Results for 'neural selection'

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  1. Teleosemantics, Selection and Novel Contents.Justin Garson & David Papineau - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (3):36.
    Mainstream teleosemantics is the view that mental representation should be understood in terms of biological functions, which, in turn, should be understood in terms of selection processes. One of the traditional criticisms of teleosemantics is the problem of novel contents: how can teleosemantics explain our ability to represent properties that are evolutionarily novel? In response, some have argued that by generalizing the notion of a selection process to include phenomena such as operant conditioning, and the neural (...) that underlies it, we can resolve this problem. Here, we do four things: we develop this suggestion in a rigorous way through a simple example, we draw on recent neurobiological research to support its empirical plausibility, we defend the move from a host of objections in the literature, and we sketch how the picture can be extended to help us think about more complex “conceptual” representations and not just perceptual ones. (shrink)
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  2. Function, Selection, and Construction in the Brain.Justin Garson - 2012 - Synthese 189 (3):451-481.
    A common misunderstanding of the selected effects theory of function is that natural selection operating over an evolutionary time scale is the only functionbestowing process in the natural world. This construal of the selected effects theory conflicts with the existence and ubiquity of neurobiological functions that are evolutionary novel, such as structures underlying reading ability. This conflict has suggested to some that, while the selected effects theory may be relevant to some areas of evolutionary biology, its relevance to neuroscience (...)
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  3. The Neural Correlates of Consciousness.Jorge Morales & Hakwan Lau - 2020 - In Uriah Kriegel (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Consciousness. Oxford University Press. pp. 233-260.
    In this chapter, we discuss a selection of current views of the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC). We focus on the different predictions they make, in particular with respect to the role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) during visual experiences, which is an area of critical interest and some source of contention. Our discussion of these views focuses on the level of functional anatomy, rather than at the neuronal circuitry level. We take this approach because we currently understand more (...)
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  4. Neural Correlates of Color-Selective Metacontrast in Human Early Retinotopic Areas.Kiyohiro Maeda, Hiroki Yamamoto, Masaki Fukunaga, Masahior Umeda, Chuzo Tanaka & Yoshimichi Ejima - 2010 - Journal of Neurophysiology 104:2291-2301.
    Metacontrast is a visual illusion in which the visibility of a target stimulus is virtually lost when immediately followed by a nonoverlapping mask stimulus. For a colored target, metacontrast is color-selective, with target visibility markedly reduced when the mask and target are the same color, but only slightly reduced when the colors differ. This study investigated neural correlates of color-selective metacontrast for cone-opponent red and green stimuli in the human V1, V2, and V3 using functional magnetic resonance imaging. (...) activity was suppressed when the target was rendered less visible by the same-colored mask, and the suppression was localized in the cortical region retinotopically representing the target, correlating with the perceptual topography of visibility/invisibility rather than the physical topography of the stimulus. Retinotopy-based group analysis found that activity suppression was statistically significant for V2 and V3 and that its localization to the target region was statistically significant for V2. These results suggest that retinotopic color representations in early visual areas, especially in V2, are closely linked to the visibility of color. (shrink)
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  5. Attention Is Amplification, Not Selection.Peter Fazekas & Bence Nanay - 2021 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 72 (1):299-324.
    We argue that recent empirical findings and theoretical models shed new light on the nature of attention. According to the resulting amplification view, attentional phenomena can be unified at the neural level as the consequence of the amplification of certain input signals of attention-independent perceptual computations. This way of identifying the core realizer of attention evades standard criticisms often raised against sub-personal accounts of attention. Moreover, this approach also reframes our thinking about the function of attention by shifting the (...)
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  6. Networks of Gene Regulation, Neural Development and the Evolution of General Capabilities, Such as Human Empathy.Alfred Gierer - 1998 - Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung C - A Journal of Bioscience 53:716-722.
