Results for 'mirror'

249 found
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  1. Mirror Neurons and Social Cognition.Shannon Spaulding - 2013 - Mind and Language 28 (2):233-257.
    Mirror neurons are widely regarded as an important key to social cognition. Despite such wide agreement, there is very little consensus on how or why they are important. The goal of this paper is to clearly explicate the exact role mirror neurons play in social cognition. I aim to answer two questions about the relationship between mirroring and social cognition: What kind of social understanding is involved with mirroring? How is mirroring related to that understanding? I argue that (...)
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  2. Mirrors and Misleading Appearances.Vivian Mizrahi - 2019 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 97 (2):354-367.
    ABSTRACTAlthough philosophers have often insisted that specular perception is illusory or erroneous in nature, few have stressed the reliability and indispensability of mirrors as optical instrumen...
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  3. Social Mirrors and Shared Experiential Worlds.Charles Whitehead - 2001 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (4):3-36.
    We humans have a formidable armamentarium of social display behaviours, including song-and-dance, the visual arts, and role-play. Of these, role-play is probably the crucial adaptation which makes us most different from other apes. Human childhood, a sheltered period of ‘extended irresponsibility’, allows us to develop our powers of make-believe and role-play, prerequisites for human cooperation, culture, and reflective consciousness. Social mirror theory, originating with Dilthey, Baldwin, Cooley and Mead, holds that there cannot be mirrors in the mind without mirrors (...)
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  4. Mirror, Mirror in the Brain, What's the Monkey Stand to Gain?Colin Allen - 2010 - Noûs 44 (2):372 - 391.
    Primatologists generally agree that monkeys lack higher-order intentional capacities related to theory of mind. Yet the discovery of the so-called "mirror neurons" in monkeys suggests to many neuroscientists that they have the rudiments of intentional understanding. Given a standard philosophical view about intentional understanding, which requires higher-order intentionahty, a paradox arises. Different ways of resolving the paradox are assessed, using evidence from neural, cognitive, and behavioral studies of humans and monkeys. A decisive resolution to the paradox requires substantial additional (...)
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  5. Bounded Mirroring. Joint Action and Group Membership in Political Theory and Cognitive Neuroscience.Machiel Keestra - 2012 - In Frank Vandervalk (ed.), Thinking About the Body Politic: Essays on Neuroscience and Political Theory. Routledge. pp. 222--249.
    A crucial socio-political challenge for our age is how to rede!ne or extend group membership in such a way that it adequately responds to phenomena related to globalization like the prevalence of migration, the transformation of family and social networks, and changes in the position of the nation state. Two centuries ago Immanuel Kant assumed that international connectedness between humans would inevitably lead to the realization of world citizen rights. Nonetheless, globalization does not just foster cosmopolitanism but simultaneously yields the (...)
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  6. Moving Beyond Mirroring - a Social Affordance Model of Sensorimotor Integration During Action Perception.Maria Brincker - 2010 - Dissertation, City University of New York
    The discovery of so-called ‘mirror neurons’ - found to respond both to own actions and the observation of similar actions performed by others - has been enormously influential in the cognitive sciences and beyond. Given the self-other symmetry these neurons have been hypothesized as underlying a ‘mirror mechanism’ that lets us share representations and thereby ground core social cognitive functions from intention understanding to linguistic abilities and empathy. I argue that mirror neurons are important for very different (...)
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  7. A Mirror is for Reflection: Understanding Buddhist Ethics.Jake H. Davis (ed.) - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    This volume offers a rich and accessible introduction to contemporary research on Buddhist ethical thought. It includes contributions of many of the leading scholars in this field, on topics including the nature of Buddhist ethics, karma and rebirth, mindfulness, narrative, intention, free will, politics, anger, and equanimity.
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  8. As If: Connecting Phenomenology, Mirror Neurons, Empathy, and Laughter.Chris A. Kramer - 2012 - PhaenEx 7 (1):275-308.
    The discovery of mirror neurons in both primates and humans has led to an enormous amount of research and speculation as to how conscious beings are able to interact so effortlessly among one another. Mirror neurons might provide an embodied basis for passive synthesis and the eventual process of further communalization through empathy, as envisioned by Edmund Husserl. I consider the possibility of a phenomenological and scientific investigation of laughter as a point of connection that might in the (...)
