Results for 'ecosystem services'

999 found
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  1. A Scale Problem with the Ecosystem Services Argument for Protecting Biodiversity.Katie H. Morrow - 2023 - Environmental Values 32 (3):271-290.
    The ecosystem services argument is a highly publicised instrumental argument for protecting biodiversity. I develop a new objection to this argument based on the lack of a causal connection from global species losses to local ecosystem changes. I survey some alternative formulations of services arguments, including ones incorporating option value or a precautionary principle, and show that they do not fare much better than the standard version. I conclude that environmental thinkers should rely less on (...) services as a means to defend biodiversity, and that attention should be focused on additional types of value which might be attributed to global biodiversity. (shrink)
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  2. Understanding risk in forest ecosystem services: implications for effective risk management, communication and planning.Kristina Blennow, Johannes Persson, Annika Wallin, Niklas Vareman & Erik Persson - 2014 - Forestry 87:219-228.
    Uncertainty, insufficient information or information of poor quality, limited cognitive capacity and time, along with value conflicts and ethical considerations, are all aspects thatmake risk managementand riskcommunication difficult. This paper provides a review of different risk concepts and describes how these influence risk management, communication and planning in relation to forest ecosystem services. Based on the review and results of empirical studies, we suggest that personal assessment of risk is decisive in the management of forest ecosystem (...). The results are used together with a reviewof different principles of the distribution of risk to propose an approach to risk communication that is effective aswell as ethically sound. Knowledge of heuristics and mutual information on both beliefs and desires are important in the proposed risk communication approach. Such knowledge provides an opportunity for relevant information exchange, so that gaps in personal knowledge maps can be filled in and effective risk communication can be promoted. (shrink)
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  3. Option Value, Substitutable Species, and Ecosystem Services.Erik Persson - 2016 - Environmental Ethics 38 (2):165-181.
    The concept of ecosystem services is a way of visualizing the instrumental value that nature has for human beings. Most ecosystem services can be performed by more than one species. This fact is sometimes used as an argument against the preservation of species. However, even though substitutability does detract from the instrumental value of a species, it also adds option value to it. The option value cannot make a substitutable species as instrumentally valuable as a non-substitutable (...)
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  4.  84
    The Economic Value of Ecosystem Services in Pudacuo National Park, China. [REVIEW]Minh-Phuong Thi Duong - manuscript
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  5.  66
    Wax Moth Larvae: From Nuisome Parasites to Hope for Ecosystem Rescue.Quan-Hoang Vuong - manuscript
    This short article provides information about a lesson on the value of biodiversity in an ecosystem currently suffering severe damage due to human socio-economic activities.
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  6. Invasive species increase biodiversity and, therefore, services: An argument of equivocations.Christopher Lean - 2021 - Conservation Science and Practice 553.
    Some critics of invasion biology have argued the invasion of ecosystems by nonindigenous species can create more valuable ecosystems. They consider invaded communities as more valuable because they potentially produce more ecosystem services. To establish that the introduction of nonindigenous species creates more valuable ecosystems, they defend that value is provisioned by ecosystem services. These services are derived from ecosystem productivity, the production and cycling of resources. Ecosystem productivity is a result of biodiversity, (...)
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  7. Plant diversity is crucial for grassland ecosystem multifunctionality.Minh-Hoang Nguyen - 2022 - SM3D Portal.
    Humans, like other organisms, are still dependent on multiple ecosystem functions and services to sustain their livelihoods, such as the provision of food, the provision of clean water, the decomposition of waste, etc. Ironically, while the negative impacts caused by human activities are pushing many species to the verge of extinction, more and more evidence shows that biodiversity plays a crucial role in ensuring the ecosystem’s functioning and provisioning of ecosystem services.
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  8. How to design a governable digital health ecosystem.Jessica Morley & Luciano Floridi - manuscript
    It has been suggested that to overcome the challenges facing the UK’s National Health Service (NHS) of an ageing population and reduced available funding, the NHS should be transformed into a more informationally mature and heterogeneous organisation, reliant on data-based and algorithmically-driven interactions between human, artificial, and hybrid (semi-artificial) agents. This transformation process would offer significant benefit to patients, clinicians, and the overall system, but it would also rely on a fundamental transformation of the healthcare system in a way that (...)
