research International 26 (2):17-26.
    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are reported to have caused significant deaths for more than a decade. Consequently, NCDs have posed as a threat to the socio-economic well-being of individuals and families, contributed to a rise in healthcare costs and largely undermined the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) especially in developing countries. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the prevalence of NCDs have compounded the problem of already ill equipped healthcare systems in these (...)
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  6. Ethical Allocation of Remdesivir.Parker Crutchfield, Tyler S. Gibb, Michael J. Redinger & William Fales - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):84-86.
    As the federal government distributed remdesivir to some of the states COVID-19 hit hardest, policymakers scrambled to develop criteria to allocate the drug to their hospitals. Our state, Michigan, was among those states to receive an initial quantity of the drug from the U.S. government. The disparities in burden of disease in Michigan are striking. Detroit has a death rate more than three times the state average. Our recommendation to the state was that it should prioritize the communities (...)
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  7. Valuing Stillbirths.John Phillips & Joseph Millum - 2014 - Bioethics 29 (6):413-423.
    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years and disability-adjusted life years. These measures typically do not include stillbirths among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, (...)
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  8. Individual and working experiences of healthcare workers infected with COVID-19: A qualitative study.Enayat A. Shabani - 2022 - Japan Journal of Nursing Science 19 (2).
    Introduction The major burden of the COVID-19 pandemic has been mainly on healthcare workers (HCWs) and as a result many of them have been afflicted with the disease thus far. -/- Purpose The present study was an effort to investigate Tehran University of Medical Sciences HCWs' experiences of COVID-19 during the pandemic in Tehran, Iran. -/- Methods This study is essentially a conventional qualitative content analysis. Twenty-six HCWs (including 7 physicians, 16 nurses, and 3 physiotherapists) were purposefully selected (...)
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  9. Pattern and Trend of Alcohol Abuse: A Study in a Tribal Community of Hill Tract.Tanjimul Islam & Rubab Tarannum Islam - 2016 - Delta Medical College Journal 4 (1):4-8.
    Background: Hazardous use of alcohol is a public health problem which accounts for 4.0% of global burden of disease. There are very few studies about alcohol consumption trend among tribal in Bangladesh. We investigated the pattern and trend with reasons for alcohol use in Hill Tract dwellers with the aim to increase the awareness of this problem. Objective: To identify the pattern of alcohol use and its effect among the tribal so that effective measures can be taken to (...)
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  10. Improving the Access of the Indonesian Community to Qualified Health Services.Santriani Hadi & Hasta Handayani Idrus - 2020 - International Journal of Medical Science and Dental Research 3 (3):01-14.
    Health development is faced with a variety of important issues including health status disparities; double burden of disease; quality, equity and affordability of health services; community protection in the field of medicine and food; and clean and healthy life behavior. Methods: The method used in this short communication is descriptive-comparative where we review Safety Culture in Indonesian Health Services in five aspects, namely Health Services for the Poor, nutritional problems that are never complete, Extraordinary Events of Communicable Diseases, (...)
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  11. Limited aggregation and zoonotic disease outbreaks.Angela K. Martin & Matthias Eggel - 2022 - Transforming Food Systems: Ethics, Innovation and Responsibility. Eursafe Conference Proceedings.
    Human and animal interests are often in conflict. In many situations, however, it is unclear how to evaluate and weigh competing human and animal interests, as the satisfaction of the interests of one group often inevitably occurs at the expense of those of the other group. Human-animal conflicts of this kind give rise to ethical questions. If animals count morally for their own sake, then we must ask in which cases the satisfaction or frustration of the interests of humans and (...)
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  12. Prioritarianism for Global Health Investments: Identifying the Worst Off.Daniel Sharp & Joseph Millum - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy:112-132.
