Results for 'trees'

39 found
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  1.  59
    Classes and Theories of Trees Associated with a Class of Linear Orders.Valentin Goranko & Ruaan Kellerman - 2011 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 19 (1):217-232.
    Given a class of linear order types C, we identify and study several different classes of trees, naturally associated with C in terms of how the paths in those trees are related to the order types belonging to C. We investigate and completely determine the set-theoretic relationships between these classes of trees and between their corresponding first-order theories. We then obtain some general results about the axiomatization of the first-order theories of some of these classes of (...) in terms of the first-order theory of the generating class C, and indicate the problems obstructing such general results for the other classes. These problems arise from the possible existence of nondefinable paths in trees, that need not satisfy the first-order theory of C, so we have started analysing first order definable and undefinable paths in trees. (shrink)
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  2.  42
    Two-Sided Trees for Sentential Logic, Predicate Logic, and Sentential Modal Logic.Jesse Fitts & David Beisecker - 2019 - Teaching Philosophy 42 (1):41-56.
    This paper will present two contributions to teaching introductory logic. The first contribution is an alternative tree proof method that differs from the traditional one-sided tree method. The second contribution combines this tree system with an index system to produce a user-friendly tree method for sentential modal logic.
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  3.  47
    Projecting the Trees but Ignoring the Forest: A Brief Critique of Alfredo Pereira Jr.'s Target Essay.Gregory Michael Nixon - 2018 - Trans/Form/Ação 41 (s1):269-292.
    Pereira’s “The Projective Theory of Consciousness” is an experimental statement, drawing on many diverse sources, exploring how consciousness might be produced by a projective mechanism that results both in private selves and an experienced world. Unfortunately, pulling together so many unrelated sources and methods means none gets full attention. Furthermore, it seems to me that the uncomfortable breadth of this paper unnecessarily complicates his project; in fact it may hide what it seeks to reveal. If this conglomeration of diverse sources (...)
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  4. Peacocke's Trees.Boyd Millar - 2010 - Synthese 174 (3):445-461.
    In Sense and Content , Christopher Peacocke points out that two equally-sized trees at different distances from the perceiver are normally represented to be the same size, despite the fact that in a certain sense the nearer tree looks bigger ; he concludes on the basis of this observation that visual experiences possess irreducibly phenomenal properties. This argument has received the most attention of all of Peacocke’s arguments for separatism—the view that the intentional and phenomenal properties of experiences are (...)
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  5.  21
    A Calculus for Belnap's Logic in Which Each Proof Consists of Two Trees.Stefan Wintein & Reinhard Muskens - 2012 - Logique Et Analyse 220:643-656.
    In this paper we introduce a Gentzen calculus for (a functionally complete variant of) Belnap's logic in which establishing the provability of a sequent in general requires \emph{two} proof trees, one establishing that whenever all premises are true some conclusion is true and one that guarantees the falsity of at least one premise if all conclusions are false. The calculus can also be put to use in proving that one statement \emph{necessarily approximates} another, where necessary approximation is a natural (...)
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  6.  91
    Talking About Trees and Truth-Conditions.Reinhard Muskens - 2001 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (4):417-455.
    We present Logical Description Grammar (LDG), a model ofgrammar and the syntax-semantics interface based on descriptions inelementary logic. A description may simultaneously describe the syntacticstructure and the semantics of a natural language expression, i.e., thedescribing logic talks about the trees and about the truth-conditionsof the language described. Logical Description Grammars offer a naturalway of dealing with underspecification in natural language syntax andsemantics. If a logical description (up to isomorphism) has exactly onetree plus truth-conditions as a model, it completely specifies (...)
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  7. Seeing the Forst for the Trees[REVIEW]Anya Plutynski - 2004 - Biology and Philosophy 19 (2):299-303.
    Roderic Page’s new book, Tangled Trees: Phylogeny, Cospeciation and Coevolution (2003), is a worthwhile read for anyone interested in either methodological issues in systematics, or how organisms shape one another’s selective environments. “Cospeciation,” for the uninitiated, is the concurrent speciation of two or more lineages that are ecologically associated (e.g. host-parasite associations, as well as mutualistic or symbiotic associations). “Coevolution,” in contrast, is the reciprocal adaptation of hosts and parasite taxa. The main focus of Page’s book is thus when, (...)
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  8.  47
    Missing the Apes of the Trees for the Forest.Carlo Alvaro - 2019 - ASEBL Journal Association for the Study of Ethical Behavior 14 (1):36-38.