    A network of gene regulation organized in a hierarchical and combinatorial manner is crucially involved in the development of the neural network, and has to be considered one of the main substrates of genetic change in its evolution. Though qualitative features may emerge by way of the accumulation of rather unspecific quantitative changes, it is reasonable to assume that at least in some cases specific combinations of regulatory parts of the genome initiated new directions of evolution, leading to novel (...)
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  7. Multivariate Pattern Analysis and the Search for Neural Representations.Bryce Gessell, Benjamin Geib & Felipe De Brigard - forthcoming - Synthese:1-21.
    Multivariate pattern analysis, or MVPA, has become one of the most popular analytic methods in cognitive neuroscience. Since its inception, MVPA has been heralded as offering much more than regular univariate analyses, for—we are told—it not only can tell us which brain regions are engaged while processing particular stimuli, but also which patterns of neural activity represent the categories the stimuli are selected from. We disagree, and in the current paper we offer four conceptual challenges to the use of (...)
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  8.  96
    Evolving Efficient Classification Patterns in Lymphography Using EasyNN.Ahmed Suhail Jaber, Ahmed Khalil Humid, Mohammed Ahmed Hussein & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2020 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 4 (9):66-73.
    A neural network exploits the non-linearity of a problem to define a set of desired inputs. Neural networks are important in realizing a better way for classification in machine learning and finds application in various fields such as data mining, pattern recognition, forensics etc. In this paper, our focus is to classify of patient records obtained from clinical data. Feature selection is a supervised method that attempts to select a subset of the predictor features based on the (...)
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  9. Schizophrenia and the Dysfunctional Brain.Justin Garson - 2010 - Journal of Cognitive Science 11:215-246.
    Scientists, philosophers, and even the lay public commonly accept that schizophrenia stems from a biological or internal ‘dysfunction.’ However, this assessment is typically accompanied neither by well-defined criteria for determining that something is dysfunctional nor empirical evidence that schizophrenia satisfies those criteria. In the following, a concept of biological function is developed and applied to a neurobiological model of schizophrenia. It concludes that current evidence does not warrant the claim that schizophrenia stems from a biological dysfunction, and, in fact, that (...)
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  10. Hypotheses That Attribute False Beliefs: A Two‐Part Epistemology.William Roche & Elliott Sober - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    Is there some general reason to expect organisms that have beliefs to have false beliefs? And after you observe that an organism occasionally occupies a given neural state that you think encodes a perceptual belief, how do you evaluate hypotheses about the semantic content that that state has, where some of those hypotheses attribute beliefs that are sometimes false while others attribute beliefs that are always true? To address the first of these questions, we discuss evolution by natural (...) and show how organisms that are risk-prone in the beliefs they form can be fitter than organisms that are risk-free. To address the second question, we discuss a problem that is widely recognized in statistics – the problem of over-fitting – and one influential device for addressing that problem, the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). We then use AIC to solve epistemological versions of the disjunction and distality problems, which are two key problems concerning what it is for a belief state to have one semantic content rather than another. (shrink)
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  11.  26
    ANN for English Alphabet Prediction.Hamza H. Heriz, Sharief M. Salah, Mohammad Abu Abdu & Qassas Randa - 2016 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 11 (2):8-13.
    Abstract: In this paper an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, for predicting the Letters from twenty dissimilar fonts for each letter. The character images were, initially, based on twenty dissimilar fonts and each letter inside these twenty fonts was arbitrarily distorted to yield a file of 20,000 distinctive stimuli. Every stimulus was transformed into 16 simple numerical attributes (arithmetical moments and edge amounts) which were then ascended to be suitable into a range of numeral values from 0 to 15. (...)
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  12. The Science of Art: A Neurological Theory of Aesthetic Experience.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & William Hirstein - 1999 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (6-7):15-41.
    We present a theory of human artistic experience and the neural mechanisms that mediate it. Any theory of art has to ideally have three components. The logic of art: whether there are universal rules or principles; The evolutionary rationale: why did these rules evolve and why do they have the form that they do; What is the brain circuitry involved? Our paper begins with a quest for artistic universals and proposes a list of ‘Eight laws of artistic experience’ -- (...)
