Results for 'medical sphere'

998 found
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  1. Peculiarities of application of marketing technologies in the medical sphere.Oleksandr P. Krupskyi & Yuliya Stasiuk - 2023 - Economic Analysis 33 (3):202-212.
    Introduction. The medical sphere is constantly evolving, requiring improved approaches to its organisation and functioning. Advances in medical technology, observable changes in patient needs and growing competition challenge medical institutions to improve their strategies and approaches. Marketing technologies are becoming one of the key tools for achieving strategic goals. Purpose. This article is aimed at studying the peculiarities of the use of marketing technologies in the medical field. The main purpose of the study is to (...)
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  2. Conscientious Objection to Medical Assistance in Dying: A Qualitative Study with Quebec Physicians.Jocelyn Maclure - 2019 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics / Revue canadienne de bioéthique 2 (2):110-134.
    Patients in Quebec can legally obtain medical assistance in dying (MAID) if they are able to give informed consent, have a serious and incurable illness, are at the end of their lives and are in a situation of unbearable suffering. Since the Supreme Court of Canada’s 2015 Carter decision, access to MAID, under certain conditions, has become a constitutional right. Quebec physicians are now likely to receive requests for MAID from their patients. The Quebec and Canadian laws recognize a (...)
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  3. Professional culture and security: an innovative approach to implementing a medical facility.Daria Hromtseva & Oleksandr P. Krupskyi - 2015 - European Journal of Management Issues 23 (5):15-23.
    This article suggests different approaches to the definition of the nature, types, and component elements of safety culture (SC) in the organization; given the possible method of evaluation; formulated the concept of professional safety culture by taking into account the features of the medical industry; suggested innovative ways to implement the SC and strengthen it to improve the efficiency of hospitals. -/- Запропоновано окремі підходи до трактування сутності, видів і складових елементів культури безпеки (КБ) в організації; надано можливий метод (...)
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  4. The time of the change: Menopause's medicalization and the gender politics of aging. van de Wiel - 2014 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 7 (1):74.
    As a nexus of fertility’s finitude and female midlife, menopause is a physical and cultural phenomenon through which the relation between the medicalization of the female reproductive cycle and normative attitudes toward aging become expressed. Age, like other systems of separation, can function as an “instrument of regulatory regimes” and shows similarities to gender in its body-bound, surface-focused, and morally coded position in the sociomedical sphere. However, although age is an influential social category, its reliance on historical and epistemic (...)
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  5. Logistical Aspects of Different Online Teachinglearning Methods Among Medical Students During COVID-19 in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, Thrissur, Southern India.Sajeevan Kundil Chandran, Sajith Vilambil, Shajee Sivasankaran Nair & Sajna Mathumkunnath Vijayan - 2021 - Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 15 (10):1-4.
    Due to the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) lockdown implemented by the government, we had to transform our classes into the online sphere. The most commonly used methods of online teaching in Government Medical College, Thrissur were, live online lectures, PowerPoint presentations with narrations, prerecorded videos and assignments. Aim: To assess the logistical aspects, merit and demerits of different online teaching-learning methods among phase-1 medical student in a tertiary care teaching hospital during COVID-19 lockdown Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional (...)
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  6. State and Socio-Political Crises in the Process of Modernization.Leonid Grinin - 2013 - Social Evolution and History 12 (2):35-76.
    This article starts with a brief analysis of the causes of state collapse as states undergo the process of political evolution. Next, I describe and analyze the mechanisms of social-political crises arising in the process of modernization. Such crises are a consequence of the inability of many traditional institutions and ideologies to keep up with changes in technology, communication, system of education, medical sphere, and with the demographic change. This analysis suggests that an accelerated development can cause a (...)
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  7. Beyond the Goods-Services Continuum.Peter Koch & Barry Smith - 2023 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Ontologies (Icbo).
    Governments standardly deploy a distinction between goods and services in assessing economic health and tracking national income statistics, of which medical goods and services carry significant importance. In what follows we draw on Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) to introduce a third kind of entity called patterns, which help capture the various ways in which goods and services are intertwined and help also to show how many services generate a new kind of non-goods-related products. Patterns are an overlooked yet essential (...)
