Results for 'ontological proof, Descartes,Hegel, Marx'

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  1.  47
    The Belief in Reality and the Reality of Belief.Oded Balaban - 1995 - Giornale di Metafisica 17 (1-2):71-85.
    The ontological arguments (OA) discussion is about the relations between essence and existence, and between analytic and synthetic judgments. Rationalists asserts that essence determines existence. Empiricists assert that existence cannot be deduced from thought. However, both made the error of disconnecting the objective existence of God from subjective thought about Him. We propose to demonstrate two interconnected theses: A) In the course of its historical development, the OA did not manage to refute empiricist critiques. B) His existence is only (...)
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  2. Descartes’ Ontological Proof: An Interpretation and Defense.Stanisław Judycki - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (2):187--195.
    It is widely assumed among contemporary philosophers that Descartes’ version of ontological proof, among other weaknesses, makes an impossible and unjustified move from the mental world of concepts to the real world of things. Contrary to this opinion I will try to show that Descartes’ famous principle of clear and distinct perception suffices to find an adequate inferential connection between the contents of the human mind and extra-mental reality. In a clear and distinct way we cognitively grasp the concept (...)
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  3.  29
    The Ontological Argument Reconsidered.Oded Balaban & Asnat Avshalom - 1990 - Journal of Philosophical Research 15:279-310.
    The ontological argument- proposed by St. Anselm and developed by Descartes, Leibniz, Kant, Hegel, and Marx- furnishes a key to understanding the relationship between thought and reality. In this article, we shall focus on Hegel’s attitude towards the ontological argument as set out in his Science of Logic, where it appears as a paradigm of the relationship between thought and reality. It should be remarked, moreover, that our choice of the subject was not random and that it (...)
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  4. The ontological argument from Descartes to Hegel (review). [REVIEW]Graham Oppy - 2010 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 48 (2):pp. 243-245.
    Kevin Harrelson's book commences with the following words: This book provides a philosophical analysis of the several debates concerning the "ontological argument" from the middle of the seventeenth to the beginning of the nineteenth century. My aim in writing it was twofold. First, I wished to provide a detailed and comprehensive account of the history of these debates, which I perceived to be lacking in the scholarly literature. Second, I wanted also to pursue a more philosophically interesting question concerning (...)
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  5. L'etica moderna. Dalla Riforma a Nietzsche.Sergio Cremaschi - 2007 - Roma RM, Italia: Carocci.
    This book tells the story of modern ethics, namely the story of a discourse that, after the Renaissance, went through a methodological revolution giving birth to Grotius’s and Pufendorf’s new science of natural law, leaving room for two centuries of explorations of the possible developments and implications of this new paradigm, up to the crisis of the Eighties of the eighteenth century, a crisis that carried a kind of mitosis, the act of birth of both basic paradigms of the two (...)
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  6. Proofs of God in Early Modern Europe.Lloyd Strickland - 2018 - Waco, TX, USA: Baylor University Press.
    Proofs of God in Early Modern Europe offers a fascinating window into early modern efforts to prove God’s existence. Assembled here are twenty-two key texts, many translated into English for the first time, which illustrate the variety of arguments that philosophers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries offered for God. These selections feature traditional proofs—such as various ontological, cosmological, and design arguments—but also introduce more exotic proofs, such as the argument from eternal truths, the argument from universal aseity, and (...)
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  7. Hegel's Metaphysics and Social Philosophy. Two Readings.Charlotte Baumann - 2020 - In Paul Giladi (ed.), Hegel and the Frankfurt School. London, UK: pp. 143-166.
    While Hegel's metaphysics was long reviled, it has garnered more interest in recent years, with even the so-called non-metaphysical Hegelians starting to explicitly discuss Hegel’s metaphysical commitments. This brings up the old question: what are the social-philosophical implications of Hegel’s metaphysics? This chapter provides a unique answer to this question by contrasting the former non-metaphysical reading (as developed by Robert Pippin) with a traditional way of interpreting Hegel’s metaphysics and social philosophy, whose lineage includes not Wittgenstein, Sellars, or Brandom, but (...)
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  8. The Ontological Argument (Cambridge Classic Philosophical Arguments Series).Graham Oppy (ed.) - 2018 - Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    In this Introduction, we begin with two relatively uncontroversial matters: the broad contours of the history of discussion of ontological arguments, and the major topics that require discussion in connection with ontological arguments. We then move on to consideration of the much more difficult task of the characterisation of ontological arguments—i.e. the task of saying exactly what ontological arguments are and explaining how they differ from, say, cosmological, teleological, and moral arguments for the existence of God—and (...)