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  9. Beyond Sensorimotor Segregation: On Mirror Neurons and Social Affordance Space Tracking.Maria Brincker - 2015 - Cognitive Systems Research 34:18-34.
    Mirror neuron research has come a long way since the early 1990s, and many theorists are now stressing the heterogeneity and complexity of the sensorimotor properties of fronto-parietal circuits. However, core aspects of the initial ‘ mirror mechanism ’ theory, i.e. the idea of a symmetric encapsulated mirroring function translating sensory action perceptions into motor formats, still appears to be shaping much of the debate. This article challenges the empirical plausibility of the sensorimotor segregation implicit in the original (...)
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  10. Mirrors of the Soul and Mirrors of the Brain? The Expression of Emotions as the Subject of Art and Science.Machiel Keestra - 2014 - In Gary Schwartz (ed.), Emotions. Pain and pleasure in Dutch painting of the Golden Age. nai010 publishers. pp. 81-92.
    Is it not surprising that we look with so much pleasure and emotion at works of art that were made thousands of years ago? Works depicting people we do not know, people whose backgrounds are usually a mystery to us, who lived in a very different society and time and who, moreover, have been ‘frozen’ by the artist in a very deliberate pose. It was the Classical Greek philosopher Aristotle who observed in his Poetics that people could apparently be moved (...)
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  11.  53
    Smashing Husserl’s Dark Mirror: Rectifying the Inconsistent Theory of Impossible Meaning and Signitive Substance From the Logical Investigations.Thomas Byrne - 2021 - Axiomathes 31 (2):127-144.
    This paper accomplishes three goals. First, the essay demonstrates that Edmund Husserl’s theory of meaning consciousness from his 1901 Logical Investigations is internally inconsistent and falls apart upon closer inspection. I show that Husserl, in 1901, describes non-intuitive meaning consciousness as a direct parallel or as a ‘mirror’ of intuitive consciousness. He claims that non-intuitive meaning acts, like intuitions, have substance and represent their objects. I reveal that, by defining meaning acts in this way, Husserl cannot account for our (...)
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  12.  90
    The Idea of the Mirror in Dōgen and Nishida.Michel Dalissier - 2006 - In James W. Heisig (ed.), Frontiers of Japanese Philosophy Vol.1. Nagoya: Nanzan Institute for Religion & Culture. pp. 99-142.
    The image of the “mirror” (鏡kagami) appears frequently in the philosophical texts of Nishida Kitaro (西田幾多郎1870-1945), where it assumes various functions. Mirror references first occur in meditations on the philosophies of Josiah Royce (1855-1916) and Henri Bergson (1859-1941). The most fascinating evocation here corresponds to the idea of a “self-enlightening mirror”, used to probe the philosophical ground for self-illumination. This idea seems to point back to Buddhist meaning that intervenes in Japanese intellectual history. We take this as (...)
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  13. Mirror Neuron Activity is No Proof for Action Understanding.Alina Steinhorst & Joachim Funke - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8:1-4.
    We focus on the thesis that action understanding is a function of the mirror neuron system. According to our opinion, understanding is a process that runs through hermeneutic circles from the “Vorverständnis” (“previous understanding”) to steps of deeper understanding. Our critique relates to the narrow neuroscientific definition of action understanding as the capacity to recognize several movements as belonging to one action. After a reconstruction of the model's developments, we will challenge the claims of the model by Rizzolatti and (...)
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  14.  41
    Mirrors, Windows and Paintings.Calabi Clotilde, Huemer Wolfgang & Santambrogio Marco - forthcoming - Estetika.
    What do we see in a mirror? There is an ongoing debate whether mirrors present us with images of objects or whether we see, through the mirror, the objects themselves. Roberto Casati has recently argued that there is a categorical difference between images and mirror-reflections. His argument depends on the observation that mirrors, but not paintings, are sensitive to changes in the observer’s prospective. In our paper we scrutinize Casati’s argument and present a modal argument that shows (...)
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  15. If the Motor System is No Mirror'.Maria Brincker - 2012 - In Payette (ed.), Connected Minds: Cognition and Interaction in the Social World. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 158--182.