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  9. The limits of empowerment: how to reframe the role of mHealth tools in the healthcare ecosystem.Jessica Morley & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1159-1183.
    This article highlights the limitations of the tendency to frame health- and wellbeing-related digital tools (mHealth technologies) as empowering devices, especially as they play an increasingly important role in the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK. It argues that mHealth technologies should instead be framed as digital companions. This shift from empowerment to companionship is advocated by showing the conceptual, ethical, and methodological issues challenging the narrative of empowerment, and by arguing that such challenges, as well as the risk (...)
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  10. Évaluation des écosystèmes en début de millénaire : Conclusions et retombées.Kalemani Jo Mulongoy & Annie Cung - 2009 - Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 4 (1):46-51.
    L'évaluation des écosystèmes est l'un des pivots essentiels pour l'élaboration de moyens adap- tés permettant de lutter contre la diminution massive de la biodiversité. Pour la première fois, elle a fait l'objet d'une analyse à l'échelle mondiale dans le cadre de l'Evaluation des écosys- tèmes en début de millénaire (EM). Le rassemblement de plus d’un millier de chercheurs et de plusieurs organismes internationaux durant quatre années ont permis de dessiner la carte nécessaire à toute action efficace. L'article expose les éléments (...)
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  11.  84
    Dịch vụ hệ sinh thái ES trong đào tạo bậc đại học và cao hơn.Ta Ro - manuscript
    Hackenburg et al. (2023) nghiên cứu dữ liệu về 20 chương trình đào tạo có cấp bằng và 112 khóa học bậc đại học có liên quan tới dịch vụ hệ sinh thái (ecosystem services - ES) để hiểu hơn về cách thức thông tin, kiến thức ES đang được truyền dẫn tới xã hội.
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  12. 47 Vietnamese people are among the world's most influential scientists in 2023.Authority of Foreign Information Service - 2023 - Vietnam Information Service.
    Vietnamese scientists on the list of "100.000 influential scientists" this year increased sharply in number and rank. -/- The ranking was selected by a group of scientists led by Professor John PA Ioannidis and colleagues from Stanford University (USA) on the Scopus database and published by Elsevier Publishing House.
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  13. From beauty to belief: The aesthetic and diversity values of plants and pets in shaping biodiversity loss belief among urban residents.Quan-Hoang Vuong, Minh-Phuong Thi Duong, Ni Putu Wulan Purnama Sari, Viet-Phuong La & Minh-Hoang Nguyen - manuscript
    Aesthetics is a crucial ecosystem service provided by biodiversity, which is believed to help improve humans’ quality of life and is linked to environmental consciousness and pro-environmental behaviors. However, how aesthetic experience induced by plants/animals influences the belief in the occurrence and significance of biodiversity loss among urban residents remains understudied. Thus, the current study aimed to examine how the diversity of pets and in-house plants affect urban residents’ belief in biodiversity loss in different scenarios of aesthetic experiences (positive (...)
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  14.  78
    Giá trị kinh tế của vùng bảo tồn sinh thái Qurumber National Park.Lâm Dân - manuscript
    Ước lượng giá trị kinh tế của dịch vụ hệ sinh thái (ES) là việc rất thách thức. Tuy vậy, do một số lượng lớn cư dân trên Trái Đất phụ thuộc vào ES để có sinh kế, công việc này vẫn luôn cần tiến hành. Một nghiên cứu mới trên tạp chí PARKS do IUCN xuất bản công bố ước lượng giá trị kinh tế quy đổi (có chọn lọc tiêu chí) cho Rừng quốc gia Qurumber thuộc vùng Gilgit-Baltistan, (...)