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  9. El argumento ontológico y la muerte de la metafísica. Dos visiones complementarias: Kant y Hegel.Héctor Ferreiro - 2012 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 57 (3):99-120.
    The core of Kant’s criticism of the ontological argument is the thesis that existence is not a real predicate capable of being added to the concept of an object. The concept of the most perfect or the most real being is a subjective content that is as such completely determined, that is to say, that already has all the determinations that define that concept as such. Therefore, to know if that object also exists in the real world is indispensable (...)
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  10. Deuteros Plous, the immortality of the soul and the ontological argument for the existence of God.Rafael Ferber - 2018 - In Gabriele Cornelli, Thomas M. Robinson & Francisco Bravo (eds.), Plato's Phaedo.Selected papers from the eleventh Symposium Platonicum. Baden Baden: Academia Verlag. pp. 221-230.
    The paper deals with the "deuteros plous", literally ‘the second voyage’, proverbially ‘the next best way’, discussed in Plato’s "Phaedo", the key passage being Phd. 99e4–100a3. The second voyage refers to what Plato’s Socrates calls his “flight into the logoi”. Elaborating on the subject, the author first (I) provides a non-standard interpretation of the passage in question, and then (II) outlines the philosophical problem that it seems to imply, and, finally, (III) tries to apply this philosophical problem to the "ultimate (...)
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  11. Plato's Theory of Forms and Other Papers.John-Michael Kuczynski - 2020 - Madison, WI, USA: College Papers Plus.
    Easy to understand philosophy papers in all areas. Table of contents: Three Short Philosophy Papers on Human Freedom The Paradox of Religions Institutions Different Perspectives on Religious Belief: O’Reilly v. Dawkins. v. James v. Clifford Schopenhauer on Suicide Schopenhauer’s Fractal Conception of Reality Theodore Roszak’s Views on Bicameral Consciousness Philosophy Exam Questions and Answers Locke, Aristotle and Kant on Virtue Logic Lecture for Erika Kant’s Ethics Van Cleve on Epistemic Circularity Plato’s Theory of Forms Can we trust our senses? Yes (...)
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  12. An ontological proof of moral realism.Michael Huemer - 2013 - Social Philosophy and Policy 30 (1-2):259-279.
    The essay argues that while there is no general agreement on whether moral realism is true, there is general agreement on at least some of the moral obligations that we have if moral realism is true. Given that moral realism might be true, and given that we know some of the things we ought to do if it is true, we have a reason to do those things. Furthermore, this reason is itself an objective moral reason. Thus, if moral realism (...)
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  13.  60
    Purism: An Ontological Proof for The Impossibility of God.* Primus - 2020 - Secular Studies 2 (2):160-178.
    This article presents an ontological proof that God is impossible.I define an ‘impossibility’ as a condition which is inconceivable due to its a priori characteristics (e.g. a ‘square circle’). Accordingly, said conditions will not ever become conceivable, as they could in instances of a posteriori inconceivability (e.g. the notion that someone could touch a star without being burned). As the basis of this argument, I refer to an a priori observation (Primus, 2019) regarding our inability to imagine inconsistency (difference) (...)
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  14. Questioning Gödel's Ontological Proof: Is Truth Positive?Gregor Damschen - 2011 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 3 (1):161-169.
    In his "Ontological proof", Kurt Gödel introduces the notion of a second-order value property, the positive property P. The second axiom of the proof states that for any property φ: If φ is positive, its negation is not positive, and vice versa. I put forward that this concept of positiveness leads into a paradox when we apply it to the following self-reflexive sentences: (A) The truth value of A is not positive; (B) The truth value of B is positive. (...)
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  15.  57
    D Marconi (ed.), La formalizzazione della dialettica. Hegel, Marx e la logica contemporanea. [REVIEW]Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 1980 - Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 72:743-748.
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  16.  94
    Astronomy, Geometry, and Logic, Rev. 1c: An ontological proof of the natural principles that enable and sustain reality and mathematics.Michael Lucas Monterey & Michael Lucas-Monterey - manuscript
    The latest draft (posted 05/14/22) of this short, concise work of proof, theory, and metatheory provides summary meta-proofs and verification of the work and results presented in the Theory and Metatheory of Atemporal Primacy and Riemann, Metatheory, and Proof. In this version, several new and revised definitions of terms were added to subsection SS.1; and many corrected equations, theorems, metatheorems, proofs, and explanations are included in the main text. The body of the text is approximately 18 pages, with 3 sections; (...)