    The available resources for global health assistance are far outstripped by need. In the face of such scarcity, many people endorse a principle according to which highest priority should be given to the worst off. However, in order for this prioritarian principle to be useful for allocation decisions, policy-makers need to know what it means to be badly off. In this article, we outline a conception of disadvantage suitable for identifying the worst off for the purpose of making health resource (...)
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  13. Representing Mental Functioning: Ontologies for Mental Health and Disease.Janna Hastings, Werner Ceusters, Mark Jensen, Kevin Mulligan & Barry Smith - 2012 - In Janna Hastings, Werner Ceusters, Mark Jensen, Kevin Mulligan & Barry Smith (eds.), Towards an Ontology of Mental Functioning (ICBO Workshop). CEUR.
    Mental and behavioral disorders represent a significant portion of the public health burden in all countries. The human cost of these disorders is immense, yet treatment options for sufferers are currently limited, with many patients failing to respond sufficiently to available interventions and drugs. High quality ontologies facilitate data aggregation and comparison across different disciplines, and may therefore speed up the translation of primary research into novel therapeutics. Realism-based ontologies describe entities in reality and the relationships between them in (...)
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  14. The Post-2015 Development Agenda: Keeping Our Focus On the Worst Off.D. Sharp - 2015 - American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 92 (6):1087-89.
    Non-communicable diseases now account for the majority of the global burden of disease and an international campaign has emerged to raise their priority on the post-2015 development agenda. We argue, to the contrary, that there remain strong reasons to prioritize maternal and child health. Policy-makers ought to assign highest priority to the health conditions that afflict the worst off. In virtue of how little healthy life they have had, children who die young are among the globally worst off. (...)
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  15. Emergency care research ethics in low- and middle-income countries.Joseph Millum, Blythe Beecroft, Timothy C. Hardcastle, Jon Mark Hirshon, Adnan A. Hyder, Jennifer A. Newberry & Carla Saenz - 2019 - BMJ Global Health 4:e001260.
    A large proportion of the total global burden of disease is caused by emergency medical conditions. Emergency care research is essential to improving emergency medicine but this research can raise some distinctive ethical challenges, especially with regard to (1) standard of care and risk–benefit assessment; (2) blurring of the roles of clinician and researcher; (3) enrolment of populations with intersecting vulnerabilities; (4) fair participant selection; (5) quality of consent; and (6) community engagement. Despite the importance of research to (...)
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  16. Incidence, Prevalence, and Hybrid Approaches to Calculating DALYs.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2012 - Population Health Metrics 10 (19).
    When disability-adjusted life years are used to measure the burden of disease on a population in a time interval, they can be calculated in several different ways: from an incidence, pure prevalence, or hybrid perspective. I show that these calculation methods are not equivalent and discuss some of the formal difficulties each method faces. I show that if we don’t discount the value of future health, there is a sense in which the choice of calculation method is a (...)
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  17. The relationships between democratic experience, adult health, and cause-specific mortality in 170 countries between 1980 and 2016: an observational analysis.Simon Wigley - 2019 - The Lancet 393 (10181):1628-1640.
    Background Previous analyses of democracy and population health have focused on broad measures, such as life expectancy at birth and child and infant mortality, and have shown some contradictory results. We used a panel of data spanning 170 countries to assess the association between democracy and cause-specific mortality and explore the pathways connecting democratic rule to health gains. -/- Methods We extracted cause-specific mortality and HIV-free life expectancy estimates from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (...)
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  18.  89
    BUNUH DIRI: PENYAKIT ATAU PILIHAN?Ni Putu Wulan Purnama Sari & Minh-Hoang Nguyen - manuscript
    Di masyarakat manapun, bunuh diri selalu merupakan sebuah tragedi. Meskipun ada masalah duka dan berkabung yang ditimbulkan, tragedi ini berkembang pesat di seluruh dunia. The Global Burden of Disease, sebuah penelitian global di tahun 2017 terhadap 282 penyebab kematian di 1.995 negara dan wilayah, menemukan bahwa bunuh diri merupakan penyebab kematian tertinggi pada peringkat ke-15. Diperkirakan hampir 800.000 orang meninggal dunia akibat bunuh diri setiap tahunnya, atau sekitar satu orang setiap 40 detik [1]. Banyaknya jumlah kematian akibat bunuh (...)