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  15.  32
    Navigating Complexity: Stakeholder Perspectives on Marine Conservation and Sustainable Policies. [REVIEW]Thi Ngoc An Dang - manuscript
    Encouraging a shift towards an “eco-surplus” mindset among stakeholders is essential for achieving long-term sustainability and safeguarding marine ecosystems. This mindset involves reframing environmental protection not as a hindrance but as a vital investment in the future. By recognizing the intrinsic value of conservation efforts, stakeholders can ensure the availability of ecosystem services crucial for human societies. Policymakers play a crucial role in this endeavor, engaging with local communities to cultivate a shared sense of environmental responsibility. Through grassroots (...)
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  16. Balancing Food Security & Ecological Resilience in the Age of the Anthropocene.Samantha Noll - 2018 - In Sarah Kenehan & Erinn Gilson (eds.), Food, Environment, and Climate Change. New York, NY, USA:
    Climate change increasingly impacts the resilience of ecosystems and agricultural production. On the one hand, changing weather patterns negatively affect crop yields and thus global food security. Indeed, we live in an age where more than one billion people are going hungry, and this number is expected to rise as climate-induced change continues to displace communities and thus separate them from their means of food production (Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre 2015). In this context, if one accepts a humancentric ethic, then (...)
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  17. Dịch vụ hệ sinh thái trong hệ thống đào tạo bậc đại học và cao hơn.Dương Thị Minh Phượng - 2023 - Tạp Chí Kinh Tế Và Dự Báo.
    Trên tập san khoa học Ecosystems and People, Hackenburg và cộng sự gần đây đã xuất bản bài nghiên cứu về 20 chương trình đào tạo có cấp bằng và 112 khóa học bậc đại học có liên quan tới dịch vụ hệ sinh thái (ecosystem services - ES) để hiểu hơn về cách thức thông tin, kiến thức ES đang được truyền dẫn tới xã hội. (Kinh tế & Dự báo; ngày 9-10-2023).
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  18. The Preservation Paradox and Natural Capital.C. Tyler DesRoches - 2020 - Ecosystem Services: Science, Policy and Practice 101058 (N/A):1-7.
    Many ecological economists have argued that some natural capital should be preserved for posterity. Yet, among environmental philosophers, the preservation paradox entails that preserving parts of nature, including those denoted by natural capital, is impossible. The paradox claims that nature is a realm of phenomena independent of intentional human agency, that preserving and restoring nature require intentional human agency, and, therefore, no one can preserve or restore nature (without making it artificial). While this article argues that the preservation paradox is (...)
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  19.  82
    Câu hỏi “ong ở đâu ra” và giá trị sinh thái.Trẻ Làng - manuscript
    Câu hỏi “ong ở đâu ra” và giá trị sinh thái.
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  20. What is Natural about Natural Capital during the Anthropocene?C. Tyler DesRoches - 2018 - Sustainability 1 (10):806.
    The concept of natural capital denotes a rich variety of natural processes, such as ecosystems, that produce economically valuable goods and services. The Anthropocene signals a diminished state of nature, however, with some scholars claiming that no part of the Earth’s surface remains untouched. What are ecological economists to make of natural capital during the Anthropocene? Is natural capital still a coherent concept? What is the conceptual relationship between nature and natural capital? This article wrestles with John Stuart Mill’s (...)
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  21. Even good bots fight: the case of Wikipedia.Milena Tsvetkova, Ruth García-Gavilanes, Luciano Floridi & Taha Yasseri - 2017 - PLoS ONE 12 (2).
    In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and (...)
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  22. The World as a Garden: a Philosophical Analysis of Natural Capital in Economics.C. Tyler DesRoches - 2015 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 8 (2):121.
    This dissertation undertakes a philosophical analysis of “natural capital” and argues that this concept has prompted economists to view nature in a radically novel manner. Formerly, economists referred to nature and natural products as a collection of inert materials to be drawn upon in isolation and then rearranged by human agents to produce commodities. More recently, however, nature is depicted as a collection of active, modifiable, and economically valuable processes, often construed as ecosystems that produce marketable goods and services (...)
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  23. Citizen Science and Social Innovation: Mutual Relations, Barriers, Needs, and Development Factors.Andrzej Klimczuk, Egle Butkeviciene & Minela Kerla (eds.) - 2022 - Lausanne: Frontiers Media.