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  17. Two Types of Ontological Frame and Gödel’s Ontological Proof.Sergio Galvan - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (2):147--168.
    The aim of this essay is twofold. First, it outlines the concept of ontological frame. Secondly, two models are distinguished on this structure. The first one is connected to Kant’s concept of possible object and the second one relates to Leibniz’s. Leibniz maintains that the source of possibility is the mere logical consistency of the notions involved, so that possibility coincides with analytical possibility. Kant, instead, argues that consistency is only a necessary component of possibility. According to Kant, something (...)
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  18. Zeno's Paradox as a Derivative for the Ontological Proof of Panpsychism.Eamon Macdougall - manuscript
    This article attempts to elucidate the phenomenon of time and its relationship to consciousness. It defends the idea that time exists both as a psychological or illusory experience, and as an ontological property of spacetime that actually exists independently of human experience.
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  19. Hegel and Marx on Individuality and the Universal Good.Charlotte Baumann - 2018 - Hegel Bulletin 39 (1):61-81.
    Picking up on Marx’s and Hegel’s analyses of human beings as social and individual, the article shows that what is at stake is not merely the possibility of individuality, but also the correct conception of the universal good. Both Marx and Hegel suppose that individuals must be social or political as individuals, which means, at least in Hegel’s case, that particular interests must form part of the universal good. The good and the rational is not something that requires (...)
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  20. Hegel and Marx on the Rabble and the Problem of Poverty in Modern Society.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2001 - Iyyun 50 (1):23-40.
    The problem of poverty and the emergence of a rabble (Pöbel) in modern society does not find any reasonable solution in Hegel's Philosophy of Right (henceforth PR). Some scholars have stressed how unusual this is for Hegel, claiming that it would have been uncharacteristic for him to leave a major, acknowledged problem of his system unsolved: "On no other occasion does Hegel leave a problem at that." The importance of this problem is not limited to the threat it poses to (...)
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  21. Hegel, Norms and Ontology.Joe Saunders - 2019 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 36 (3):279-297.
    This paper lays out two recent accounts of Hegel’s practical philosophy in order to present a challenge. According to Robert Stern and Mark Alznauer, Hegel attempts to ground our ethical practices in ontological norms. I argue that we cannot ground our ethical practices in this way. However, I also contend that Stern’s and Alznauer’s conception of reality as both conceptual and normative can still play a useful role in practical philosophy, namely, to help defuse a sceptical worry about a (...)
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  22. De Descartes a Hegel (y vuelta): Sobre el origen y actualidad teórica del idealismo absoluto.Hector Ferreiro - 2017 - In Javier Balladares, Yared Elguera, Fernando Huesca & Zaida Olvera (eds.), Hegel: Ontología, estética y política. México D.F.: Fides. pp. 17-46.
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  23. Deductive Proof that you are awake and not dreaming. (Descartes argument of dreaming) (this is a rough draft my views are constantly changing).Benjamin Arturo Villalobos - manuscript
    Looking at every sense this article proves through deduction; that your mind needs a source to dream. Dreams are old experienced essences of platonic forms. You can only experience new forms essences when you are awake because of initial experiences. If dreams are old, experienced essences (what this article proves) therefore you know you are awake when you initially sense new experienced essences.
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  24. The Industrial Ontologies Foundry proof-of-concept project.Evan Wallace, Dimitris Kiritsis, Barry Smith & Chris Will - 2018 - In Ilkyeong Moon, Gyu M. Lee, Jinwoo Park, Dimitris Kiritsis & Gregor von Cieminski (eds.), Advances in Production Management Systems. Smart Manufacturing for Industry 4.0. IFIP. pp. 402-409.
    The current industrial revolution is said to be driven by the digitization that exploits connected information across all aspects of manufacturing. Standards have been recognized as an important enabler. Ontology-based information standard may provide benefits not offered by current information standards. Although there have been ontologies developed in the industrial manufacturing domain, they have been fragmented and inconsistent, and little has received a standard status. With successes in developing coherent ontologies in the biological, biomedical, and financial domains, an effort called (...)