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  19. Public health, beneficence and cosmopolitan justice.L. Horn - 2015 - South African Journal of Bioethics and Law 8 (2):30.
    This article proposes that, in line with moral-cosmopolitan theorists, affluent nations have an obligation, founded in justice and not merely altruism or beneficence, to share the responsibility of the burden of public health implementation in low-income contexts. The current Ebola epidemic highlights the fact that countries with under-developed health systems and limited resources cannot cope with a significant and sudden health threat. The link between burden of disease, adverse factors in the social environment and poverty is well (...)
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  20. The Social Value of Health Research and the Worst Off.Nicola Barsdorf & Joseph Millum - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):105-115.
    In this article we argue that the social value of health research should be conceptualized as a function of both the expected benefits of the research and the priority that the beneficiaries deserve. People deserve greater priority the worse off they are. This conception of social value can be applied for at least two important purposes: in health research priority setting when research funders, policy-makers, or researchers decide between alternative research projects; and in evaluating the ethics of proposed research proposals (...)
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  21. Driven to extinction? The ethics of eradicating mosquitoes with gene-drive technologies.Jonathan Pugh - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (9):578-581.
    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a significant global disease burden, and recent outbreaks of such diseases have led to calls to reduce mosquito populations. Furthermore, advances in ‘gene-drive’ technology have raised the prospect of eradicating certain species of mosquito via genetic modification. This technology has attracted a great deal of media attention, and the idea of using gene-drive technology to eradicate mosquitoes has been met with criticism in the public domain. In this paper, I shall dispel two moral objections that (...)
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  22. Public Facilities for Better Health and Urban Plan.Lasker Shamima & Hossain Arif - 2023 - Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics 14 (3):24-26.
    Lack of physical activity is one of the main cause of obesity. Currently, scientists proposed that teenagers and women are overweight or obese than men in Bangladesh. Furthermore, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are becoming more prevalent in Bangladesh. By 2050, the illness burden of non-communicable diseases will have a significant impact on the health budget. To reduce non-communicable diseases, physical activity is one of the options. However, the lack of public facilities for physical activities in each community is a concern. (...)
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  23.  58
    Burden of Proof in the Autonomous Weapons Debate.Maciek Zając - 2024 - Ethics and Armed Forces 2024 (1):34-42.
    The debate on the ethical permissibility of autonomous weapon systems (AWS) is deadlocked. It could therefore benefit from a differentiated assignment of the burden of proof. This is because the discussion is not purely philosophical in nature, but has a legal and security policy component and aims to avoid the most harmful outcomes of an otherwise unchecked development. Opponents of a universal AWS ban must clearly demonstrate that AWS comply with the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC). This requires extensive (...)
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  24. Logistical Aspects of Different Online Teachinglearning Methods Among Medical Students During COVID-19 in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, Thrissur, Southern India.Sajeevan Kundil Chandran, Sajith Vilambil, Shajee Sivasankaran Nair & Sajna Mathumkunnath Vijayan - 2021 - Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 15 (10):1-4.
    Due to the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) lockdown implemented by the government, we had to transform our classes into the online sphere. The most commonly used methods of online teaching in Government Medical College, Thrissur were, live online lectures, PowerPoint presentations with narrations, prerecorded videos and assignments. Aim: To assess the logistical aspects, merit and demerits of different online teaching-learning methods among phase-1 medical student in a tertiary care teaching hospital during COVID-19 lockdown Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was (...)