    Social innovations are usually understood as new ideas, initiatives, or solutions that make it possible to meet the challenges of societies in fields such as social security, education, employment, culture, health, environment, housing, and economic development. On the one hand, many citizen science activities serve to achieve scientific as well as social and educational goals. Thus, these actions are opening an arena for introducing social innovations. On the other hand, some social innovations are further developed, adapted, or altered after the (...)
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  24. The World as a Garden: A Philosophical Analysis of Natural Capital in Economics.C. Tyler DesRoches - 2015 - Dissertation, University of British Columbia
    This dissertation undertakes a philosophical analysis of “natural capital” and argues that this concept has prompted economists to view Nature in a radically novel manner. Formerly, economists referred to Nature and natural products as a collection of inert materials to be drawn upon in isolation and then rearranged by human agents to produce commodities. More recently, nature is depicted as a collection of active, modifiable, and economically valuable processes, often construed as ecosystems that produce marketable goods and services gratis. (...)
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  25. The Fragile Landscape of the Sharing Economy in Hungary.Bori Simonovits, Anikó Bernát & Bálint Balázs - 2021 - In Andrzej Klimczuk, Vida Česnuitytė & Gabriela Avram (eds.), The Collaborative Economy in Action: European Perspectives. University of Limerick. pp. 153-163.
    In this chapter, we assess the current state-of-the-art of the Hungarian sharing economy sector relying on statistics, previous surveys, and expert interviews around case examples. Although we record a fast emergence of an increasing number and a widening variety of multinational and home-grown initiatives, we also contend that in Hungary, the innovation ecosystem of the collaborative economy is still relatively feeble. The linkages that are created through these initiatives are controversial sociologically. The main end-users are highly educated young urbanites. (...)
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  26. Biodiversity and Biocollections: Problem of Correspondence.Igor Pavlinov - 2016 - In Aspects of Biodiversity. KMK Sci Press. pp. 733-786.
    This text is an English translation of those several sections of the original paper in Russian, where collection-related issues are considered. The full citation of the original paper is as following: Pavlinov I.Ya. 2016. [Bioraznoobrazie i biokollektsii: problema sootvetstvia]. In: Pavlinov I.Ya. (comp.). Aspects of Biodiversity. Archives of Zoological Museum of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vol. 54, Pр. 733–786. -/- Orientation of biology, as a natural science, on the study and explanation of the similarities and differences between organisms led in (...)
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  27. How Should Public Procurement Law Deal With FinTech?Bryane Michael - manuscript
    FinTech -- along with the blockchain, other distributed ledger, smart contract, and tokenization usually assumed to accompany it -- could change the way governments procure goods and services. Procurement authorities and procurement law can play a vital role in the development of FinTech. They can help build the FinTech platforms and ecosystems that help them engage in public procurement. They should not try to procure such FinTech outright. At the national level, regulators should not just leave FinTech rulemaking up (...)
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  28. A Socially Engaged Model of Sharing Platforms in Turkey: Design as a Blueprint of Practices and Local Cooperations.Ozge Subasi & Berna Kirkulak-Uludag - 2021 - In Andrzej Klimczuk, Vida Česnuitytė & Gabriela Avram (eds.), The Collaborative Economy in Action: European Perspectives. University of Limerick. pp. 340-358.
    The growing importance of sharing economy brought criticism with it. Can a new emerging economy be more socially engaged? Given the emergence of local forms of sharing, the current study attempts to collide the authentic socially engaged forms of sharing in the form of platforms, services, and communities from Turkey. Despite intense public attention, there have been very few studies about landscapes of sharing and caring in Turkey. This gap needs to be addressed, as Turkey has great potential. Rapid (...)
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  29. Ecosystems as Spontaneous Orders.Andy Lamey - 2015 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 27 (1):64-88.
    The notion of a spontaneous order has a long history in the philosophy of economics, where it has been used to advance a view of markets as complex networks of information that no single mind can apprehend. Traditionally, the impossibility of grasping all of the information present in the spontaneous order of the market has been invoked as grounds for not subjecting markets to central planning. A less noted feature of the spontaneous order concept is that when it is applied (...)