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  25. Hegel on the Proofs and Personhood of God: Studies in Hegel's Logic and Philosophy of Religion by Robert R. Williams. [REVIEW]Kevin J. Harrelson - 2017 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 55 (4):739-740.
    Hegel endorsed proofs of the existence of God, and also believed God to be a person. Some of his interpreters ignore these apparently retrograde tendencies, shunning them in favor of the philosopher's more forward-looking contributions. Others embrace Hegel's religious thought, but attempt to recast his views as less reactionary than they appear to be. Robert Williams's latest monograph belongs to a third category: he argues that Hegel's positions in philosophical theology are central to his philosophy writ large. The book is (...)
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  26.  90
    Wittgensteinian Philosophy and the Culture of the Commentary.Barry Smith - 1990 - In Rudolf Haller & Johannes Brandl (eds.), Wittgenstein: Towards a Re-Evaluation, Volume 2. Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky. pp. 247-254.
    The object of the present paper is the philosophical commentary, a form of literature that once predominated in all major philosophical cultures from classical Greece to Renaissance Italy, but which has more recently fallen into comparative disuse. Commentaries on the writings of German thinkers such as Kant, Hegel, Marx and Heidegger have, certainly, kept the form alive to some extent in recent centuries; in the tradition of philosophy that was initiated by Descartes and Locke, however, and which constitutes the (...)
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  27.  38
    The Spectres of Hegel and Marx in the 21th Century -Irfan Ajvazi.Irfan Ajvazi - 2021 - Idea Books.
    The Spectres of Hegel and Marx in the 21th Century -Irfan Ajvazi.
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  28. Hegel's Ontological Grasp of Judgement and the Original Dividing of Identity into Difference.Jeffrey Reid - 2006 - Dialogue 45 (1):29-43.
    ABSTRACTWithin Hegel's system of science, judgementis thought's original dividing from identity into difference. In the same context, judgement is also an act of predication where “subject” must be understood in both a grammatical and psychical sense. Thus, judgement expresses a language act that is a self-positing into the difference of being. This article looks at two examples where Hegel's ontological notion of judgement obtains, then finds, the roots of this notion in Hölderlin and Fichte.
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  29. Marx's Social Ontology.Laird Addis - 1980 - Noûs 14 (4):648-652.
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  30. After Hegel: Art and ontology in Nancy's critique of romanticism.Alison Ross - 2011 - MonoKL 10:149-163.
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  31. Logic and Ontology in Hegel's Theory of Predication.Kevin J. Harrelson - 2015 - European Journal of Philosophy 23 (4):1259-1280.
    In this paper I sketch some arguments that underlie Hegel's chapter on judgment, and I attempt to place them within a broad tradition in the history of logic. Focusing on his analysis of simple predicative assertions or ‘positive judgments’, I first argue that Hegel supplies an instructive alternative to the classical technique of existential quantification. The main advantage of his theory lies in his treatment of the ontological implications of judgments, implications that are inadequately captured by quantification. The second (...)
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  32. Marxism and Materialism: A Study in Marxist Theory of Knowledge.David-Hillel Ruben - 1979 - Humanities Press.
    Argument that Marx has a realist ontology and a correspondence theory of truth. His views are compared to both Hegel's and Kant's. This interpretation departs from more Hegelian, 'idealist' interpretations that often rely on misunderstanding some of the work of the early Marx. There is also a discussion and partial defence of Lenin's Materialism and Empirio-Criticism.
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  33. "I that is we, we that is I," perspectives on contemporary Hegel : social ontology, recognition, naturalism, and the critique of Kantian constructivism.Italo Testa & Luigi Ruggiu (eds.) - 2016 - Boston: Brill.
    In _"I that is We, We that is I"_ leading scholars analyze the many facets of Hegel’s formula for the intersubjective structure of human life and explores its relevance for debates on social ontology, recognition, action theory, constructivism, and naturalism.
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  34. A Brief Critical Introduction to the Ontological Argument and its Formalization: Anselm, Gaunilo, Descartes, Leibniz and Kant.Ricardo Silvestre - 2018 - Journal of Applied Logics 5 (7):1441-1474.
    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it aims at introducing the ontological argument through the analysis of five historical developments: Anselm’s argument found in the second chapter of his Proslogion, Gaunilo’s criticism of it, Descartes’ version of the ontological argument found in his Meditations on First Philosophy, Leibniz’s contribution to the debate on the ontological argument and his demonstration of the possibility of God, and Kant’s famous criticisms against the (cartesian) ontological argument. Second, it (...)