    Largely aided by the neurological discovery of so-called “ mirror neurons,” the attention to motor activity during action observation has exploded over the last two decades. The idea that we internally “ mirror ” the actions of others has led to a new strand of implicit simulation theories of action understanding[1][2]. The basic idea of this sort of simulation theory is that we, via an automatic covert activation of our own action representations, can understand the action and possibly (...)
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  16. Free Associations Mirroring Self- and World-Related Concepts: Implications for Personal Construct Theory, Psycholinguistics and Philosophical Psychology.Martin Kuška, Radek Trnka, Aleš A. Kuběna & Jiří Růžička - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology (7):art.n. 981, 1-13.
    People construe reality by using words as basic units of meaningful categorization. The present theory-driven study applied the method of a free association task to explore how people express the concepts of the world and the self in words. The respondents were asked to recall any five words relating with the word world. Afterwards they were asked to recall any five words relating with the word self. The method of free association provided the respondents with absolute freedom to choose any (...)
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  17. Mirroring,Symbolism and Need : A Two-Timing Nature or a Whole Concept.Marvin E. Kirsh - manuscript
    Methodology and theory in science are related to a philosophy in which the centric position of the first person, perception and cognition are made the exclusive focus for interpretation involving mirroring, symbolism, and need, criteria from which major first scientific works in Anthropology originated. A new orientation is found for some notions in physics and cosmology, especially those revolved around an ether as a substrate for the transmission of light that are used in explanation in Theory of Relativity, interpretation of (...)
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  18. Evil and Moral Detachment: Further Reflections on The Mirror Thesis.Alfred Archer - 2016 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 24 (2):201-218.
    A commonly accepted claim by philosophers investigating the nature of evil is that the evil person is, in some way, the mirror image of the moral saint. In this paper I will defend a new version of this thesis. I will argue that both the moral saint and the morally evil person are characterized by a lack of conflict between moral and non-moral concerns. However, while the saint achieves this unity through a reconciliation of the two, the evil person (...)
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  19. Greek Bronze: Holding a Mirror to Life.Babette Babich - 2007 - Yearbook of the Irish Philosophical Society. 7:1-30.
    Explores the role of the thousands of life-size bronze statues "populating" Athens, Rhode, Olympia and other Greek cities. Applied phenomenological hermeneutics.
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  20. After All, It’s Still Replication: A Reply to Jacob on Simulation and Mirror Neurons.Luca Barlassina - 2011 - Res Cogitans 8 (1):92-111.
    Mindreading is the ability to attribute mental states to other individuals. According to the simulation theory (ST), mindreading is based on the ability the mind has of replicating others' mental states and processes. Mirror neurons (MNs) are a class of neurons that fire both when an agent performs a goal-directed action and when she observes the same type of action performed by another individual. Since MNs appear to form a replicative mechanism in which a portion of the observer's brain (...)
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  21. Disenchantment and Modernity: The Mirror of Technique.Ian H. Angus - 1983 - Human Studies 6 (1):141 - 166.
    A critical analysis of Alfred Schuetz' conception of rationality based upon Edmund Husserl's phenomenology.
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  22. The Fragmentary Model of Temporal Experience and the Mirroring Constraint.Gerardo Viera - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (1):21-44.
    A central debate in the current philosophical literature on temporal experience is over the following question: do temporal experiences themselves have a temporal structure that mirrors their temporal contents? Extensionalists argue that experiences do have a temporal structure that mirrors their temporal contents. Atomists insist that experiences don’t have a temporal structure that mirrors their contents. In this paper, I argue that this debate is misguided. Both atomism and extensionalism, considered as general theories of temporal experience, are false, since temporal (...)
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  23. Moral Saints, Moral Monsters, and the Mirror Thesis.Peter Brian Barry - 2009 - American Philosophical Quarterly 46 (2):163 - 176.
    A number of philosophers have been impressed with the thought that moral saints and moral monsters—or, evil people, to put it less sensationally—“mirror” one another, in a sense to be explained. Call this the mirror thesis. The project of this paper is to cash out the metaphorical suggestion that moral saints and evil persons mirror one other and to articulate the most plausible literal version of the mirror thesis. To anticipate, the most plausible version of the (...)
