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  1. Accept Fate. [REVIEW]Paul van Els - 2009 - China Nu 34:46–47.
    van Els, Paul. "Aanvaard het lot" (Accept Fate). Review of De geschriften van Liezi: de taoïstische kunst van het relativeren, by Jan De Meyer. China Nu 34, no. 1 (2009): 46–47.
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  2. Methods of Doing Daoist Ethics: Analysis, Interpretation and Comparison.Dawei Zhang & Weijia Zeng - 2021 - Social Sciences in Yunnan 240 (2):69-76.
    In order to have an effective and reliable understanding of the basic moral concepts, moral propositions and moral reasoning in Daoist ethical thoughts, it is necessary to use the methods of doing philosophy and doing ethics to engage in research work, and thus draw an intellectual conclusion about Daoist ethics. The methods of Daoist ethics mainly include analysis, explanation and comparison. The method of analysis focuses on logical analysis and language analysis of moral language in the classic texts of Daoist (...)
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  3. On the Paradox of Wuwei - A Refutation and Defense of Daoist "Right Action".Dawei Zhang - 2021 - Philosophical Trends 202107 (7):115-125.
    Wuwei (nonaction) is one of the core concepts of Daoist ethics. Edward Slingerland pointed out that wuwei involves a paradox, and Arthur C. Danto questioned whether wuwei could support a genuine moral theory and the idea of right action. To defend Daoist ethics and its concept of right action, it is necessary to envisage Danto’s criticism and the problems raised by Slingerland. According to Ivanhoe, Wuwei is not a paradox, but a riddle or mystery about self-cultivation. He thinks that if (...)
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  4. Paul van Els, The Wenzi: Creativity and Intertextuality in Early Chinese Philosophy. [REVIEW]Mercedes Valmisa - 2019 - Monumenta Serica 67:556-560.
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  5. Gardens and the Good Life in Confucianism and Daoism.Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - In Laura D’Olimpio, Panos Paris & Aidan Thompson (eds.), Educating Character Through the Arts. London: Routledge.
    Creating and caring for a garden is a long-term project whose success requires commitment and devotion and love and proper performance of a range of activities that involve virtues and sensibilities like attentiveness, carefulness, humility, imaginativeness, and sensitivity to the natures and needs of plants and animals. In this chapter, I elaborate this conception of gardens and explore its relationship to artistic activities, like composing poetry or performing music. My focus are Confucianism and Daosim and their accounts of the relationships (...)
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  6. Coping with Incommensurable Pursuits: Rorty, Berlin, and the Confucian-Daoist Complementarity.Chenyang Li - 2009 - In Yong Huang (ed.), Rorty, Pragmatism, and Confucianism—with Responses by Richard Rorty. pp. 195-209.
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  7. 比较视域下的不可通约价值抉择:罗蒂模式、伯林模式与儒道互补.Qingjuan Sun & Chenyang Li - 2020 - 东南大学学报 22 (4):31-40.
    针对价值抉择难题存在不同的解决模式,以比较的视野检视几种有代表性 的模式,可以更加直观地展示它们的优缺点,从相对意义上凸显出当下存在的更为有效的 解决方案。 首先是罗蒂的自我实现与公民同胞等量齐观模式,此模式过于依赖个人与社 会两个领域的简单区分,同时也低估了不同诉求之间的张力;其次是伯林的不同价值体系 非此即彼模式,此模式夸大了不同价值体系的截然对立,错误地认为互有张力的价值不能 在同一价值体系里共存;最后是更具可行性的儒道互补模式,此模式重新解读儒道互补, 通过价值配置的方式解决了不可通约价值之间的张力问题,它允许多元价值体系的共存 和互补,从而有助于相辅相成地达成个人生活与社会的和谐。.
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  8. Daoism and Disability.Andrew Lambert - 2016 - In Darla Y. Schumm & Michael Stoltzfus (eds.), Disability and World Religions: An Introduction. Baylor University Press.
    Ideas found in the early Daoist texts can inform current debates about disability, since the latter often involve assumptions about personhood and agency that Daoist texts do not share. The two canonical texts of classical Daoism, the Daodejing and the Zhuangzi, do not explicitly discuss disability as an object of theory or offer a model of it. They do, however, provide conceptual resources that can enrich contemporary discussions of disability. Two particular ideas are discussed here. Classical Daoist thinking about the (...)