    The debate over ape personhood is of great social and moral importance. For more than twenty-five years, attorney Steven Wise has been arguing that animals who have cognitive complexities similar to humans should be legally granted basic rights of au- tonomy. In my view, granting personhood status and other rights to great apes are at- tainable goals. But how should we go about it?
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  9.  49
    Hume's Table, Peacocke's Trees, the Tilted Penny and the Reversed Seeing-in Account.Robert Schroer - 2017 - Mind and Language 32 (2):209-230.
    In seeing a tilted penny, we are experientially aware of both its circularity and another shape, which I dub ‘β-ellipticality’. Some claim that our experiential awareness of the intrinsic shapes/sizes of everyday objects depends upon our experiential awareness of β-shapes/β-sizes. In contrast, I maintain that β-property experiences are the result of what Richard Wollheim calls ‘seeing-in’, but run in reverse: instead of seeing a three-dimensional object in a flat surface, we see a flat surface in a three-dimensional object. Using this (...)
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  10. On the Interpretation of Three-Dimensional Syntactic Trees.Friederike Moltmann - 1992 - In Chris Barker & David Dowty (eds.), Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 2, Ohio State University.
    Syntacticians have proposed three-dimensional syntactic structures to account for the peculiarities of coordination. This paper proposes a way of interpreting such structures and gives an account of sentences of the sort 'John bought and Mary sold a total of ten cars' based on a notion of 'implicit' coordination.
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  11. Trees for a 3-Valued Logic.Fred Johnson - 1984 - Analysis 44 (1):43-6.
    Fred shows how problems with Slater's restriction of the classical propositional logic can be solved.
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  12.  70
    A Plural Reference Interpretation of Three-Dimensional Syntactic Trees.Friederike Moltmann - 2017 - In C. van Urk / H. Kotek / C. Halpert (eds.): A Pesky Set. Papers for David Pesetsky . MIT Working Papers in Linguistics (MITWPL) 80, MIT Cambridge (Mass.). Cambridge, MA:
    Various syntacticians have argued that coordinate structures involve a three-dimensional syntactic structure. This paper proposes an interpretation of three-dimensional syntactic structures in terms of plural reference and argues that such structures give further support for plural reference, the view that plural terms refer to several entities at once, rather than referring to a single plural individual.
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  13.  68
    From Linear to Branching-Time Temporal Logics: Transfer of Semantics and Definability.Valentin Goranko & Alberto Zanardo - 2007 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 15 (1):53-76.
    This paper investigates logical aspects of combining linear orders as semantics for modal and temporal logics, with modalities for possible paths, resulting in a variety of branching time logics over classes of trees. Here we adopt a unified approach to the Priorean, Peircean and Ockhamist semantics for branching time logics, by considering them all as fragments of the latter, obtained as combinations, in various degrees, of languages and semantics for linear time with a modality for possible paths. We then (...)
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  14. Knights, Knaves, Truth, Truthfulness, Grounding, Tethering, Aboutness, and Paradox.Stephen Yablo - 2017 - In Brian Rayman & Melvin Fitting (eds.), Raymond Smullyan on Self Reference. Springer Verlag.
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  15. Temporal Activity Patterns and Foraging Behavior by Social Wasps (Hymenoptera, Polistinae) on Fruits of Mangifera Indica L.(Anacardiaceae).Bruno Corrêa Barbosa, Mariana Frias Paschoalini & Fábio Prezoto - 2014 - Sociobiology 61 (2):239-242.
    This research was done in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil on february 2012, with objective was to determine which species of social wasps visiting mango fruits, their behaviors displayed by them while foraging and verify which the species of wasps visitors offer risk of accidents to farmers. The studied area was monitored during February 2012, from 8:00 to 17:00. in a 144 hour effort, and the data collected included the time of activity, diversity, aggressiveness and the general behavior of (...)
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  16. Cognitive Penetration and the Perception of Colour.Dustin Stokes - forthcoming - In Derek Brown & Fiona Macpherson (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Colour. London: Routledge.
    This chapter concerns the cognitive penetration of the visual experience of colour. Alleged cases of cognitively penetrated colour perception are of special import since they concern an uncontroversial type of visual experience. All theorists of perception agree that colour properties figure properly in the content or presentation of visual perception, even though not all parties agree that pine trees or causes or other "high-level" properties can figure properly in visual content or presentation. So an alleged case of this kind (...)
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  17.  40
    Nominalism.Ghislain Guigon - 2019 - Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    ‘Nominalism’ refers to a family of views about what there is. The objects we are familiar with (e.g. hands, laptops, cookies, and trees) can be characterized as concrete and particular. Nominalists agree that there are such things. But one group of nominalists denies that anything is non-particular and another group denies that anything is non-concrete. These two sorts of nominalism, referred to as ‘nominalism about universals’ and ‘nominalism about abstract objects’, have common motivations in contemporary philosophy.