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  24. Evolution and Mirror Neurons. An Introduction to the Nature of Self-Consciousness (TSC 2005).Christophe Menant - manuscript
    Self-consciousness is a product of evolution. Few people today disagree with the evolutionary history of humans. But the nature of self-consciousness is still to be explained, and the story of evolution has rarely been used as a framework for studies on consciousness during the 20th century. This last point may be due to the fact that modern study of consciousness came up at a time where dominant philosophical movements were not in favor of evolutionist theories (Cunningham 1996). Research on consciousness (...)
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  25. The Mirrors of Consciousness.Steve Solodoff - manuscript
    This manuscript puts forth the contention that our consciousness resembles and reflects an all-pervading universal consciousness that was born from the manifestation of energy as the monadic agent of our universe. It relates that in the beginning, when energy kinetically came into being, it created, or distributed itself, into three derivative dimensions; that of space-time, materiality and consciousness. The definition of consciousness herein is that it is constituted from phenomenal attributes that are inherent within space, time and materiality (the other (...)
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  26.  48
    The Mirror BRAIN - MIND.Ronny Verlet - 10/04/2021 - Koksijde:
    The biological Brain createst the mental Mind. Today our collective Mind becomes so fascinated by its source, the Brain, that all sciences incorporate neuro models in their concepts to increase global brainpower with technology. The most significant discovery is probably technology. We learn how the Brain creates consciousness and how the Brain generates momentaneous Time. Discover how at each moment in Time, our body runs the whole program of Evolution. What we know about the Brain is phantasy from the Mind.
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  27.  82
    Christmas, A Mirror.Mehrzad Monzavi - manuscript
    Christmas, A Mirror. It is important what is the concept behind our actions. It is important how we are looking at our roles as human beings, and where and to what extent we are seeking that. Besides, after finding our roles, we need to know that this is only the beginning of a long path of bringing that concept into practice.
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  28. Attention, Perceptual Content, and Mirrors: Two Medieval Models of Active Perception in Peter Olivi and Peter Auriol.Lukáš Lička - 2017 - Perception in Scholastics and Their Interlocutors.
    In the paper I argue that medieval philosophers proposed several notions of the senses’ activity in perception. I illustrate the point using the example of two Franciscan thinkers – Peter Olivi (ca. 1248–1298) and Peter Auriol (ca. 1280–1322). Olivi’s notion of active perception assumes that every perceptual act demands a prior focusing of the mind’s attention. Furthermore, Olivi is partially inspired by the extramissionist theories of vision and reinterprets the notion of a visual ray postulated by them as a useful (...)
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  29. Reflections on Mirror Man.Frank Jackson & Daniel Stoljar - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (12):4227-4237.
    Juhani Yli-Vakkuri and John Hawthorne have recently presented a thought experiment—Mirror Man—designed to refute internalist theories of belief and content. We distinguish five ways in which the case can be interpreted and argue that on none does it refute internalism.
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  30.  24
    Cast in a Bad Light or Reflected in a Dark Mirror? Cognitive Science and the Projecting Mind.Daniel Kelly - 2018 - In N. Strohminger and V. Kumar (ed.), The Moral Psychology of Disgust. London, UK: pp. 171-194.
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  31. Mental Vs. Embodied Models of Mirrored Self-Recognition: Some Preliminary Considerations.John L. Schwenkler - 2008 - In B. Hardy-Valeé & N. Payette (eds.), Beyond the Brain: Embodied, Situated, and Distributed Cognition. Cambridge Scholars Press.
    A considerable body of recent work in developmental psychology and animal behavior has addressed the cognitive processes required to recognize oneself in a mirror. Most models of such "mirrored self-recognition" (MSR) treat it as the result of inferential processes drawing on the subject’s possession of some sort of mature "self-awareness". The present chapter argues that such an approach to MSR is not obligatory, and suggests some empirical grounds for rejecting it. We also sketch the outlines of an alternative, "embodied" (...)
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  32.  45
    Refitting the Mirrors: On Structural Analogies in Epistemology and Action Theory.Lisa Miracchi & J. Adam Carter - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Structural analogies connect Williamson’s epistemology and action theory: for example, action is the direction-of-fit mirror image of knowledge, and knowledge stands to belief as action stands to intention. These structural analogies, for Williamson, are meant to illuminate more generally how ‘mirrors’ reversing direction of fit should be understood as connecting the spectrum of our cognitive and practically oriented mental states. This paper has two central aims, one negative and the other positive. The negative aim is to highlight some intractable (...)