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  8. A Critical Exploration of Principlism.Glen Cordha - 2 - Dissertation, University of Liverpool
    Beauchamp and Childress created the ‘four principle’ approach to help clinicians analyse and resolve ethical dilemmas they may encounter when working. In this project, I will consider whether autonomy ought to have a privileged position within the four principles and if the four principles can apply outside the medical sphere.
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  9. Професійна культура і безпека: інноваційний підхід до впровадження в медичному закладі.D. K. Hromtseva & Oleksandr Krupskyi - 2015 - European Journal of Management Issues 5 (23):15-23.
    The issue of safety culture is one of the most important in a modern medical facility because any problems during the provision of services may lead to irreversible consequences. Not only the patient may suffer, but the doctor who assisted. Unfortunately, very little attention to this issue is paid in Ukraine. Based on this, we can say that the topic is relevant and requires studying. -/- The purpose of writing this article is the analysis of the ways of forming (...)
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  10. Political Bioethics.Benjamin Gregg - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (4):516-529.
    If bioethical questions cannot be resolved in a widely acceptable manner by rational argument, and if they can be regulated only on the basis of political decision-making, then bioethics belongs to the political sphere. The particular kind of politics practiced in any given society matters greatly: it will determine the kind of bioethical regulation, legislation, and public policy generated there. I propose approaching bioethical questions politically in terms of decisions that cannot be “correct” but that can be “procedurally legitimate.” (...)
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  11. Autism: The Very Idea.Simon Cushing - 2012 - In Jami L. Anderson & Simon Cushing (eds.), The Philosophy of Autism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 17-45.
    If each of the subtypes of autism is defined simply as constituted by a set of symptoms, then the criteria for its observation are straightforward, although, of course, some of those symptoms themselves might be hard to observe definitively. Compare with telling whether or not someone is bleeding: while it might be hard to tell if someone is bleeding internally, we know what it takes to find out, and when we have the right access and instruments we can settle the (...)
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  12. Affect Attunement in the Caregiver-Infant Relationship and Across Species: Expanding the Ethical Scope of Eros.Cynthia Willett - 2012 - philoSOPHIA: A Journal of Continental Feminism 2 (2):111-130.
    In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:Affect Attunement in the Caregiver-Infant Relationship and Across SpeciesExpanding the Ethical Scope of ErosCynthia WillettCompelling glimpses into the ethical capacities of our animal kin reveal new possibilities for ethical relationships encompassing humans with other animal species. Consider the remarkable report of a female bonobo in a British zoo who assists a bird found in her cage by retrieving the fallen bird, and spreading its wings so that this fellow (...)
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  13. The dental anomaly: how and why dental caries and periodontitis are phenomenologically atypical.Dylan Rakhra - 2019 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 14 (1):1-7.
    Despite their shared origins, medicine and dentistry are not always two sides of the same coin. There is a long history in medical philosophy of defining disease and various medical models have come into existence. Hitherto, little philosophical and phenomenological work has been done considering dental caries and periodontitis as examples of disease and illness. A philosophical methodology is employed to explore how we might define dental caries and periodontitis using classical medical models of disease – the (...)
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  14.  41
    Public Health in Private.Philippa Nicole Barr - 2024 - Australian Feminist Studies 39:1-16.
    Elite women seized the public health campaign during the 1900 plague outbreak to assert political influence and advocate for sanitation reform grounded in their domestic experiences. These women advocated for their inclusion in the political sphere by valuing their domestic experiences as knowledge relevant for public health initiatives. This reframing of experience positioned them as viable citizens in the imminent Federation. Applying Laura Zanotti's concept of relational ontology, this analysis frames their actions as not simply a battle against institutional (...)
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  15. The Health System and the Russian Orthodox Church: Prospects for Development.Bogdan Ershov & E. Enter Author Name Without Selecting A. Profile: Muhina Natalia - 2017 - PhilArchive (5).