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  9. Interpreting Dao (道) Between ‘Way-Making’ and ‘Be-Wëgen’.Massimiliano Lacertosa - 2018 - In Gregory Bracken (ed.), Ancient and Modern Practices of Citizenship in Asia and the West: Care of the Self. Amsterdam, Paesi Bassi: pp. 103-120.
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  10. Hyperion as Daoist Masterpiece: Keats and the Daodejing.Joshua M. Hall - 2012 - Asian Philosophy 22 (3):225-237.
    It should come as little surprise to anyone familiar with his concept of ‘negative capability’ and even a cursory understanding of Daoism that John Keats’ thought resonates strongly with that tradition. Given the pervasive, reductive understanding of Keats as a mere Romantic, however, this source of insight has been used to little advantage. His poem Hyperion, for example, has been roundly criticized as an untidy Romantic fragment. Here, by contrast, I will argue for a strategic understanding of Hyperion as a (...)
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  11. Questioning Dao: Skepticism, Mysticism, and Ethics in the Zhuangzi.Eric Sean Nelson - 2008 - International Journal of the Asian Philosophical Association 1:5-19.
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  12. The Daodejing: Resources for Contemporary Feminist Thinking.Karyn Lai - 2000 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 27 (2):131–153.
    This paper explores the contribution of early Daoist thought to contemporary feminist philosophy. It has often been noted that the Daodejing stands in contrast to other texts of the same period in its positive evaluation of femininity and of values associated with the feminine. This paper takes a cautious approach to the Daoist concept of the feminine, noting in particular its emphasis on the characteristic of feminine submissiveness. On the other hand, the paper seeks to demonstrate that the Daoist treatment (...)
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  13. Hiding the World in the World: Uneven Discourses on the Zhuangzi.Eric Sean Nelson - 2005 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 32 (3):529–532.
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Laozi
  1. Echoes of the Dao.Paul van Els - 2007 - Het Trage Vuur 40:29–35.
    van Els, Paul. "Echo's van de Weg" (Echoes of the Dao). Dutch translation of Huainanzi chapter 12. Het Trage Vuur 40 (December 2007): 29–35.
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  2. The Philosophy of the Proto-Wenzi.Paul van Els - 2015 - In Xiaogan Liu (ed.), Dao Companion to Daoist Philosophy. New York, NY, USA: pp. 325–40.
    This paper presents the main aspects of the proto-Wenzi’s philosophy, with a focus on its intricate relationship with the Laozi. They show that the proto-Wenzi advocates a philosophy of quietude, not only in terms of its content, but also through the rhetoric it uses to create a harmonious synthesis of diverse, and at times even incompatible, ideas.
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  3. Persuasion Through Definition: Argumentative Features of the Ancient Wenzi.Paul van Els - 2006 - Oriens Extremus 45:211–34.
    This paper aims to reconstruct the politico-philosophical content of the Ancient Wenzi, according to three interrelated questions: How does the text communicate its views to the reader? What are its main ideas? When and where were these ideas first put to writing? Accordingly, after a discussion of preliminaria in section 1, section 2 focuses on the rhetorical devices in the text, section 3 on its key terms, and section 4 on its possible historical context. The goal of this paper is (...)
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  4. Tilting Vessels and Collapsing Walls: On the Rhetorical Function of Anecdotes in Early Chinese Texts.Paul van Els - 2012 - Extrême-Orient Extrême-Occident 34:141–66.
    Early Chinese argumentative texts are full of historical anecdotes. These short accounts of events in Chinese history enhance the appeal of the text, but they also have an important rhetorical function in helping the reader understand, accept, and remember the arguments propounded in the text. In this paper I examine the rhetorical function of historical anecdotes in two argumentative texts of the Western Han dynasty (202 BCE-9 CE): Han’s Illustrations of the Odes for Outsiders and The Master of Huainan. These (...)