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  13. Plant Seedlings Classification Using Deep Learning.Belal A. M. Ashqar, Bassem S. Abu-Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 3 (1):7-14.
    Agriculture is very important to human continued existence and remains a key driver of many economies worldwide, especially in underdeveloped and developing economies. There is an increasing demand for food and cash crops, due to the increasing in world population and the challenges enforced by climate modifications, there is an urgent need to increase plant production while reducing costs. Preceding instrument vision methods established for selective weeding have confronted with major challenges for trustworthy and precise weed recognition. In this paper, (...)
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  14. Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science.Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2008 - Boston, USA: MIT Press.
    In the late summer of 1998, the authors, a cognitive scientist and a logician, started talking about the relevance of modern mathematical logic to the study of human reasoning, and we have been talking ever since. This book is an interim report of that conversation. It argues that results such as those on the Wason selection task, purportedly showing the irrelevance of formal logic to actual human reasoning, have been widely misinterpreted, mainly because the picture of logic current in (...)
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  15.  56
    Moral & Intellectual Life of the West.Hermann G. W. Burchard - 2021 - Philosophy Study 11 (2).
    From the earliest times, American ethics, the rules for the moral \& intellectual life of the West, used to be founded upon the two principles of self-reliance and good neighborliness. Here we consider the underlying functions of neural brain circuits, organic structures that have evolved adaptively by Darwinian rules subject to selection pressure. In the left brain resides our self-reliant private Ego, making plans, launching initiatives. Your public Ego dwells in the right brain, looking around, meeting with your (...)
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  16. Transgressors, Victims, and Cry Babies: Is Basic Moral Judgment Spared in Autism?Alan M. Leslie & Ron Mallon - 2006 - Social Neuroscience 1:270283.
    Human social intelligence comprises a wide range of complex cognitive and affective processes that appear to be selectively impaired in autistic spectrum disorders. The study of these neuro- developmental disorders and the study of canonical social intelligence have advanced rapidly over the last twenty years by investigating the two together. Specifically, studies of autism have provided important insights into the nature of ‘theory of mind’ abilities, their normal development and underlying neural systems. At the same time, the idea of (...)
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  17. Enactivism and the New Teleology: Reconciling the Warring Camps.Ralph D. Ellis - 2014 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies (2):173-198.
    Enactivism has the potential to provide a sense of teleology in purpose-directed action, but without violating the principles of efficient causation. Action can be distinguished from mere reaction by virtue of the fact that some systems are self-organizing. Self-organization in the brain is reflected in neural plasticity, and also in the primacy of motivational processes that initiate the release of neurotransmitters necessary for mental and conscious functions, and which guide selective attention processes. But in order to flesh out the (...)
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  18. There and Up Again: On the Uses and Misuses of Neuroimaging in Psychology.Guillermo Del Pinal & Marco J. Nathan - 2013 - Cognitive Neuropsychology 30 (4):233-252.
    The aim of this article is to discuss the conditions under which functional neuroimaging can contribute to the study of higher cognition. We begin by presenting two case studies—on moral and economic decision making—which will help us identify and examine one of the main ways in which neuroimaging can help advance the study of higher cognition. We agree with critics that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies seldom “refine” or “confirm” particular psychological hypotheses, or even provide details of the (...) implementation of cognitive functions. However, we suggest that neuroimaging can support psychology in a different way—namely, by selecting among competing hypotheses of the cognitive mechanisms underlying some mental function. One of the main ways in which neuroimaging can be used for hypothesis selection is via reverse inferences, which we here examine in detail. Despite frequent claims to the contrary, we argue that successful reverse inferences do not assume any strong or objectionable form of reductionism or functional locationism. Moreover, our discussion illustrates that reverse inferences can be successful at early stages of psychological theorizing, when models of the cognitive mechanisms are only partially developed. (shrink)
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  19. The Nature and Implementation of Representation in Biological Systems.Mike Collins - 2009 - Dissertation, City University of New York
    I defend a theory of mental representation that satisfies naturalistic constraints. Briefly, we begin by distinguishing (i) what makes something a representation from (ii) given that a thing is a representation, what determines what it represents. Representations are states of biological organisms, so we should expect a unified theoretical framework for explaining both what it is to be a representation as well as what it is to be a heart or a kidney. I follow Millikan in explaining (i) in terms (...)