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  33.  31
    The Funhouse Mirror: The I in Personalised Healthcare.Alain J. van Gool, Hub A. E. Zwart & Mira W. Vegter - 2021 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 17 (1):1-15.
    Precision Medicine is driven by the idea that the rapidly increasing range of relatively cheap and efficient self-tracking devices make it feasible to collect multiple kinds of phenotypic data. Advocates of N = 1 research emphasize the countless opportunities personal data provide for optimizing individual health. At the same time, using biomarker data for lifestyle interventions has shown to entail complex challenges. In this paper, we argue that researchers in the field of precision medicine need to address the performative dimension (...)
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  34. Davidson's Holism: Epistemology in the Mirror of Meaning.Jeff Malpas - unknown
    Foreword to the new edition Acknowledgements Introduction: radically interpreting Davidson I. From translation to interpretation 1. The Quinean background 1.1 Radical translation and naturalized epistemology 1.2 Meaning and indeterminacy 1.3 Analytical hypotheses and charity 2. The Davidsonian project 2.1 The development of a theory of meaning 2.2 The project of radical interpretation 2.3 From charity to triangulation..
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  35. Kierkegaard’s Mirrors: Interest, Self, and Moral Vision.Eleanor Helms - 2010 - International Philosophical Quarterly 50 (3):395-397.
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  36.  74
    Fluidizing the Mirror: Feminism and Identity Through Kristeva’s Looking Glass.Christina Hendricks - 1997 - Philosophy Today 41 (Suppl):79-89.
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  37. Beyond the Hall of Mirrors: Naturalistic Ethics Out of Doors. Thomas - 2014 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 50 (1):48.
    Over the course of a decade or so, Philip Kitcher has gradually come to embrace classical pragmatism, particularly John Dewey’s iteration of it, hailing it in his latest volume, Preludes to Pragmatism: Towards a Reconstruction of Philosophy, as “not only America’s most important contribution to philosophy, but also one of the most significant developments in the history of the subject, comparable in its potential for intellectual change to the celebrated turning points in the seventeenth century and in the wake of (...)
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  38.  83
    What is in the Mirror? The Metaphysics of Mirror Images in Albert the Great and Peter Auriol.Lukas Licka - 2019 - In Brian Glenney & José Silva (eds.), The Senses and the History of Philosophy. London: Routledge. pp. 131-148.
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  39.  73
    Öznenin Trajedisi: Aynanın Ötesine Geçmek (The Tragedy of Subject: Through the Mirror).Erman Kaçar - 2019 - Dört Öge 2 (15):75-84.
    This paper explores a new and post-structuralist discourse on the relationship between Lacan’s theory of mirror stage and the story of Narcissus as a mythological narrative. According to this discourse, subject is a construction posterior to the ‘I’. Lacan suggests that in the mirror stage 6-18 months old infants discern the I as something distinct from and outside of themselves for the first time through a reflective surface. An infant comprehends the image they see in this reflective surface (...)
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  40. We All Need Mirrors to Remind Us Who We Are: Inherited Meaning and Inherited Selves in Memento.Michael Baur - 2005 - In Paul Tudico & Kimberly Blessing (eds.), Movies and the Meaning of Life: Philosophers Take On Hollywood. Chicago, IL, USA: Open Court Publishing Company. pp. 94-110.
    The movie Memento (2000) broaches several interrelated philosophical questions concerning human knowledge, personal identity, and the human search for meaning. For example, is our knowledge based mainly on conclusions reached through our own reason, or is it based instead on habituation and conditioning brought about by forces outside of us? What is the role that memory plays in our knowledge? Furthermore, what is the relationship between memory and personal identity? And what is the relationship between memory, personal identity, and the (...)
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  41.  56
    The World is a Mirror of the Self.Jacqueline Mariña - 2008 - In Transformation of the Self in the thought of Schleiermacher. Oxford University Press.
    This is the fourth chapter of Transformation of the Self. In it I explore Schleiermacher's reception of Leibniz in the Monologen.