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  18.  67
    What is Conservatism? [REVIEW]Louis deRosset - manuscript
    In Objects: Nothing Out of the Ordinary, Daniel Z. Korman defends a view he calls conservatism. Conservatives hold that there are ordinary objects, but no extraordinary objects. But Korman never explicitly characterizes what would qualify an object as ordinary in the relevant sense. We have some paradigm cases of ordinary objects, including tables, dogs, and trees; and we have some paradigm cases of extraordinary objects of sorts familiar from the philosophical literature. Here I attempt to fill this gap, surveying (...)
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  19. On What We Experience When We Hear People Speak.Anders Nes - 2016 - Phenomenology and Mind 10:58-85.
    According to perceptualism, fluent comprehension of speech is a perceptual achievement, in as much as it is akin to such high-level perceptual states as the perception of objects as cups or trees, or of people as happy or sad. According to liberalism, grasp of meaning is partially constitutive of the phenomenology of fluent comprehension. I here defend an influential line of argument for liberal perceptualism, resting on phenomenal contrasts in our comprehension of speech, due to Susanna Siegel and Tim (...)
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  20.  41
    A Gentzen Calculus for Nothing but the Truth.Stefan Wintein & Reinhard Muskens - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 45 (4):451-465.
    In their paper Nothing but the Truth Andreas Pietz and Umberto Rivieccio present Exactly True Logic, an interesting variation upon the four-valued logic for first-degree entailment FDE that was given by Belnap and Dunn in the 1970s. Pietz & Rivieccio provide this logic with a Hilbert-style axiomatisation and write that finding a nice sequent calculus for the logic will presumably not be easy. But a sequent calculus can be given and in this paper we will show that a calculus for (...)
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  21. First Acts, Last Acts, and Abandonment.David O. Brink - 2013 - Legal Theory 19 (2):114-123.
    This contribution reconstructs and assesses Gideon Yaffe’s claims in his book Attempts about what constitutes an attempt, what can count as evidence that an attempt has been made, whether abandonment is a genuine defense, and whether attempts should be punished less severely than completed crimes. I contrast Yaffe’s account of being motivated by an intention and the completion of an attempt in terms of the truth of the completion counterfactual with an alternative picture of attempts as temporally extended decision (...) that are complete insofar as the agent has progressed toward the final act in the tree. I suggest that this alternative scalar conception of attempt may provide a more plausible account of the defense of abandonment. I also raise questions about whether Yaffe has provided an adequate justification of his mix of luck skepticism about censure and luck realism about punishment. (shrink)
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  22. Lifeness Signatures and the Roots of the Tree of Life.Christophe Malaterre - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):643-658.
    Do trees of life have roots? What do these roots look like? In this contribution, I argue that research on the origins of life might offer glimpses on the topology of these very roots. More specifically, I argue (1) that the roots of the tree of life go well below the level of the commonly mentioned ‘ancestral organisms’ down into the level of much simpler, minimally living entities that might be referred to as ‘protoliving systems’, and (2) that further (...)
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  23. Does Putnam's Argument Beg the Question Against the Skeptic? Bad News for Radical Skepticism.Olaf Müller - 2001 - Erkenntnis 54 (3):299-320.
    Are we perhaps in the "matrix", or anyway, victims of perfect and permanent computer simulation? No. The most convincing—and shortest—version of Putnam's argument against the possibility of our eternal envattment is due to Crispin Wright (1994). It avoids most of the misunderstandings that have been elicited by Putnam's original presentation of the argument in "Reason, Truth and History" (1981). But it is still open to the charge of question-begging. True enough, the premisses of the argument (disquotation and externalism) can be (...)
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  24.  79
    Tracking Inferences Is Not Enough: The Given as Tie-Breaker.Marc Champagne - 2016 - Logos and Episteme 7 (2):129-135.
    Most inferentialists hope to bypass givenness by tracking the conditionals claimants are implicitly committed to. I argue that this approach is underdetermined because one can always construct parallel trees of conditionals. I illustrate this using the Müller-Lyer illusion and touching a table. In the former case, the lines are either even or uneven; in the latter case, a moving hand will either sweep through or be halted. For each possibility, we can rationally foresee consequents. However, I argue that, until (...)
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  25. Logical Consequence in Modal Logic II: Some Semantic Systems for S4.George Weaver - 1974 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 15:370.