    The article examines the participation and assistance of the Orthodox Church in solving problems that allowed to give a scientific justification for the cooperation of health care and Orthodox religious institutions, to determine their role in the historical context and structure of modern healthcare in Russia. The article presents an algorithm for organizing sisters of mercy, their system of upbringing. Particular attention is given to the possibility of teaching the course "Foundations of Orthodox Culture" in secular educational institutions. -/- Research (...)
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  16. Extending the Renaissance mind: 'Look what thy memory cannot contain'.Miranda Anderson - 2016 - In Peter Garratt (ed.), The Cognitive Humanities: Embodied Mind in Literature and Culture. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 95-112.
    The possibility that non-biological resources can act as part of the cognitive system is claimed by Andy Clark’s and David Chalmers’s seminal paper, ‘The Extended Mind’ (1998). This hypothesis holds parallels with the history of the book, an area of research that has long been considering the effect on culture and cognition of the technological changes from orality to literacy and from manuscripts to printing. M. T. Clanchy’s From Memory to Written Record describes literacy as a technology that structures the (...)
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  17. Mind-Body Medicine in Inpatient Psychiatry.David Lag Tomasi - 2020 - New York, NY: Ibidem / Columbia University Press. Edited by Friedrich Luft & Alexander Gungov.
    David Tomasi presents new, groundbreaking research on the science and application of Mind-Body Medicine strategies to improve clinical outcomes in inpatient psychiatry settings. Much more than a list of therapeutic recommendations, this book is a thorough description of how Mind-Body Medicine can be successfully applied, from a therapeutic as well as from an organizational, cost-effective analysis viewpoint, to the full spectrum of psychiatric treatments. Furthermore, this study examines the role of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary treatment teams, with a special focus on (...)
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  18. Integrative Approaches to Psychiatric Treatment: The Verona Mental Health Centre CSM (Centro Salute Mentale) (2nd edition).Michele Tansella & David Tomasi - 2009 - Cram - Südtiroler Volksuniversität 2.
    Mental health challenges can be described via the application of multiple lenses, from clinical-medical perspectives, to social and community-based, to further understandings in the context of public health. While these challenges can represent multiple issues to the scientific community at-large, especially because of the translational issues attached to the application of research and practice to the sphere of community services, it is useful to understand that the triad ethics, evidence, and experience can be instrumental in navigating the complexity (...)
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  19. Disability and the problem of suffering.Joel Michael Reynolds - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (8):547-547.
    I am grateful to Philip Reed for his article ‘Expressivism at the Beginning and End of Life’. His piece compellingly demonstrates the import of expanding analyses concerning the expressivist thesis beyond the reproductive sphere to the end-of-life sphere. I hope that his intervention spurns further work on this connection. In what follows, I want to focus on what I take to be moments of slippage in his use of the concept of disability, a slippage to which many disability (...)
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  20. Sphere transgressions: reflecting on the risks of big tech expansionism.Marthe Stevens, Steven R. Kraaijeveld & Tamar Sharon - forthcoming - Information, Communication and Society.
    The rapid expansion of Big Tech companies into various societal domains (e.g., health, education, and agriculture) over the past decade has led to increasing concerns among governments, regulators, scholars, and civil society. While existing theoretical frameworks—often revolving around privacy and data protection, or market and platform power—have shed light on important aspects of Big Tech expansionism, there are other risks that these frameworks cannot fully capture. In response, this editorial proposes an alternative theoretical framework based on the notion of (...) transgressions, which draws on political philosopher Michael Walzer's theory of justice. The editorial not only introduces the sphere transgressions framework, but it also highlights its potential to generate novel research questions. Furthermore, this editorial introduces eight articles and one commentary from a group of interdisciplinary scholars that critically examine Big Tech expansionism by reflecting on this expansionism from the perspective of different societal spheres or by engaging with the sphere transgressions framework itself. (shrink)
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  21. Teaching medical ethics and law within medical education: a model for the UK core curriculum.Richard Ashcroft & Donna Dickenson - 1998 - Journal of Medical Ethics 24:188-192.
    Consensus statement by UK teachers of medical ethics and law.
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  22. Medicalization of Sexual Desire.Jacob Stegenga - 2021 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 17 (2):(SI5)5-34.