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  20. The Trans-Species Core SELF: The Emergence of Active Cultural and Neuro-Ecological Agents Through Self-Related Processing Within Subcortical-Cortical Midline Networks.Jaak Panksepp & Georg Northoff - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):193–215.
    The nature of “the self” has been one of the central problems in philosophy and more recently in neuroscience. This raises various questions: Can we attribute a self to animals? Do animals and humans share certain aspects of their core selves, yielding a trans-species concept of self? What are the neural processes that underlie a possible trans-species concept of self? What are the developmental aspects and do they result in various levels of self-representation? Drawing on recent literature from both (...)
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  21. Information Based Hierarchical Brain Organization/Evolution From the Perspective of the Informational Model of Consciousness.Florin Gaiseanu - 2020 - Archives in Neurology and Neuroscience 7 (5):1-9.
    Introduction: This article discusses the brain hierarchical organization/evolution as a consequence of the information-induced brain development, from the perspective of the Informational Model of Consciousness. Analysis: In the frame of the Informational Model of Consciousness, a detailed info-neural analysis ispresented, concerning the specific properties/functions of the informational system of the human body composed by the Center of Acquisition and Storing of Information, Center of Decision and Command, Info-Emotional Center, Maintenance Informational System, Genetic Transmission System, Info Genetic Generator and Info- (...)
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  22. Necessary Ingredients of Consciousness: Integration of Psychophysical, Neurophysiological, and Consciousness Research for the Red-Green Channel.Ram Lakhan Pandey Vimal - 2009 - Vision Research Institute: Living Vision and Consciousness Research 1 (1).
    A general definition of consciousness is: ‘consciousness is a mental aspect of a system or a process, which is a conscious experience, a conscious function, or both depending on the context’, where the term context refers to metaphysical views, constraints, specific aims, and so on. One of the aspects of visual consciousness is the visual subjective experience (SE) or the first person experience that occurs/emerges in the visual neural-network of thalamocortical system (which includes dorsal and ventral visual pathways and (...)
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  23. Children with Reading Disability Show Brain Differences in Effective Connectivity for Visual, but Not Auditory Word Comprehension.Li Liu, Vira Amit, Emma Friedman & James Booth - 2010 - PLoS ONE 10.
    Background -/- Previous literature suggests that those with reading disability (RD) have more pronounced deficits during semantic processing in reading as compared to listening comprehension. This discrepancy has been supported by recent neuroimaging studies showing abnormal activity in RD during semantic processing in the visual but not in the auditory modality. Whether effective connectivity between brain regions in RD could also show this pattern of discrepancy has not been investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings -/- Children (8- to 14-year-olds) were given a semantic (...)
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  24.  28
    Computational Capacity of Pyramidal Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex.Danko D. Georgiev, Stefan K. Kolev, Eliahu Cohen & James F. Glazebrook - 2020 - Brain Research 1748:147069.
    The electric activities of cortical pyramidal neurons are supported by structurally stable, morphologically complex axo-dendritic trees. Anatomical differences between axons and dendrites in regard to their length or caliber reflect the underlying functional specializations, for input or output of neural information, respectively. For a proper assessment of the computational capacity of pyramidal neurons, we have analyzed an extensive dataset of three-dimensional digital reconstructions from the NeuroMorphoOrg database, and quantified basic dendritic or axonal morphometric measures in different regions and layers (...)