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  35. Segunda natureza em Hegel e Marx.Christian Iber, Agemir Bavaresco & Eduardo G. Lara - 2019 - Leituras da Lógica de Hegel, Vol. 3.
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  36. Drei Pathologien der Anerkennung. Grundlagen einer kritischen Gesellschaftstheorie nach Rousseau, Hegel und Marx.Steffen K. Herrmann - 2017 - In Sven Ellmers & Philip Hogh (eds.), Warum Kritik? Begründungsformen kritischer Theorien. Weilerswist, Deutschland: pp. 164-189.
    Mit den Werken von Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel und Karl Marx erscheinen in einem Abstand von knapp einhundert Jahren einschlägige Gründungstexte der Sozialphilosophie. Allen drei Autoren ist dabei das Vorhaben gemein, sich kritisch-reflexiv mit den Wandlungen ihrer jeweiligen Zeit auseinandersetzen zu wollen: Rousseau im absolutistischen Frankreich Hege! im agrarischen Preußen und Marx im industrialisierten England: Trotz der unterschiedlichen historischen und nationalen Kontexte gibt es dabei ein verbindendes Moment zwischen den drei Autoren. Sie alle versuchen nämlich, die (...)
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  37. Is Descartes a Temporal Atomist?Ken Levy - 2005 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 13 (4):627 – 674.
    I argue that Descartes' Second Causal Proof of God in the Third Meditation evidences, and commits him to, the belief that time is "strongly discontinuous" -- that is, that there is actually a gap between each consecutive moment of time. Much of my article attempts to reconcile this interpretation, the "received view," with Descartes' statements about time, space, and matter in his other writings, including his correspondence with various philosophers.
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  38. Proof phenomenon as a function of the phenomenology of proving.Inês Hipólito - 2015 - Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 119:360-367.
    Kurt Gödel wrote (1964, p. 272), after he had read Husserl, that the notion of objectivity raises a question: “the question of the objective existence of the objects of mathematical intuition (which, incidentally, is an exact replica of the question of the objective existence of the outer world)”. This “exact replica” brings to mind the close analogy Husserl saw between our intuition of essences in Wesensschau and of physical objects in perception. What is it like to experience a mathematical proving (...)
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  39. Holism and normative essentialism in Hegel's social ontology.Heikki Ikäheimo - 2011 - In Heikki Ikäheimo & Arto Laitinen (eds.), Recognition and Social Ontology. Brill. pp. 145--209.
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  40. Second sailing towards immortality and God.Rafael Ferber - 2021 - Mnemosyne 74 (3):371-400.
    This paper deals with the deuteros plous, literally ‘the second voyage’, proverbially ‘the next best way’, discussed in Plato’s Phaedo, the key passage being Phd. 99e4-100a3. I argue that (a) the ‘flight into the logoi’ can have two different interpretations, a standard one and a non-standard one. The issue is whether at 99e-100a Socrates means that both the student of erga and the student of logoi consider images (‘the standard interpretation’), or the student of logoi does not consider images but (...)
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  41. Twice-Two: Hegel’s Comic Redoubling of Being and Nothing.Rachel Aumiller - 2018 - Problemi International 2:253-278.
    Following Freud’s analysis of the fragile line between the uncanny double and its comic redoubling, I identify the doubling of the double found in critical moments of Hegelian dialectic as producing a kind of comic effect. It almost goes without saying that two provides greater pleasure than one, the loneliest number. Many also find two to be preferable to three, the tired trope of dialectic as a teleological waltz. Two seems to offer lightness, relieving one from her loneliness and lacking (...)
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  42. Marx, Democracy and the Ancient Polis.Patricia Springborg - 1984 - Critical Philosophy 1 (1):47-66.
    Marx in his early Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right (1843) declared "Democracy is human existence, while in other political forms man has only legal existence". In the Grundrisse and his late Ethnological Notebooks he studied the emergence of "the political" from primordialism, or the rule of family, tribe and clan .
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  43. Was Hegel an Authoritarian Thinker? Reading Hegel’s Philosophy of History on the Basis of his Metaphysics.Charlotte Baumann - 2021 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 103 (1):120-147.