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  25. Direct Medical Costs of Tetanus, Dengue, and Sepsis Patients in an Intensive Care Unit in Vietnam.Trinh Manh Hung, Nguyen Van Hao, Lam Minh Yen, Angela McBride, Vu Quoc Dat, H. Rogier van Doorn, Huynh Thi Loan, Nguyen Thanh Phong, Martin J. Llewelyn, Behzad Nadjm, Sophie Yacoub, C. Louise Thwaites, Sayem Ahmed, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Hugo C. Turner & Vietnam I. C. U. Translational Applications Laboratory - 2022 - Frontiers in Public Health 10:893200.
    Background: Critically ill patients often require complex clinical care by highly trained staff within a specialized intensive care unit (ICU) with advanced equipment. There are currently limited data on the costs of critical care in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aims to investigate the direct-medical costs of key infectious disease (tetanus, sepsis, and dengue) patients admitted to ICU in a hospital in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, and explores how the costs and cost drivers can vary between (...)
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  26. Pandemic solutionism: the power of big tech during the COVID-19 crisis.Anna-Verena Nosthoff & Felix Maschewski - 2023 - Digital Culture and Society 8 (1):43-65.
    In this article, we investigate how Big Tech companies have used the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic to increase their social, political, infrastructural, and epistemic power. We focus on four companies that were outspoken in their efforts to combat the virus: Alphabet (also known as Google), Apple, Facebook, and Amazon (GAFA). During the crisis, these companies evolved as adaptive entities that responded to the state of emergency by promptly rolling out various technological solutions, exemplifying what we call ‘pandemic solutionism’, (...)
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  27. Healthy Nails versus Long Lives: An Analysis of a Dutch Priority Setting Proposal.Alex Voorhoeve - 2020 - In Nir Eyal, Samia A. Hurst, Christopher J. L. Murray, S. Andrew Schroeder & Daniel Wikler (eds.), Measuring the Global Burden of Disease: Philosophical Dimensions. New York, USA: Oup Usa. pp. 273-292.
    How should governments balance saving people from very large individual disease burdens (such as an early death) against saving them from middling burdens (such as erectile dysfunction) and minor burdens (such as nail fungus)? This chapter considers this question through an analysis of a priority-setting proposal in the Netherlands, on which avoiding a multitude of middling burdens takes priority over saving one person from early death, but no number of very small burdens can take priority over avoiding one death. (...)
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  28. Burdens of Proof and the Case for Unevenness.Imran Aijaz, Jonathan McKeown-Green & Aness Webster - 2013 - Argumentation 27 (3):259-282.
    How is the burden of proof to be distributed among individuals who are involved in resolving a particular issue? Under what conditions should the burden of proof be distributed unevenly? We distinguish attitudinal from dialectical burdens and argue that these questions should be answered differently, depending on which is in play. One has an attitudinal burden with respect to some proposition when one is required to possess sufficient evidence for it. One has a dialectical burden with (...)
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  29.  90
    Radiation and Rational Deliberation.Martijn Boot - 2015 - Ars Vivendi Journal 7:3-18.
    There is uncertainty and disagreement about the question which preventive actions are rationally justified with regard to moderately elevated levels of nuclear radiation. This may have at least four causes: ignorance, insufficient information, inconclusiveness and indeterminability. After the nuclear disaster with the Fukushima nuclear power plant the advice, given by some authorities, to leave Tokyo was largely based on the former two factors: ignorance and insufficient information. By contrast, the uncertainty and disagreement amongst experts about the size of the area (...)
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  30. Integrating evolutionary aspects into dual-use discussion: the cases of influenza virus and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.Ozan Altan Altinok - 2021 - Evolution, Medicine and Public Health 9 (1):383 - 392.
    Research in infection biology aims to understand the complex nature of host–pathogen interactions. While this knowledge facilitates strategies for preventing and treating diseases, it can also be intentionally misused to cause harm. Such dual-use risk is potentially high for highly pathogenic microbes such as Risk Group-3 (RG3) bacteria and RG4 viruses, which could be used in bioterrorism attacks. However, other pathogens such as influenza virus (IV) and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), usually classified as RG2 pathogens, also demonstrate high dual-use risk. (...)