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  25.  55
    Quantum Propensities in the Brain Cortex and Free Will.Danko D. Georgiev - 2021 - Biosystems 208:104474.
    Capacity of conscious agents to perform genuine choices among future alternatives is a prerequisite for moral responsibility. Determinism that pervades classical physics, however, forbids free will, undermines the foundations of ethics, and precludes meaningful quantification of personal biases. To resolve that impasse, we utilize the characteristic indeterminism of quantum physics and derive a quantitative measure for the amount of free will manifested by the brain cortical network. The interaction between the central nervous system and the surrounding environment is shown to (...)
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  26.  80
    The Triggering Track-Ways Theory.Kim Shaw-Williams - 2011 - Dissertation, Victoria University of Wellington
    In this thesis I present a new paradigm in human evolutionary theory: the relevance of track-ways reading (TWR) to the evolution of human cognition, culture and communication. Evidence is presented that strongly indicates hominins were exploiting conspecific track-ways 4 million years ago. For a non-olfactory ape that was a specialized forager in open, featureless wetland environments, they were the only viable natural signs to exploit for safety, orienteering, and recognizable social markers. Due to the unique cognitive demands of reading track-ways, (...)
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  27. Fisiologia do Ciclo Estral dos Animais Domésticos.Emanuel Isaque Cordeiro da Silva - manuscript
    FISIOLOGIA DO CICLO ESTRAL DOS ANIMAIS -/- Departamento de Zootecnia – UFRPE Embrapa Semiárido e IPA -/- • _____OBJETIVO -/- O cio ou estro é a fase reprodutiva dos animais, onde as fêmeas apresentam receptividade sexual seguida de ovulação. Para tanto, é necessário entender a fisiologia do estro para a realização do manejo reprodutivo dos animais. Em geral, as fêmeas manifestam comportamentos fora do comum quando estão ciclando, tais comportamentos devem ser observados para que não percam o pico de ovulação (...)
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  28.  53
    Solution to the Mind-Body Relation Problem: Information.Florin Gaiseanu - 2021 - Philosophy Study 11 (1):42-55.
    In this paper it is analyzed from the informational perspective the relation between mind and body, an ancient philosophic issue defined as a problem, which still did not receive up to date an adequate solution. By introducing/using the concept of information, it is shown that this concept includes two facets, one of them referring to the common communications and another one referring to a hidden/structuring matter-related information, effectively acting in the human body and in the living systems, which determines the (...)
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  29.  59
    Intelligent Neurtosophic Diagnostic System for Cardiotcography Data.Belal Amin, A. A. Salama, Mona G. Gafar & Khaled Mahfouz, - 2021 - Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience 2021:15-21.
    Cardiotocography data uncertainty is a critical task for the classification in biomedical field. Constructing good and efficient classifier via machine learning algorithms is necessary to help doctors in diagnosing the state of fetus heart rate. *e proposed neutrosophic diagnostic system is an Interval Neutrosophic Rough Neural Network framework based on the backpropagation algorithm. It benefits from the advantages of neutrosophic set theory not only to improve the performance of rough neural networks but also to achieve a better performance (...)
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  30. Dual Aspect Framework for Consciousness and Its Implications: West Meets East.Ram Lakhan Pandey Vimal - 2009 - In G. Derfer, Z. Wang & M. Weber (eds.), The Roar of Awakening. A Whiteheadian Dialogue Between Western Psychotherapies and Eastern Worldviews. Ontos Verlag. pp. 39.
    The extended dual-aspect monism framework of consciousness, based on neuroscience, consists of five components: (1) dual-aspect primal entities; (2) neural-Darwinism: co-evolution and co-development of subjective experiences (SEs) and associated neural-nets from the mental aspect (that carries the SEs/proto-experiences (PEs) in superposed and unexpressed form) and the material aspect (mass, charge, spin and space-time) of fundamental entities (elementary particles), respectively and co-tuning via sensorimotor interaction; (3) matching and selection processes: interaction of two modes, namely, (a) the non-tilde mode (...)