    Medicalisation is a social phenomenon in which conditions that were once under legal, religious, personal or other jurisdictions are brought into the domain of medical authority. Low sexual desire in females has been medicalised, pathologised as a disease, and intervened upon with a range of pharmaceuticals. There are two polarised positions on the medicalisation of low female sexual desire: I call these the mainstream view and the critical view. I assess the central arguments for both positions. Dividing the two (...)
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  23. The Medicalization of Love.Brian D. Earp, Anders Sandberg & Julian Savulescu - 2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (3):323-336.
    Pharmaceuticals or other emerging technologies could be used to enhance (or diminish) feelings of lust, attraction, and attachment in adult romantic partnerships. While such interventions could conceivably be used to promote individual (and couple) well-being, their widespread development and/or adoption might lead to “medicalization” of human love and heartache—for some, a source of serious concern. In this essay, we argue that the “medicalization of love” need not necessarily be problematic, on balance, but could plausibly be expected to have either good (...)
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  24. Subjective spheres of influence: A perceptual system beyond Mindsponge.Minh-Hoang Nguyen - manuscript
    I developed a framework regarding an individual’s subjective spheres of influence based on the Mindsponge mechanism and Mindsponge-related studies to illustrate how individuals perceive what they can influence and what can influence them. In fact, this idea has germinated in my mind since I asked the question: “what are beyond Mindsponge?” The framework is expected to help explain how people interact with the world around them, how groups are formed, and how societies operate, which can be valuable for studying political, (...)
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  25. Medical need and health need.Ben Davies - 2023 - Clinical Ethics 18 (3):287-291.
    I introduce a distinction between health need and medical need, and raise several questions about their interaction. Health needs are needs that relate directly to our health condition. Medical needs are needs which bear some relation to medical institutions or processes. I suggest that the question of whether medical insurance or public care should cover medical needs, health needs, or only needs which fit both categories is a political question that cannot be resolved definitionally. I (...)
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  26. Machine Medical Ethics.Simon Peter van Rysewyk & Matthijs Pontier (eds.) - 2014 - Springer.
    In medical settings, machines are in close proximity with human beings: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. Machines in these contexts are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. -/- As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a (...)
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  27. Medical Brain Drain: Free-Riding, Exploitation, and Global Justice.Merten Reglitz - 2016 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 3 (1): 67-81.
    In her debate with Michael Blake, Gillian Brock sets out to justify emigration restrictions on medical workers from poor states on the basis of their free-riding on the public investment that their states have made in them in form of a publicly funded education. For this purpose, Brock aims to isolate the question of emigration restrictions from the larger question of responsibilities for remedying global inequalities. I argue that this approach is misguided because it is blind to decisive factors (...)
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  28. Do medical schools teach medical humanities? Review of curricula in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom.Jeremy Howick, Lunan Zhao, Brenna McKaig, Alessandro Rosa, Raffaella Campaner, Jason Oke & Dien Ho - 2021 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice (1):86-92.
    Rationale and objectives: Medical humanities are becoming increasingly recognized as positively impacting medical education and medical practice. However, the extent of medical humanities teaching in medical schools is largely unknown. We reviewed medical school curricula in Canada, the UK and the US. We also explored the relationship between medical school ranking and the inclusion of medical humanities in the curricula. -/- Methods: We searched the curriculum websites of all accredited medical schools (...)
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  29. Medical Need, Equality, and Uncertainty.L. Chad Horne - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (8):588-596.
    Many hold that distributing healthcare according to medical need is a requirement of equality. Most egalitarians believe, however, that people ought to be equal on the whole, by some overall measure of well-being or life-prospects; it would be a massive coincidence if distributing healthcare according to medical need turned out to be an effective way of promoting equality overall. I argue that distributing healthcare according to medical need is important for reducing individuals' uncertainty surrounding their future (...) needs. In other words, distributing healthcare according to medical need is a natural feature of healthcare insurance; it is about indemnity, not equality. (shrink)
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  30. Trust, Distrust, and ‘Medical Gaslighting’.Elizabeth Barnes - 2023 - Philosophical Quarterly 73 (3):649-676.