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  30. Anchoring in Ecosystemic Kinds.Matthew H. Slater - 2018 - Synthese 195 (4):1487-1508.
    The world contains many different types of ecosystems. This is something of a commonplace in biology and conservation science. But there has been little attention to the question of whether such ecosystem types enjoy a degree of objectivity—whether they might be natural kinds. I argue that traditional accounts of natural kinds that emphasize nomic or causal–mechanistic dimensions of “kindhood” are ill-equipped to accommodate presumptive ecosystemic kinds. In particular, unlike many other kinds, ecosystemic kinds are “anchored” to the contingent character (...)
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  31. In Service to Others: A New Evolutionary Perspective on Human Enhancement.Hugh Desmond - 2021 - Hastings Center Report 51 (6):33-43.
    In enhancement ethics, evolutionary theory has been largely perceived as supporting liberal views on enhancement, where decisions to enhance are predominantly regulated by the principle of individual autonomy. In this paper I critique this perception in light of recent scientific developments. Cultural evolutionary theory suggests a picture where individual interests are entangled with community interests, and this undermines the applicability of the principle of autonomy. This is particularly relevant for enhancement ethics, given how – I argue – decisions to enhance (...)
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  32. Applying the ecosystem approach to global bioethics: building on the Leopold legacy.Antoine Boudreau LeBlanc & Bryn Williams-Jones - 2023 - Global Bioethics 34 (1):2280289.
    For Van Rensselaer Potter (1911–2001), Global Bio-Ethics is about building on the legacy of Aldo Leopold (1887–1948), one of the most notable forest managers of the twentieth century who brought to light the importance of pragmatism in the sciences and showed us a new way to proceed with environmental ethics. Following Richard Huxtable and Jonathan Ives's methodological 'Framework for Empirical Bioethics Research Projects' called 'Mapping, framing, shaping,' published in BMC Medicine Ethics (2019)), we propose operationalizing a framework for Global Bio-Ethics (...)
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  33. Factor Affecting Customer Service in Supply Chain Management of Small and Medium Enterprises: An Empirical Study of Jammu Region.Sanjeev Lalhotra & Prof B. C. Sharma - 2014 - SOCRATES 2 (JUNE 2014):149-165.
    Factor Affecting Customer Service in Supply Chain Management of Small and Medium Enterprises: An Empirical Study of Jammu Region -/- Author / Authors : Sanjeev Lalhotra and Prof. B.C Sharma Page no.149-165 Discipline : Applied Economics/ Management/ Commerce Script/language : Roman/English Category : Research paper Keywords: Customer services, Supply Chain Management, Small and Medium Enterprises.
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  34. Service and Status Competition May Help Explain Perceived Ethical Acceptability.Hugh Desmond - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 11 (4):258-260.
    The dominant view on the ethics of cognitive enhancement (CE) is that CE is beholden to the principle of autonomy. However, this principle does not seem to reflect commonly held ethical judgments about enhancement. Is the principle of autonomy at fault, or should common judgments be adjusted? Here I argue for the first, and show how common judgments can be justified as based on a principle of service.
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  35. Holism vs. reductionism: Do ecosystem ecology and landscape ecology clarify the debate?Donato Bergandi & Patrick Blandin - 1998 - Acta Biotheoretica 46 (3):185-206.
    The holism-reductionism debate, one of the classic subjects of study in the philosopy of science, is currently at the heart of epistemological concerns in ecology. Yet the division between holism and reductionism does not always stand out clearly in this field. In particular, almost all work in ecosystem ecology and landscape ecology presents itself as holistic and emergentist. Nonetheless, the operational approaches used rely on conventional reductionist methodology.From an emergentist epistemological perspective, a set of general 'transactional' principles inspired by (...)
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  36. The $25-1000 range and inadequate argument on the restoration of the mangrove-seagrass ecosystems.Minh-Hoang Nguyen & Quan-Hoang Vuong - manuscript
    In May 2023, Fakhraee et al. published a research article titled “Ocean alkalinity enhancement through restoration of blue carbon ecosystems” in Nature Sustainability. In this essay, we discuss an assessment of the costs of restoring and maintaining the mangrove-seagrass ecosystems indicated in the article.