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  31. Prove it! The Burden of Proof Game in Science vs. Pseudoscience Disputes.Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (2):487-502.
    The concept of burden of proof is used in a wide range of discourses, from philosophy to law, science, skepticism, and even in everyday reasoning. This paper provides an analysis of the proper deployment of burden of proof, focusing in particular on skeptical discussions of pseudoscience and the paranormal, where burden of proof assignments are most poignant and relatively clear-cut. We argue that burden of proof is often misapplied or used as a mere rhetorical gambit, with (...)
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  32. Ethical issues in genomics research on neurodevelopmental disorders: a critical interpretive review.Signe Mezinska, L. Gallagher, M. Verbrugge & E. M. Bunnik - 2021 - Human Genomics 16 (15).
    Background Genomic research on neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), particularly involving minors, combines and amplifies existing research ethics issues for biomedical research. We performed a review of the literature on the ethical issues associated with genomic research involving children affected by NDDs as an aid to researchers to better anticipate and address ethical concerns. Results Qualitative thematic analysis of the included articles revealed themes in three main areas: research design and ethics review, inclusion of research participants, and communication of research results. Ethical (...)
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  33. Legal Burdens of Proof and Statistical Evidence.Georgi Gardiner - 2018 - In David Coady & James Chase (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Applied Epistemology. New York: Routledge.
    In order to perform certain actions – such as incarcerating a person or revoking parental rights – the state must establish certain facts to a particular standard of proof. These standards – such as preponderance of evidence and beyond reasonable doubt – are often interpreted as likelihoods or epistemic confidences. Many theorists construe them numerically; beyond reasonable doubt, for example, is often construed as 90 to 95% confidence in the guilt of the defendant. -/- A family of influential cases suggests (...)
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  34. COVID-19 Pandemic: New Challenges for Environmental Sustainability in Developing Countries.Prakash Sadguru & Ashok K. Verma - 2021 - In Verma (ed.), COVID-19 SECOND WAVE: CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. Prayagraj: ABRF. pp. 102-105.
    Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), produced by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic, giving rise to a serious health threat globally. The global Covid-19 pandemic is a setback for sustainable development and compromise the world commitment to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The measures taken to control the spread of the virus and the slowdown of economic activities during lockdown have significant effects on the environment. Therefore, this review discuss the indirect positive and (...)
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  35. Rural Development with Special Reference to Drinking Water, Health and Agriculture in India.Shailendra Kumar - 2014 - SOCRATES 2 (1):210-221.
    Rural India comprises 73 %of the country’s population, but its share in the total national income is less than 45 %. The rural sector is characterized by low income levels, poor quality of life and a weak human capital-base. There are many problems in rural India related with the health, agriculture & drinking water. Generally rural public health facilities across the country are having a difficult time attracting, retaining, and ensuring regular presence of highly trained medical professionals. The higher the (...)
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  36. The Burdens of Morality: Why Act‐Consequentialism Demands Too Little.Tom Dougherty - 2016 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 5 (1):82-85.
    A classic objection to act-consequentialism is that it is overdemanding: it requires agents to bear too many costs for the sake of promoting the impersonal good. I develop the complementary objection that act-consequentialism is underdemanding: it fails to acknowledge that agents have moral reasons to bear certain costs themselves, even when it would be impersonally better for others to bear these costs.
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  37. COVID-19 Pandemic: New Challenges for Environmental Sustainability in Developing Countries.Sadguru Prakash & Ashok K. Verma - 2021 - In Verma (ed.), COVID-19 SECOND WAVE: CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. Prayagraj: ABRF. pp. 102-105.
    Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), produced by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic, giving rise to a serious health threat globally. The global Covid-19 pandemic is a setback for sustainable development and compromise the world commitment to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The measures taken to control the spread of the virus and the slowdown of economic activities during lockdown have significant effects on the environment. Therefore, this review discuss the indirect positive and (...)
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  38. Is Health the Absence of Disease?Somogy Varga & Andrew J. Latham - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    While philosophical questions about health and disease have attracted much attention in recent decades, and while opinions are divided on most issues, influential accounts seem to embrace negativism about health, according to which health is the absence of disease. Some subscribe to unrestricted negativism, which claims that negativism applies not only to the concepts of health and disease as used by healthcare professionals but also to the lay concept that underpins everyday thinking. Whether people conceptualize health in (...)
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  39. Neurological Manifestations in Leprosy: A Study in Tribal! Community of Hill Tracts.Tanjimul Islam - 2016 - Journal of Enam Medical College 6 (1):10-14.
    Background: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease having major burden on humans over thousands of years. If untreated, it results in permanent damage to various systems and organs. So we designed this study to evaluate the neurological complications in early stage in adult leprosy patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to find out the pattern of neurological manifestations among adult leprosy patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional hospital-based study on 85 adult tribal leprosy patients was (...)
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  40. Hermeneutic Labor: The Gendered Burden of Interpretation in Intimate Relationships Between Women and Men.Ellie Anderson - 2023 - Hypatia 38 (1):177-197.
    In recent years, feminist scholarship on emotional labor has proliferated. I identify a related but distinct form of care labor, hermeneutic labor. Hermeneutic labor is the burdensome activity of: understanding and coherently expressing one’s own feelings, desires, intentions, and movitations; discerning those of others; and inventing solutions for relational issues arising from interpersonal tensions. I argue that hermeneutic labor disproportionately falls on women’s shoulders in heteropatriachal societies, especially in intimate relationships between women and men. I also suggest that some of (...)
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  41. Prevention of Disease and the Absent Body: A Phenomenological Approach to Periodontitis.Dylan Rakhra & Māra Grīnfelde - 2023 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 48 (3):299-311.
    A large part of the contemporary phenomenology of medicine has been devoted to accounts of health and illness, arguing that they contribute to the improvement of health care. Less focus has been paid to the issue of prevention of disease and the associated difficulty of adhering to health-promoting behaviours, which is arguably of equal importance. This article offers a phenomenological account of this disease prevention, focusing on how we—as embodied beings—engage with health-promoting behaviours. It specifically considers how we (...)
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  42. Toward an Ontological Treatment of Disease and Diagnosis.Richard H. Scheuermann, Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2009 - In Richard H. Scheuermann, Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith (eds.), Toward an Ontological Treatment of Disease and Diagnosis. American Medical Informatics Association.
    Many existing biomedical vocabulary standards rest on incomplete, inconsistent or confused accounts of basic terms pertaining to diseases, diagnoses, and clinical phenotypes. Here we outline what we believe to be a logically and biologically coherent framework for the representation of such entities and of the relations between them. We defend a view of disease as involving in every case some physical basis within the organism that bears a disposition toward the execution of pathological processes. We present our view in (...)
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  43. A fair exchange: why living kidney donors in England should be financially compensated.Daniel Rodger & Bonnie Venter - 2023 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 26 (4):625-634.
    Every year, hundreds of patients in England die whilst waiting for a kidney transplant, and this is evidence that the current system of altruistic-based donation is not sufficient to address the shortage of kidneys available for transplant. To address this problem, we propose a monopsony system whereby kidney donors can opt-in to receive financial compensation, whilst still preserving the right of individuals to donate without receiving any compensation. A monopsony system describes a market structure where there is only one ‘buyer’—in (...)
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  44. The Burden of Autonomy, Non-combatant Immunity and Humanitarian Intervention.William Cornwell - 2005 - Ethical Perspectives 12 (3):341-355.