    With Hegel’s metaphysics attracting renewed attention, it is time to address a long-standing criticism: Scholars from Marx to Popper and Habermas have worried that Hegel’s metaphysics has anti-individualist and authoritarian implications, which are particularly pronounced in his Philosophy of History, since Hegel identifies historical progress with reason imposing itself on individuals. Rather than proposing an alternative non-metaphysical conception of reason, as Pippin or Brandom have done, this article argues that critics are broadly right in their metaphysical reading of Hegel’s (...)
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  44.  29
    What Is Worth Salvaging in Modernity.Katerina Kolozova - 2022 - In Understanding Žižek, Understanding Modernism. London UK: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 183-195.
    In what follows I will provide an explication of what the principle of philosophical sufficiency (PPS) refers to as conceptualized by François Laruelle, whereas, at the moment, suffice it to say that it is comparable to Marx’s extolling of the principle of praxis over that of philosophy as a critique of the philosophical “self-mirroring,” a thesis that pervades Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy in General (Marx, Manuscripts), German Ideology (1968), Theses on Feuerbach (1969). The self-mirroring thought (philosophy is) subsumes (...)
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  45. Plato's Phaedo: Selected Papers From the Eleventh Symposium Platonicum.Gabriele Cornelli, Thomas M. Robinson & Francisco Bravo (eds.) - 2018 - Baden-Baden: Academia Verlag.
    The paper deals with the "deuteros plous", literally ‘the second voyage’, proverbially ‘the next best way’, discussed in Plato’s "Phaedo", the key passage being Phd. 99e4–100a3. The second voyage refers to what Plato’s Socrates calls his “flight into the logoi”. Elaborating on the subject, the author first (I) provides a non-standard interpretation of the passage in question, and then (II) outlines the philosophical problem that it seems to imply, and, finally, (III) tries to apply this philosophical problem to the "ultimate (...)
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  46. Selfhood and Relationality.Jacqueline Mariña - 2017 - In Joel Rasmussen, Judith Wolfe & Johannes Zachhuber (eds.), Oxford Handbook for Nineteenth Century Christian Thought. Oxford University Press. pp. 127-142.
    Nineteenth century Christian thought about self and relationality was stamped by the reception of Kant’s groundbreaking revision to the Cartesian cogito. For René Descartes (1596-1650), the self is a thinking thing (res cogitans), a simple substance retaining its unity and identity over time. For Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), on the other hand, consciousness is not a substance but an ongoing activity having a double constitution, or two moments: first, the original activity of consciousness, what Kant would call original apperception, and second, (...)
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  47. Marx’s ‘Bonn Notebooks’ in Context. Reconsidering the Relationship between Bruno Bauer and Karl Marx between 1839 and 1842.Kaan Kangal - 2020 - Historical Materialism 28 (4):102–138.
    The following is a critical reconstruction of the collaboration between Bauer and Marx between 1839 and 1842. The turbulences in the period in question reveal themselves in Marx’s thought as well as in his relationship with Bruno Bauer. Correspondingly, Marx’s detours, false paths, dead ends and abandoned work are therefore made the focus of this study. The ambivalent initial relations between the two of them, which both made their collaboration possible and hindered it, clearly go back further (...)
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  48. Ontological Arguments.Graham Oppy - 2019 - The Philosophers' Magazine 86:66-73.
    This article is a brief overview of major ontological arguments. The most noteworthy feature of this article is the statement of a new parody of the Anselmian and Cartesian arguments that is obviously immune to objections adverting to intrinsic minima and maxima.
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  49. Hegel's Justification of Hereditary Monarchy.M. Tunick - 1991 - History of Political Thought 12 (3):481.
    Hegel's Rechtsphilosophie is metaphysical, to be sure; but it is also political. To help show this I will make sense, and show the plausibility and relevance, of what appears to be one of the most metaphysical (and bizarre) claims to be found in Hegel's political philosophy: his justification of hereditary monarchy. While among Hegel scholars Hegel's theory of constitutional monarchy has been a focus of heated debate over whether Hegel is a liberal or a conservative; and has recently become a (...)
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  50. Descartes and Berkeley on mind: The fourth distinction.Walter Ott - 2006 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 14 (3):437 – 450.
    The popular Cartesian reading of George Berkeley's philosophy of mind mischaracterizes his views on the relations between substance and essence and between an idea and the act of thought in which it figures. I argue that Berkeley rejects Descartes's tripartite taxonomy of distinctions and makes use of a fourth kind of distinction. In addition to illuminating Berkeley's ontology of mind, this fourth distinction allows us to dissolve an important dilemma raised by Kenneth Winkler.
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