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  37. Counseling Services as Determinants of Senior Secondary 2 Anti-Social Behaviour in Calabar Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria.J. Juan - 2022 - Behaviour and Health 3 (1):183-202.
    This study aims to examine counseling services as determinants of senior secondary 2 students’ anti-social behaviour in Calabar Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. The main independent variable of the study was counseling services which includes informative counseling services, rehabilitation while the dependent variable is anti-social behaviours. Two hypotheses were formulated to direct the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consisted of 2686 senior secondary 2 students in (...)
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  38. Sagoff on Ecosystems as Self-Organizing Systems.Rachel Fredericks - 2013 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 16 (3):258-261.
    In “What Does Environmental Protection Protect?” Mark Sagoff argues that there is no ecological way to test the claim that natural ecosystems are complex adaptive systems. In this critical commentary, I recreate that argument, object to it, and attempt to clarify its normative upshot. I show that Sagoff relies on substantive assumptions about (1) the tools and methods of ecological science, (2) what can be done with those tools and methods, and (3) ecology’s being separable from other disciplines, all of (...)
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  39. Assessing Service Quality in the Ghanaian Private Healthcare Sector: The Case of Comboni Hospital.Fortune Afi Agbi - 2020 - International Journal of Scientific Research and Management (IJSRM) 8 (2).
    The healthcare industry has become a paramount concern for most people in Ghana and the quality of services rendered to the patients in the private hospitals cannot be overemphasized. Patients need quality of services most and are willing to seek better services. The government has been the main provider of health care services in Ghana but recently, some Non-Governmental Organization’s (NGO’s), private individuals and stakeholders also provide health care services which has surged the competitiveness in (...)
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  40.  42
    Restful Web Services for Scalable Data Mining.Solar Cesc - forthcoming - International Journal of Research and Innovation in Applied Science.
    Scalability, efficiency, and security had been a persistent problem over the years in data mining, several techniques had been proposed and implemented but none had been able to solve the problem of scalability, efficiency and security from cloud computing. In this research, we solve the problem scalability, efficiency and security in data mining over cloud computing by using a restful web services and combination of different technologies and tools, our model was trained by using different machine learning algorithm, and (...)
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  41. Consulting Services in Agriculture.Nadiia Serskykh & Igor Britchenko - unknown
    At the paper the dynamics of the development of the services market in Ukraine and its structure are analized. The influence of global economic processes on the services market has been studied. The concepts of "services" and "outsourcing" are characterized. Attention is paid to the development of services in the field of informatization and consulting. The main functions of information and consulting services in agriculture are defined. The purpose of the paper is to study and (...)
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  42.  61
    Public service ethics from the perspective of digitalization / Этика государственной службы в ракурсе цифровизации.Pavel Simashenkov - 2023 - In Социальные коммуникации: философские, политические, религиозные, культурно-исторические измерения. Сборник статей III Всероссийской научно-практической конференции с международным участием. Под общей редакцией О.Ф. Гаврилова, О.И. Жуковой, С.Н. Чируна. Ке. pp. 368-372.
    The article analyzes approaches to the ethicalization of officialdom in the realities of digitalization. The author believe that demonstrative behavior harms the authority of public service. Administrative ethics should be based on traditional values, the main of which are deemed to be integrity and loyalty to the Motherland. В статье анализируются подходы к этизации чиновничества в реалиях цифровизации. Автор полагает, что демонстративность поведения вредит авторитету государственной службы. Административная этика должна базироваться на традиционных ценностях, главными из которых почитаются принципиальность и верность (...)
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  43. Ethics as a service: a pragmatic operationalisation of AI ethics.Jessica Morley, Anat Elhalal, Francesca Garcia, Libby Kinsey, Jakob Mökander & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Minds and Machines 31 (2):239–256.
    As the range of potential uses for Artificial Intelligence, in particular machine learning, has increased, so has awareness of the associated ethical issues. This increased awareness has led to the realisation that existing legislation and regulation provides insufficient protection to individuals, groups, society, and the environment from AI harms. In response to this realisation, there has been a proliferation of principle-based ethics codes, guidelines and frameworks. However, it has become increasingly clear that a significant gap exists between the theory of (...)