    ABSTRACT: This 1974 paper builds on our 1969 paper (Corcoran-Weaver [2]). Here we present three (modal, sentential) logics which may be thought of as partial systematizations of the semantic and deductive properties of a sentence operator which expresses certain kinds of necessity. The logical truths [sc. tautologies] of these three logics coincide with one another and with those of standard formalizations of Lewis's S5. These logics, when regarded as logistic systems (cf. Corcoran [1], p. 154), are seen to be equivalent; (...)
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  26.  52
    Nietzsche on Objects.Justin Remhof - 2015 - Nietzsche-Studien 44 (1).
    Nietzsche was persistently concerned with what an object is and how different views of objects lead to different views of facts, causality, personhood, substance, truth, mathematics and logic, and even nihilism. Yet his treatment of objects is incredibly puzzling. In many passages he assumes that objects such as trees and leaves, tables and chairs, and dogs and cats are just ordinary entities of experience. In other places he reports that objects do not exist. Elsewhere he claims that objects exist, (...)
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  27. Lambda Grammars and the Syntax-Semantics Interface.Reinhard Muskens - 2001 - In Robert Van Rooij & Martin Stokhof (eds.), Proceedings of the Thirteenth Amsterdam Colloquium. Amsterdam: ILLC. pp. 150-155.
    In this paper we discuss a new perspective on the syntax-semantics interface. Semantics, in this new set-up, is not ‘read off’ from Logical Forms as in mainstream approaches to generative grammar. Nor is it assigned to syntactic proofs using a Curry-Howard correspondence as in versions of the Lambek Calculus, or read off from f-structures using Linear Logic as in Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG, Kaplan & Bresnan [9]). All such approaches are based on the idea that syntactic objects (trees, proofs, fstructures) (...)
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  28. Ultrametric Distance in Syntax.Mark D. Roberts - manuscript
    Phrase structure trees have a hierarchical structure. In many subjects, most notably in {\bf taxonomy} such tree structures have been studied using ultrametrics. Here syntactical hierarchical phrase trees are subject to a similar analysis, which is much simpler as the branching structure is more readily discernible and switched. The occurrence of hierarchical structure elsewhere in linguistics is mentioned. The phrase tree can be represented by a matrix and the elements of the matrix can be represented by triangles. The (...)
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  29. Societal Impacts of Storm Damage.Kristina Blennow & Erik Persson - 2013 - In Barry Gardiner, Andreas Schuck, Mart-Jan Schelhaas, Christophe Orazio, Kristina Blennow & Bruce Nicoll (eds.), Living with Storm Damage to Forests. European Forest Institute. pp. 70-78.
    Wind damage to forests can be divided into (1) the direct damage done to the forest and(2) indirect effects. Indirect effects may be of different kinds and may affect the environ- ment as well as society. For example, falling trees can lead to power and telecommunica- tion failures or blocking of roads. The salvage harvest of fallen trees is another example and one that involves extremely dangerous work. In this overview we provide examples of different entities, services, and (...)
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  30.  14
    Computation Tree Logics and Temporal Logics with Reference Pointers.Valentin Goranko - 2000 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 10 (3-4):221-242.
    A complete axiomatic system CTL$_{rp}$ is introduced for a temporal logic for finitely branching $\omega^+$-trees in a temporal language extended with so called reference pointers. Syntactic and semantic interpretations are constructed for the branching time computation tree logic CTL* into CTL$_{rp}$. In particular, that yields a complete axiomatization for the translations of all valid CTL*-formulae. Thus, the temporal logic with reference pointers is brought forward as a simpler (with no path quantifiers), but in a way more expressive medium for (...)
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  31.  60
    Affine Geometry, Visual Sensation, and Preference for Symmetry of Things in a Thing.Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2016 - Symmetry 127 (8).
    Evolution and geometry generate complexity in similar ways. Evolution drives natural selection while geometry may capture the logic of this selection and express it visually, in terms of specific generic properties representing some kind of advantage. Geometry is ideally suited for expressing the logic of evolutionary selection for symmetry, which is found in the shape curves of vein systems and other natural objects such as leaves, cell membranes, or tunnel systems built by ants. The topology and geometry of symmetry is (...)
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  32. Introduction: Lessons From the Scientific Butchery.Matthew H. Slater & Andrea Borghini - 2013 - In Joseph Keim Campbell, Michael O'Rourke & Matthew H. Slater (eds.), Carving Nature at its Joints: Natural Kinds in Metaphysics and Science. MIT Press.