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  5. The Soundscape of the Huainanzi: Poetry, Performance, Philosophy, and Praxis in Early China.Peter Tsung Kei Wong - 2022 - Early China 45:515-539.
    This article proposes that oral performance could be a philosophical activity in early China. The focus is on the Huainanzi, a densely rhymed philosophical treatise compiled by Liu An in the second century b.c.e. I show that the tome contains various sound-correlated poetic forms that are intended not only to enable textual performance but also, by means of aural mimesis, to encourage the intuitive understanding of its philosophical messages. Thus scholars of ancient poetry, philosophy, or intellectual history, despite being habituated (...)
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  6. Intertextuality and the Dao that Unifies Being and Nothing - Intertextual Rhetoric in Laozi’s Dao De Jing.Dawei Zhang - 2021 - Journal of Zhoukou Normal University 38 (6):60-66.
    Intertextuality (mutual illustration) is a common rhetorical device in ancient Chinese and has been used many times in Laozi (Dao Dejing). Intertextuality (mutual illustration) is of unique significance for understanding the linguistic structure and philosophical thoughts of Lao-zi. According to the current research on mutual illustration rhetoric on ancient Chinese, the forms of this rhetoric in Laozi can be divided into mutual illustration of single sentence, of multiple sentences and of ellipsis and antisense. There are only two references to mutual (...)
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  7. On Laozi's Body Philosophy from the Perspective of Perceptual Existence.Weijia Zeng & Dawei Zhang - 2021 - Journal of Laozi Studies 18 (2):3-12.
    From the perspective of perceptual ontology, Laozi criticizes the unnatural state in which the body is concealed in the perceptual social power and ethical relations, and advocates the perceptual liberation of the body. According to different subjects of the body, the covered body should be divided into people’s body and monarchs’ body. The body of the people is concealed in the rites and music, and could be liberated by resuming production; the body of the monarchs is covered in the excessive (...)
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  8. Dao as You? Dropping Proper Parthood in a Mereological Reconstruction of Daoist Metaphysics.Rafal Banka - 2022 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 49 (1):97-105.
    In this article, I discuss parthood status in mereologi- cally interpreted Daoist metaphysics, based on the Daodejing. I depart from the dao and you interrela- tion, which mereologically overlap by sharing parts. I consider the case of a complete overlap, which (a) challenges proper parthood, according to which a part cannot be identical with the whole that it com- poses, and (b) entails the question of identity that, while complying with classical mereology, cannot be consis- tent with Daoist metaphysics. The (...)
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  9. Trans-Cultural Journeys of East-Asian Educators: The Impact of the Three Teachings.Nguyen Hoang Giang-Le, Chieh-Tai Hsiao & Youmi Heo - 2020 - International Journal for Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education 11 (1):4201-4210.
    This paper presents the joint journeys, from the East to the West, of three emerging educators, who reflect on their lived experiences in an Asian educational context and their shaped identities through a connection between the motherland and the places to which they immigrated. They have grounded their identities in the inequities they experienced in Asian education and described their experiences through a cultural and social lens as Asian teachers studying in Canadian institutions. They story their lived experiences by using (...)
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  10. Critical Analysis of the Philosophical Conception of Dao in Laozi's Daodejing and Being in Heidegger's “Being and Time”.Lucian Green - manuscript
    That dao and being are correct as written about by Laozi and Heidegger respectively is exposed through eight focal points.
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  11. Critical Analysis of the Philosophical Conception of Verification of Being/the Self in Heidegger's “Being and Time” Against Dao/the Other in Laozi's Daodejing.Lucian Green - 2015 - Best Thinking.
    That dao and being are correct as written about by Laozi and Heidegger respectively is exposed through eight perspectives.
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  12. A Daoist Model For A Kantian Church.Stephen R. Palmquist - 2013 - Comparative Philosophy 4 (2):67-89.
    Although significant differences undoubtedly exist between Daoism and Kant’s philosophy, the two systems also have some noteworthy similarities. After calling attention to a few such parallels and sketching the outlines of Kant’s philosophy of religion, this article focuses on an often-neglected feature of the latter: the four guiding principles of what Kant calls an “invisible church”. Numerous passages from Lao Zi’s classic text, Dao-De-Jing, seem to uphold these same principles, thus suggesting that they can also be interpreted as core features (...)