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  42.  81
    Intruding Through the Schematization of Media: The Challenge of Black Mirror.Keren Kesiah Yap - manuscript
    Undoubtedly, Science and Technology have solved a lot of problems we face in our daily lives. Science and Technology even have made some aspects of our lives more convenient such as communication, travel, research work, education, and finding cures for diseases. However, the same convenience that we enjoy have also turned against us. We as humans, on the pretense of being in control of technology, have become controlled by the same things we intended to master. This paper shall delve on (...)
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  43. Nigerian Film Industry in the Mirror of African Movie Academy Awards (AMAA).Stanislaus Iyorza - 2016 - Journal of Arts and Humanities 5 (9).
    Worried by the drastic decline in the quality of content of Nigerian movies as evaluated by critics, this paper analyzes the evaluation of Nigerian movies by the African Movie Academy Awards (AMAA) between 2006 and 2016. The objective is to review the decisions of the AMAA jury and to present the academy’s position on the prospects and deficiencies of the Nigerian Movie industry. The paper employs analytical research approach using both primary and secondary sources to explore assessed contents of the (...)
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  44. Problems of Religious Luck, Chapter 3: "Enemy in the Mirror: The Need for Comparative Fundamentalism".Guy Axtell - forthcoming - In Problems of Religious Luck: Assessing the Limits of Reasonable Religious Disagreement.
    Measures of inductive risk and of safety-principle violation help us to operationalize concerns about theological assertions or a sort which, as we saw in Part I, aggravate or intensify problems of religious luck. Our overall focus in Part II will remain on a) responses to religious multiplicity, and b) sharply asymmetrical religious trait-ascriptions to religious insiders and outsiders. But in Part II formal markers of inductive norm violation will supply an empirically-based manner of distinguishing strong from moderate fideism. As we (...)
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  45.  19
    The Lamp of Reason and the Mirror of Nature.Preston Stovall - 2019 - In Randall Auxier, Eli Kramer & Krzysztof P. Skowronski (eds.), Beyond Rorty. Lanham: Lexington Books. pp. 215-234.
    At the close of Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature Richard Rorty lays out a contrast between what he calls 'systematic' and 'edifying' philosophical anthropologies. Whereas the systematic philosopher aims to speak for the ages, the edifying philosopher addresses herself to issues of her day, often by way of shattering conventional idols. Rorty sees these two approaches as mutually exclusive. The aim of this paper is to defend a conception of philosophy as both systematic and edifying in the relevant (...)
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  46.  46
    Kant Vs. Legendre on Symmetry: Mirror Images in Philosophy and Mathematics.Giora Hon - 2005 - Centaurus 47 (4):283-297.
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  47.  46
    Review of Simon Blackburn's Mirror, Mirror: The Uses and Abuses of Self-Love. [REVIEW]Subhasis Chattopadhyay - 2020 - Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 125 (7):53-54.
    This review has direct bearing on a COVID 19 world and uses Blackburn's understanding of ontotheology to foreground a critique not only of narcissism but also of the novel coronavirus. This book is a gem which reviewed in India during early COVID 19 lockdown is now all the more important since COVID 19 changes the way we approach Blackburn.
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  48.  19
    The Return of the Self by the Mirror of the Other.Victor Mota - manuscript
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  49. Wundt and Bühler on Gestural Expression: From Psycho-Physical Mirroring to the Diacrisis.Basil Vassilicos - 2020 - In Arnaud Dewalque, Sébastien Richard & Charlotte Gauvry (eds.), Philosophy of Language in the Brentano School. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 279-297.
    This paper explores how Wundt’s and Bühler’s respective conceptions of gestural expression have implications for how each conceives of what, in broad terms, may be understood as a ‘grammar of gestures’: that is, the rules for the formation and performance of gestures with and without speech. Unlike previous scholarship that has looked at the relationship of Wundt and Bühler, the aim here will be to give particular attention to the relevance of their respective accounts for current philosophical and linguistic research (...)
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  50. Self-Criticism in a Broken Mirror.David Kolb - 1990 - In Postmodern Sphistications: Philosophy, Architecture, and Tradition. Chicago: University of Chicago press. pp. 51 - 60.
    If we have no transparent access to our self, what kind of self-criticism is possible? Neither modernists nor postmodernists yet this pragmatic issue correct.
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