    Michael Walzer argues that except in cases involving genocide or mass slaughter, humanitarian intervention is unjustifiable because “citizens get the government they deserve, or, at least, the government for which they are ‘fit.’”Yet, if people are autonomous and deserve the government that rules over them, then it would seem that they are responsible for the government’s actions, including their nation’s wars of aggression.That line of thought undermines the doctrine of noncombatant immunity, which is perhaps the most important of Walzer’s jus (...)
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  45. The Logical Burdens of Proof. Assertion and Hypothesis.Daniele Chiffi & Fabien Schang - 2017 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 26 (4):1-22.
    The paper proposes two logical analyses of (the norms of) justification. In a first, realist-minded case, truth is logically independent from justification and leads to a pragmatic logic LP including two epistemic and pragmatic operators, namely, assertion and hypothesis. In a second, antirealist-minded case, truth is not logically independent from justification and results in two logical systems of information and justification: AR4 and AR4¢, respectively, provided with a question-answer semantics. The latter proposes many more epistemic agents, each corresponding to a (...)
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  46. Wherein is the concept of disease normative? From weak normativity to value-conscious naturalism.M. Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2021 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (1):1-14.
    In this paper we focus on some new normativist positions and compare them with traditional ones. In so doing, we claim that if normative judgments are involved in determining whether a condition is a disease only in the sense identified by new normativisms, then disease is normative only in a weak sense, which must be distinguished from the strong sense advocated by traditional normativisms. Specifically, we argue that weak and strong normativity are different to the point that one (...)
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  47. The concept of disease in the time of COVID-19.Maria Cristina Amoretti & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2020 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 41 (5):203-221.
    Philosophers of medicine have formulated different accounts of the concept of disease. Which concept of disease one assumes has implications for what conditions count as diseases and, by extension, who may be regarded as having a disease and for who may be accorded the social privileges and personal responsibilities associated with being sick. In this article, we consider an ideal diagnostic test for coronavirus disease 2019 infection with respect to four groups of people—positive and asymptomatic; positive (...)
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  48. On the classification of diseases.Benjamin Smart - 2014 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (4):251-269.
    Identifying the necessary and sufficient conditions for individuating and classifying diseases is a matter of great importance in the fields of law, ethics, epidemiology, and of course, medicine. In this paper, I first propose a means of achieving this goal, ensuring that no two distinct disease-types could correctly be ascribed to the same disease-token. I then posit a metaphysical ontology of diseases—that is, I give an account of what a disease is. This is essential to providing the (...)
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  49. A Multicenter Weighted Lottery to Equitably Allocate Scarce COVID-19 Therapeutics.D. B. White, E. K. McCreary, C. H. Chang, M. Schmidhofer, J. R. Bariola, N. N. Jonassaint, Parag A. Pathak, G. Persad, R. D. Truog, T. Sonmez & M. Utku Unver - 2022 - American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 206 (4):503–506.
    Shortages of new therapeutics to treat coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have forced clinicians, public health officials, and health systems to grapple with difficult questions about how to fairly allocate potentially life-saving treatments when there are not enough for all patients in need (1). Shortages have occurred with remdesivir, tocilizumab, monoclonal antibodies, and the oral antiviral Paxlovid (2) -/- Ensuring equitable allocation is especially important in light of the disproportionate burden experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic by disadvantaged groups, including Black, (...)
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  50. The Burden of Choice, the Complexity of the World and Its Reduction: The Game of Go/Weiqi as a Practice of "Empirical Metaphysics.Andrzej Nowak - 2018 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 9 (3):101-125.
    The main aim of the text is to show how a game of Go (Weiqi, baduk, Igo) can serve as a model representation of the ontological-metaphysical aspect of the actor–network theory (ANT). An additional objective is to demonstrate in return that this ontological-metaphys⁠ical aspect of ANT represented on Go/Weiqi game model is able to highlight the key aspect of this theory—onto-methodological praxis.
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