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  44. Is it Possible to Care for Ecosystems? Policy Paralysis and Ecosystem Management.Robert K. Garcia & Jonathan A. Newman - 2016 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):170-182.
    Conservationists have two types of arguments for why we should conserve ecosystems: instrumental and intrinsic value arguments. Instrumental arguments contend that we ought to conserve ecosystems because of the benefits that humans, or other morally relevant individuals, derive from ecosystems. Conservationists are often loath to rely too heavily on the instrumental argument because it could potentially force them to admit that some ecosystems are not at all useful to humans, or that if they are, they are not more useful than (...)
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  45. Public Service Values and Ethics in Public Administration.Desh Raj Sirswal - 2015 - In Merina Islam (ed.), The Religious-Philosophical Dimensions. Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Pehowa (Kurukshetra). pp. 74-83.
    Ethics is an attempt to guide human conduct and it is also an attempt to help man in leading good life by applying moral principles. Ethics refers to well based standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans ought to do, usually in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues. Ethics is related to issues of propriety, rightness and wrongness. What is right is ethical and what is wrong is unethical. Value is an important conception (...)
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  46. Ontology as Product-Service System: Lessons Learned from GO, BFO and DOLCE.Barry Smith - 2019 - In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO), Buffalo, NY.
    This paper defends a view of the Gene Ontology (GO) and of Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) as examples of what the manufacturing industry calls product-service systems. This means that they are products (the ontologies) bundled with a range of ontology services such as updates, training, help desk, and permanent identifiers. The paper argues that GO and BFO are contrasted in this respect with DOLCE, which approximates more closely to a scientific theory or a scientific publication. The paper provides a (...)
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  47. Ethics as a service: a pragmatic operationalisation of AI ethics.Jessica Morley, Anat Elhalal, Francesca Garcia, Libby Kinsey, Jakob Mökander & Luciano Floridi - manuscript
    As the range of potential uses for Artificial Intelligence (AI), in particular machine learning (ML), has increased, so has awareness of the associated ethical issues. This increased awareness has led to the realisation that existing legislation and regulation provides insufficient protection to individuals, groups, society, and the environment from AI harms. In response to this realisation, there has been a proliferation of principle-based ethics codes, guidelines and frameworks. However, it has become increasingly clear that a significant gap exists between the (...)
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  48. Addressing research integrity challenges: from penalising individual perpetrators to fostering research ecosystem quality care.Hub Zwart & Ruud ter Meulen - 2019 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 15 (1):1-5.
    Concern for and interest in research integrity has increased significantly during recent decades, both in academic and in policy discourse. Both in terms of diagnostics and in terms of therapy, the tendency in integrity discourse has been to focus on strategies of individualisation. Other contributions to the integrity debate, however, focus more explicitly on environmental factors, e.g. on the quality and resilience of research ecosystems, on institutional rather than individual responsibilities, and on the quality of the research culture. One example (...)
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  49. Epistemic Paternalism and the Service Conception of Epistemic Authority.Michel Croce - 2018 - Metaphilosophy 49 (3):305-327.
    Epistemic paternalism is the thesis that in some circumstances we are justified in interfering with the inquiry of another for their own epistemic good without consulting them on the issue. In this paper, I address the issue of who is rationally entitled to undertake paternalistic interferences, and in virtue of which features one has this entitlement. First, I undermine the view according to which experts are the most apt people to act as paternalist interferers. Then, I argue that epistemic authorities (...)
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    Authority through Service: A Mesoamerican Approach to Political Expertise.Matthias Kramm - forthcoming - Social Theory and Practice.
    In this article, I draw on the Mesoamerican institution of community offices (cargo) to support the view that political authority should be based on both political legitimacy and political expertise. I argue that the Mesoamerican tradition of cargos allows for a notion of political expertise that one acquires by rendering a service to one’s community. This expertise could be made a prerequisite for political representation without being vulnerable to several charges that have been levelled against epistocracy.
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