    When are we obligated to believe someone? To what extent are people authorities about their own experiences? What kind of harm might we enact when we doubt? Questions like these lie at the heart of many debates in social and feminist epistemology, and they’re the driving issue behind a key conceptual framework in these debates—gaslighting. But while the concept of gaslighting has provided fruitful insight, it's also proven somewhat difficult to adjudicate, and seems prone to over-application. In what follows, I (...)
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  31. The medical model, with a human face.Justis Koon - 2022 - Philosophical Studies 179 (12):3747-3770.
    In this paper, I defend a version of the medical model of disability, which defines disability as an enduring biological dysfunction that causes its bearer a significant degree of impairment. We should accept the medical model, I argue, because it succeeds in capturing our judgments about what conditions do and do not qualify as disabilities, because it offers a compelling explanation for what makes a condition count as a disability, and because it justifies why the federal government should (...)
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  32. Medical Image Classification with Machine Learning Classifier.Destiny Agboro - forthcoming - Journal of Computer Science.
    In contemporary healthcare, medical image categorization is essential for illness prediction, diagnosis, and therapy planning. The emergence of digital imaging technology has led to a significant increase in research into the use of machine learning (ML) techniques for the categorization of images in medical data. We provide a thorough summary of recent developments in this area in this review, using knowledge from the most recent research and cutting-edge methods.We begin by discussing the unique challenges and opportunities associated with (...)
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  33. Medical Overtesting and Racial Distrust.Luke Golemon - 2019 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 29 (3):273-303.
    The phenomenon of medical overtesting in general, and specifically in the emergency room, is well-known and regarded as harmful to both the patient and the healthcare system. Although the implications of this problem raise myriad ethical concerns, this paper explores the extent to which overtesting might mitigate race-based health inequalities. Given that medical malpractice and error greatly increase when the patients belong to a racial minority, it is no surprise that the mortality rate similarly increases in proportion to (...)
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  34. Is the Market a Sphere of Social Freedom?Timo Jütten - 2015 - Critical Horizons 16 (2):187-203.
    In this paper I examine Axel Honneth’s normative reconstruction of the market as a sphere of social freedom in his 2014 book, Freedom’s Right. Honneth’s position is complex: on the one hand, he acknowledges that modern capitalist societies do not realise social freedom; on the other hand, he insists that the promise of social freedom is implicit in the market sphere. In fact, the latter explains why modern subjects have seen capitalism as legitimate. I will reconstruct Honneth’s conception (...)
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  35. Medical Crowdfunding, Political Marginalization, and Government Responsiveness: A Reply to Larry Temkin.Alida Liberman - 2019 - Journal of Practical Ethics 7 (1):40-48.
    Larry Temkin draws on the work of Angus Deaton to argue that countries with poor governance sometimes rely on charitable giving and foreign aid in ways that enable them to avoid relying on their own citizens; this can cause them to be unresponsive to their citizens’ needs and thus prevent the long-term alleviation of poverty and other social problems. I argue that the implications of this “lack of government responsiveness argument” (or LOGRA) are both broader and narrower than they might (...)
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  36. Medical Tourism in Ghana: A History.Samuel Adu-Gyamfi - 2022 - Kaleidoscope: Journal of History of Culture, Science and Medicine 12 (25):1-26.
    Medical tourism can be defined as the process of travelling outside of an individual’s country to another to seek medical care. The current research studies medical tourism in Ghana historically, focusing on Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra and Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumase. Using a qualitative research approach, the study provides a historical argument on the continuities and discontinuities of medical tourism in Ghana. Indeed, medical tourism has undergone several transitions over time. To (...)
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  37. The Harm of Ableism: Medical Error and Epistemic Injustice.David M. Peña-Guzmán & Joel Michael Reynolds - 2019 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 29 (3):205-242.
    This paper argues that epistemic errors rooted in group- or identity- based biases, especially those pertaining to disability, are undertheorized in the literature on medical error. After sketching dominant taxonomies of medical error, we turn to the field of social epistemology to understand the role that epistemic schemas play in contributing to medical errors that disproportionately affect patients from marginalized social groups. We examine the effects of this unequal distribution through a detailed case study of ableism. There (...)