    Good chefs know the importance of maintaining sharp knives in the kitchen. What’s their secret? A well-worn Taoist allegory offers some advice. The king asks about his butcher’s impressive knifework. “Ordinary butchers,” he replied “hack their way through the animal. Thus their knife always needs sharpening. My father taught me the Taoist way. I merely lay the knife by the natural openings and let it find its own way through. Thus it never needs sharpening” (Kahn 1995, vii; see also Watson (...)
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  33. Embodied Cognition: Grounded Until Further Notice?Cory Wright - 2008 - British Journal of Psychology 99:157-164.
    Embodied Cognition is the kind of view that is all trees, no forest. Mounting experimental evidence gives it momentum in fleshing out the theoretical problems inherent in Cognitivists’ separation of mind and body. But the more its proponents compile such evidence, the more the fundamental concepts of Embodied Cognition remain in the dark. This conundrum is nicely exemplified by Pecher and Zwaan’s book, Grounding Cognition, which is a programmatic attempt to rally together an array of empirical results and linguistic (...)
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  34.  64
    Completeness of a First-Order Temporal Logic with Time-Gaps.Matthias Baaz, Alexander Leitsch & Richard Zach - 1996 - Theoretical Computer Science 160 (1-2):241-270.
    The first-order temporal logics with □ and ○ of time structures isomorphic to ω (discrete linear time) and trees of ω-segments (linear time with branching gaps) and some of its fragments are compared: the first is not recursively axiomatizable. For the second, a cut-free complete sequent calculus is given, and from this, a resolution system is derived by the method of Maslov.
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  35.  39
    Separating Syntax and Combinatorics in Categorial Grammar.Reinhard Muskens - 2007 - Research on Language and Computation 5 (3):267-285.
    The ‘syntax’ and ‘combinatorics’ of my title are what Curry (1961) referred to as phenogrammatics and tectogrammatics respectively. Tectogrammatics is concerned with the abstract combinatorial structure of the grammar and directly informs semantics, while phenogrammatics deals with concrete operations on syntactic data structures such as trees or strings. In a series of previous papers (Muskens, 2001a; Muskens, 2001b; Muskens, 2003) I have argued for an architecture of the grammar in which finite sequences of lambda terms are the basic data (...)
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  36.  68
    Temporal Logics with Reference Pointers and Computation Tree Logics.Valentin Goranko - 2000 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 10 (3):221-242.
    A complete axiomatic system CTL$_{rp}$ is introduced for a temporal logic for finitely branching $\omega^+$-trees in a temporal language extended with so called reference pointers. Syntactic and semantic interpretations are constructed for the branching time computation tree logic CTL$^{*}$ into CTL$_{rp}$. In particular, that yields a complete axiomatization for the translations of all valid CTL$^{*}$-formulae. Thus, the temporal logic with reference pointers is brought forward as a simpler (with no path quantifiers), but in a way more expressive medium for (...)
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  37.  25
    The Woman-and-Tree Motif in the Ancient and Contemporary India.Marzenna Jakbczak - 2017 - In Retracing the Past: Historical Continuity in Aesthetics from a Global Perspective. Santa Cruz: International Association for Aesthetics. pp. 79-93.
    The paper aims at critical reconsideration of a motif popular in Indian literary, ritual, and pictorial traditions – a tree goddess (yakṣī, vṛkṣakā) or a woman embracing a tree (śālabhañjīkā, dohada), which points to a close and intimate bond between women and trees. At the outset, I present the most important phases of the evolution of this popular motif from the ancient times to present days. Then two essential characteristics of nature recognized in Indian visual arts, literature, religions and (...)
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  38. Reflections on Understanding Violence.Jeffrey Benjamin White - 2012 - Biosemiotics 5 (3):439-444.
    Lorenzo Magnani’s Understanding Violence: The Intertwining of Morality, Religion and Violence is a big 23 book. Not big in the sense of page count or prepublication advertisement, but big in the sense of pregnant 24 with potential application. Professor Magnani is explicit in his intentions, “to show how violence is de facto 25 intertwined with morality, and how much violence is hidden, and invisibly or unintentionally performed" 26 (page 273) while confessing a personal motivation, “warning myself (and every reader) that (...)
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  39.  16
    Deepening the Automated Search for Gödel's Proofs.Adam Conkey - unknown
    Gödel's incompleteness theorems establish the stunning result that mathematics cannot be fully formalized and, further, that any formal system containing a modicum of number or set theory cannot establish its own consistency. Wilfried Sieg and Clinton Field, in their paper Automated Search for Gödel's Proofs, presented automated proofs of Gödel's theorems at an abstract axiomatic level; they used an appropriate expansion of the strategic considerations that guide the search of the automated theorem prover AProS. The representability conditions that allow the (...)
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