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  31.  91
    The Most Optimal Dual-Aspect-Dual-Mode Framework for Consciousness: Recent Developments.Ram Lakhan Pandey Vimal - 2009 - Chromatikon 5:295-307.
    In the third Whitehead Psychology Nexus Studies, we have discussed the dual-aspect-dual-mode proto-experience -subjective experience framework of consciousness based on neuroscience, its implication in war, suffering, peace, and happiness, the process of sublimation for optimizingthem and converting the negative aspects of seven groups of self-protective energy system into their positive aspects from both western and eastern perspectives. In this article, we summarize the recent development since then as follows. In, we rigorously investigated the classical and quantum matching and selection (...)
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  32.  97
    Comportamento Sexual dos Animais Domésticos.Emanuel Isaque Cordeiro Da Silva - manuscript
    COMPORTAMENTO SEXUAL DOS ANIMAIS OBJETIVO O estudante explicará a conduta sexual de fêmeas e machos de diferentes espécies domésticas para detectar a fase de receptividade sexual, com a finalidade de programar de maneira adequada a monta ou a inseminação artificial. A observação da conduta sexual dos animais é indispensável para o sucesso da estação reprodutiva em uma determinada propriedade. Logo, o estudante obterá o alicerce necessário sobre os pontos teóricos e práticos a serem observados para a seleção dos animais aptos (...)
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  33. Neural Correlates of Moral Sensitivity and Moral Judgment Associated with Brain Circuitries of Selfhood: A Meta-Analysis.Hyemin Han - 2017 - Journal of Moral Education 46 (2):97-113.
    The present study meta-analyzed 45 experiments with 959 subjects and 463 activation foci reported in 43 published articles that investigated the neural mechanism of moral functions by comparing neural activity between the moral-task and non-moral-task conditions with the Activation Likelihood Estimate method. The present study examined the common activation foci of morality-related task conditions. In addition, this study compared the neural correlates of moral sensibility with the neural correlates of moral judgment, which are the two functional (...)
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  34. Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Workplace Absenteeism.Raghad Adnan Abu Hassanein, Saja Ahmed Al-Qassas, Fatima Naji Abu Tir & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2020 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 4 (9):62-67.
    Associations can grow, succeed, and sustain if their employees are committed. The main assets of an association are those employees who are giving it a required number of hours per month, in other words, those employees who are punctual towards their attendance. Absenteeism from work is a multibillion-dollar problem, and it costs money and decreases revenue. At the time of hiring an employee, Associations do not have an objective mechanism to predict whether an employee will be punctual towards attendance or (...)
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  35. Artificial Neural Network for Forecasting Car Mileage Per Gallon in the City.Mohsen Afana, Jomana Ahmed, Bayan Harb, Bassem S. Abu-Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2018 - International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology 124:51-59.
    In this paper an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was used to help cars dealers recognize the many characteristics of cars, including manufacturers, their location and classification of cars according to several categories including: Make, Model, Type, Origin, DriveTrain, MSRP, Invoice, EngineSize, Cylinders, Horsepower, MPG_Highway, Weight, Wheelbase, Length. ANN was used in prediction of the number of miles per gallon when the car is driven in the city(MPG_City). The results showed that ANN model was able to predict MPG_City with (...)
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  36. Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Animals Category.Ibrahim M. Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic and Applied Research (IJAAR) 3 (2):18-24.
    Abstract: In this paper an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, was developed and tested for predicting the category of an animal. There is a number of factors that influence the classification of animals. Such as the existence of hair/ feather, if the animal gives birth or spawns, it is airborne, aquatic, predator, toothed, backboned, venomous, has –fins, has-tail, cat-sized, and domestic. They were then used as input variables for the ANN model. A model based on the Multilayer Perceptron Topology (...)