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  38. The Medical Ethics of Miracle Max.Shea Brendan - 2015 - In Richard Greene & Rachel Robison-Greene (eds.), The Princess Bride and Philosophy: Inconceivable! Open Court. pp. 193-203.
    Miracle Max, it seems, is the only remaining miracle worker in all of Florin. Among other things, this means that he (unlike anyone else) can resurrect the recently dead, at least in certain circumstances. Max’s peculiar talents come with significant perks (for example, he can basically set his own prices!), but they also raise a number of ethical dilemmas that range from the merely amusing to the truly perplexing: -/- How much about Max’s “methods” does he need to reveal to (...)
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  39. Medical Complicity and the Legitimacy of Practical Authority.Kenneth M. Ehrenberg - 2020 - Ethics, Medicine and Public Health 12.
    If medical complicity is understood as compliance with a directive to act against the professional's best medical judgment, the question arises whether it can ever be justified. This paper will trace the contours of what would legitimate a directive to act against a professional's best medical judgment (and in possible contravention of her oath) using Joseph Raz's service conception of authority. The service conception is useful for basing the legitimacy of authoritative directives on the ability of the (...)
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  40. The new medical model: a renewed challenge for biomedicine.Jonathan Fuller - 2017 - Canadian Medical Association Journal 189:E640-1.
    Over the past 25 years, several new “medicines” have come screeching onto health care’s various platforms, including narrative medicine, personalized medicine, precision medicine and person-centred medicine. Philosopher Miriam Solomon calls the first three of these movements different “ways of knowing” or “methods,” and argues that they are each a response to shortcomings of methods that came before them. They should also be understood as reactions to the current dominant model of medicine. In this article, I will describe our dominant model, (...)
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  41. Medical Ethics in Qiṣāṣ (Eye-for-an-Eye) Punishment: An Islamic View; an Examination of Acid Throwing.Hossein Dabbagh, Amir Alishahi Tabriz & Harold G. Koenig - 2016 - Journal of Religion and Health 55 (4):1426–1432.
    Physicians in Islamic countries might be requested to participate in the Islamic legal code of qiṣāṣ, in which the victim or family has the right to an eye-for-an-eye retaliation. Qiṣāṣ is only used as a punishment in the case of murder or intentional physical injury. In situations such as throwing acid, the national legal system of some Islamic countries asks for assistance from physicians, because the punishment should be identical to the crime. The perpetrator could not be punished without a (...)
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  42. CRITICAL THINKING IN MEDIA SPHERE: ATTITUDE OF UNIVERSITY TEACHERS TO FAKE NEWS AND ITS IMPACT ON THE TEACHING.Anna Shutaleva - 2021 - Journal of Management Information and Decision Sciences 24:1-12.
    The article aims to determine how university professors critically perceive and evaluate information when interacting with the media sphere. The study's relevance is due to the insufficient elaboration of Russian teachers' attitude to the information in the media sphere, which is significant in developing students' critical thinking. The study analyzes theoretical sources and documents on critical thinking in the media sphere and the results of processing empirical data obtained from questioning teachers. The main measuring instrument is a (...)
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  43. Black-box assisted medical decisions: AI power vs. ethical physician care.Berman Chan - 2023 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 26 (3):285-292.
    Without doctors being able to explain medical decisions to patients, I argue their use of black box AIs would erode the effective and respectful care they provide patients. In addition, I argue that physicians should use AI black boxes only for patients in dire straits, or when physicians use AI as a “co-pilot” (analogous to a spellchecker) but can independently confirm its accuracy. I respond to A.J. London’s objection that physicians already prescribe some drugs without knowing why they work.
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  44. Ontology and medical terminology: Why description logics are not enough.Werner Ceusters, Barry Smith & Jim Flanagan - 2003 - In Werner Ceusters, Smith Barry & Jim Flanagan (eds.), in Proceedings of the Conference: Towards an Electronic Patient Record (TEPR 2003). Medical Records Institute.