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  37. Neural Network Approach to Predict Forest Fires Using Meteorological Data.Mutasim Mahmoud Al-Kahlout, Ahmed Mahmoud Abu Ghaly, Donia Zaher Mudawah & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2020 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 4 (9):68-72.
    Forest fires are a major environmental issue, creating economical and ecological damage while endangering human lives. Fast detection is a key element for controlling such phenomenon. To achieve this, one alternative is to use automatic tools based on local sensors, such as provided by meteorological stations. In effect, meteorological conditions (e.g. temperature, wind) are known to influence forest fires and several fire indexes, such as the forest Fire Weather Index (FWI), use such data. In this work, we explore a Just (...)
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  38. Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Car Performance Using JNN.Awni Ahmed Al-Mobayed, Youssef Mahmoud Al-Madhoun, Mohammed Nasser Al-Shuwaikh & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2020 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 4 (9):139-145.
    In this paper an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was used to help cars dealers recognize the many characteristics of cars, including manufacturers, their location and classification of cars according to several categories including: Buying, Maint, Doors, Persons, Lug_boot, Safety, and Overall. ANN was used in forecasting car acceptability. The results showed that ANN model was able to predict the car acceptability with 99.12 %. The factor of Safety has the most influence on car acceptability evaluation. Comparative study method (...)
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  39. Diabetes Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network.Nesreen Samer El_Jerjawi & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2018 - International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology 121:54-64.
    Diabetes is one of the most common diseases worldwide where a cure is not found for it yet. Annually it cost a lot of money to care for people with diabetes. Thus the most important issue is the prediction to be very accurate and to use a reliable method for that. One of these methods is using artificial intelligence systems and in particular is the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). So in this paper, we used artificial neural (...)
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  40. The Neural Correlates of Consciousness: New Experimental Approaches Needed?Jakob Hohwy - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (2):428-438.
    It appears that consciousness science is progressing soundly, in particular in its search for the neural correlates of consciousness. There are two main approaches to this search, one is content-based (focusing on the contrast between conscious perception of, e.g., faces vs. houses), the other is state-based (focusing on overall conscious states, e.g., the contrast between dreamless sleep vs. the awake state). Methodological and conceptual considerations of a number of concrete studies show that both approaches are problematic: the content-based approach (...)
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  41. Email Classification Using Artificial Neural Network.Ahmed Alghoul, Sara Al Ajrami, Ghada Al Jarousha, Ghayda Harb & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2018 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 2 (11):8-14.
    Abstract: In recent years email has become one of the fastest and most economical means of communication. However increase of email users has resulted in the dramatic increase of spam emails during the past few years. Data mining -classification algorithms are used to categorize the email as spam or non-spam. Numerous email spam messages are marketable in nature but might similarly encompass camouflaged links that seem to be for acquainted websites but actually lead to phishing web sites or sites that (...)
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  42. Neural Synchrony and the Causal Efficacy of Consciousness.David Yates - 2020 - Topoi 39 (5):1057-1072.
    The purpose of this paper is to address a well-known dilemma for physicalism. If mental properties are type identical to physical properties, then their causal efficacy is secure, but at the cost of ruling out mentality in creatures very different to ourselves. On the other hand, if mental properties are multiply realizable, then all kinds of creatures can instantiate them, but then they seem to be causally redundant. The causal exclusion problem depends on the widely held principle that realized properties (...)
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  43.  61
    Neural Organoids and the Precautionary Principle.Jonathan Birch & Heather Browning - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (1):56-58.
    Human neural organoid research is advancing rapidly. As Greely notes in the target article, this progress presents an “onrushing ethical dilemma.” We can’t rule out the possibility that suff...
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  44. Glass Classification Using Artificial Neural Network.Mohmmad Jamal El-Khatib, Bassem S. Abu-Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 3 (23):25-31.
    As a type of evidence glass can be very useful contact trace material in a wide range of offences including burglaries and robberies, hit-and-run accidents, murders, assaults, ram-raids, criminal damage and thefts of and from motor vehicles. All of that offer the potential for glass fragments to be transferred from anything made of glass which breaks, to whoever or whatever was responsible. Variation in manufacture of glass allows considerable discrimination even with tiny fragments. In this study, we worked glass classification (...)
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  45.  77
    The Neural and Cognitive Mechanisms of Knowledge Attribution: An EEG Study.Adam Michael Bricker - 2020 - Cognition 203:104412.
    Despite the ubiquity of knowledge attribution in human social cognition, its associated neural and cognitive mechanisms are poorly documented. A wealth of converging evidence in cognitive neuroscience has identified independent perspective-taking and inhibitory processes for belief attribution, but the extent to which these processes are shared by knowledge attribution isn't presently understood. Here, we present the findings of an EEG study designed to directly address this shortcoming. These findings suggest that belief attribution is not a component process in knowledge (...)
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  46. Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Diabetes Using JNN.Hussam Hatem Harz, Ahmed Osama Rafi, Musbah Osama Hijazi & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2020 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 4 (10):14-22.
    Abstract Diabetes is one of the most common diseases worldwide where a cure is not found for it yet. Annually it cost a lot of money to care for people with diabetes. Thus the most important issue is the prediction to be very accurate and to use a reliable method for that. One of these methods is using artificial intelligence systems and in particular is the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Therefore, in this paper, we used artificial (...) networks to predict whether a person is diabetic or not. The criterion was to minimize the error function in neural network training using a neural network model. After training the ANN model, the average error function of the neural network was equal to 0.01 and the accuracy of the prediction of whether a person is diabetics or not was 987.3% . (shrink)
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  47. Beyond the Neural Correlates of Consciousness.Uriah Kriegel - 2020 - In U. Kriegel (ed.), Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Consciousness. Oxford University Press. pp. 261-276.
    The centerpiece of the scientific study of consciousness is the search for the neural correlates of consciousness. Yet science is typically interested not only in discovering correlations, but also – and more deeply – in explaining them. When faced with a correlation between two phenomena in nature, we typically want to know why they correlate. The purpose of this chapter is twofold. The first half attempts to lay out the various possible explanations of the correlation between consciousness and its (...)
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  48. Neural Correlates of Visuospatial Consciousness in 3D Default Space: Insights From Contralateral Neglect Syndrome.Ravinder Jerath & Molly W. Crawford - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 28:81-93.
    One of the most compelling questions still unanswered in neuroscience is how consciousness arises. In this article, we examine visual processing, the parietal lobe, and contralateral neglect syndrome as a window into consciousness and how the brain functions as the mind and we introduce a mechanism for the processing of visual information and its role in consciousness. We propose that consciousness arises from integration of information from throughout the body and brain by the thalamus and that the thalamus reimages visual (...)
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  49. Artificial Neural Network for Lung Cancer Detection.Ola Mohammed Abu Kweik, Mohammed Atta Abu Hamid, Samer Osama Sheqlieh, Bassem S. Abu-Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2020 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 4 (11):1-7.
    Abstract: The effectiveness of cancer prediction system helps the people to know their cancer risk with low cost and it also helps the people to take the appropriate decision based on their cancer risk status. The dataset is collected from the data world website. In this paper, we proposed an Artificial Neural Network for detecting whether lung cancer is found or not in human body. Symptoms were used to diagnose the lung cancer, these symptoms such as Yellow fingers, Anxiety, (...)
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  50. Natural Selection and the Maximization of Fitness.Jonathan Birch - 2016 - Biological Reviews 91 (3):712-727.
    The notion that natural selection is a process of fitness maximization gets a bad press in population genetics, yet in other areas of biology the view that organisms behave as if attempting to maximize their fitness remains widespread. Here I critically appraise the prospects for reconciliation. I first distinguish four varieties of fitness maximization. I then examine two recent developments that may appear to vindicate at least one of these varieties. The first is the ‘new’ interpretation of Fisher's fundamental (...)
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