    Ontology is currently perceived as the solution of first resort for all problems related to biomedical terminology, and the use of description logics is seen as a minimal requirement on adequate ontology-based systems. Contrary to common conceptions, however, description logics alone are not able to prevent incorrect representations; this is because they do not come with a theory indicating what is computed by using them, just as classical arithmetic does not tell us anything about the entities that are added or (...)
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  45. The Medical Model of “Obesity” and the Values Behind the Guise of Health.Kayla R. Mehl - forthcoming - Synthese 201 (6):1-28.
    Assumptions about obesity—e.g., its connection to ill health, its causes, etc.—are still prevalent today, and they make up what I call the medical model of fatness. In this paper, I argue that the medical model was established on the basis of insufficient evidence and has nevertheless continued to be relied upon to justify methodological choices that further entrench the assumptions of the medical model. These choices are illegitimate in so far as they conflict with both the epistemic (...)
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  46. Transnational medical aid and the wrongdoing of others.Keith Horton - 2008 - Public Health Ethics 1 (2):171-179.
    One of the ways in which transnational medical agencies (TMAs) such as Medicins Sans Frontieres aim to increase the access of the global poor to health services is by supplying medical aid to people who need it in developing countries. The moral imperative supporting such work is clear enough, but a variety of factors can make such work difficult. One of those factors is the wrongdoing of other agents and agencies. For as a result of such wrongdoing, the (...)
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  47. Medical Ethics in the Light of Maqāṣid Al-Sharīʿah: A Case Study of Medical Confidentiality.Bouhedda Ghalia, Muhammad Amanullah, Luqman Zakariyah & Sayyed Mohamed Muhsin - 2018 - Intellectual Discourse 26 (1):133-160.
    : The Islamic jurists utilized the discipline of maqāṣid al-sharīʿah,in its capacity as the philosophy of Islamic law, in their legal and ethicalinterpretations, with added interest in addressing the issues of modern times.Aphoristically subsuming the major themes of the Sharīʿah, maqāṣid play apivotal role in the domain of decision-making and deduction of rulings onunprecedented ethical discourses. Ethics represent the infrastructure of Islamiclaw and the whole science of Islamic jurisprudence operates in the lightof maqāṣid to realize the ethics in people’s lives. (...)
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  48. Medical Overtesting and Racial Distrust.Luke Golemon - 2019 - In Fritz Allhoff & Sandra L. Borden (eds.), Ethics and Error in Medicine. London: Routledge. pp. 121-147.
    Reprinted with modification and permission from Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. The phenomenon of medical overtesting in general, and specifically in the emergency room, is well-known and regarded as harmful to both the patient and the healthcare system. Although the implications of this problem raise myriad ethical concerns, this chapter explores the extent to which overtesting might mitigate race-based health inequalities. Given that medical malpractice and error greatly increase when the patients belong to a racial minority, it is (...)
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  49. Medical WordNet: A new methodology for the construction and validation of information resources for consumer health.Barry Smith & Christiane Fellbaum - 2004 - In Barry Smith & Christiane Fellbaum (eds.), Proceedings of Coling: The 20th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Geneva: pp. 371-382.
    A consumer health information system must be able to comprehend both expert and non-expert medical vocabulary and to map between the two. We describe an ongoing project to create a new lexical database called Medical WordNet (MWN), consisting of medically relevant terms used by and intelligible to non-expert subjects and supplemented by a corpus of natural-language sentences that is designed to provide medically validated contexts for MWN terms. The corpus derives primarily from online health information sources targeted to (...)
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  50. Compulsory medical intervention versus external constraint in pandemic control.Thomas Douglas, Lisa Forsberg & Jonathan Pugh - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12).
    Would compulsory treatment or vaccination for Covid-19 be justified? In England, there would be significant legal barriers to it. However, we offer a conditional ethical argument in favour of allowing compulsory treatment and vaccination, drawing on an ethical comparison with external constraints—such as quarantine, isolation and ‘lockdown’—that have already been authorised to control the pandemic. We argue that, if the permissive English approach to external constraints for Covid-19 has been justified, then there is a case for a similarly permissive approach (...)
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