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  13. A Daoist Critique of Searle on Mind and Action.Joel Krueger - 2008 - In Bo Mou (ed.), Searle’s Philosophy and Chinese Philosophy: Constructive Engagement. Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 97-123.
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  14. Ecstatic Language of Early Daoism: A Sufi Point of View.Esmaeil Radpour - 2015 - Transcendent Philosophy Journal 16:213-230.
    Various esoteric traditions apply different modes of expression for the same metaphysical truths. We may name the two most known esoteric languages as ecstatic and scholastic. Early Daoist use of reverse symbolism as for metaphysical truths and its critical way of viewing formalist understanding of traditional teachings, common virtues and popular beliefs show that it applies an ecstatic language, which, being called shaṭḥ in Sufi terminology, has a detailed literature and technical description in Sufism. This article tries, after a short (...)
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  15. Typology of Nothing: Heidegger, Daoism and Buddhism.Zhihua Yao - 2010 - Comparative Philosophy 1 (1):78-89.
    Parmenides expelled nonbeing from the realm of knowledge and forbade us to think or talk about it. But still there has been a long tradition of nay-sayings throughout the history of Western and Eastern philosophy. Are those philosophers talking about the same nonbeing or nothing? If not, how do their concepts of nothing differ from each other? Could there be different types of nothing? Surveying the traditional classifications of nothing or nonbeing in the East and West have led me to (...)
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  16. Inference in the Mengzi 1a: 7.Koji Tanaka - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (3):444-454.
    In 1A:7 of the Mengzi, Mengzi tries to convince King Xuan of Qi that he is a “true” king. As a reading of Mengzi’s reasoning involved in his attempt at persuasion, David Nivison advances an inferential view, according to which Mengzi’s persuasion involves inferences. In this paper, I consider the assumptions underlying the objections raised against Nivison’s inferential view. I argue that these objections assume a contemporary Western view about the nature of logic and inferences. I propose an alternative characterisation (...)
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  17. Complementarity as a Model for East-West Integrative Philosophy.Robert E. Allinson - 1998 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 25 (4):505-517.
    The discovery of a letter in the Niels Bohr archives written by Bohr to a Danish schoolteacher in which he reveals his early knowledge of the Daodejing led the present author on a search to unveil the influence of the philosophy of Yin-Yang on Bohr's famed complementarity principle in Western physics. This paper recounts interviews with his son, Hans, who recalls Bohr reading a translated copy of Laozi, as well as Hanna Rosental, close friend and associate who also confirms the (...)
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  18. Knowing Through the Body: The Daodejing and Dewey.Joel W. Krueger - 2009 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 36 (1):31-52.
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  19. Wittgenstein, Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu: The Art of Circumlocution.Robert Elliott Allinson - 2007 - Asian Philosophy 17 (1):97 – 108.
    Where Western philosophy ends, with the limits of language, marks the beginning of Eastern philosophy. The Tao de jing of Laozi begins with the limitations of language and then proceeds from that as a starting point. On the other hand, the limitation of language marks the end of Wittgenstein's cogitations. In contrast to Wittgenstein, who thought that one should remain silent about that which cannot be put into words, the message of the Zhuangzi is that one can speak about that (...)
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Zhuangzi
  1. Genealogy as Meditation and Adaptation with the Han Feizi.Lee Wilson - 2022 - The Monist 105 (4):452-469.
    This paper focuses on an early Chinese conception of genealogical argumentation in the late Warring States text Han Feizi and a possible response it has to the problem of genealogical self-defeat as identified by Amia Srinivasan —i.e., the genealogist cannot seem to support their argument with premises their interlocutor or they themselves can accept, given their own argument. The paper offers a reading of Han Fei’s genealogical method that traces back to the meditative practice of an earlier Daoist text the (...)
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  2. Ripensare l’esperienza estetica attraverso lo Zhuangzi.Massimiliano Lacertosa - 2022 - Rivista di Estetica 20:65–79.
    In this paper I consider two different perspectives on aesthetic experience. On the one hand, there is the tradition of Plato that proposes a metaphysical representation of the world in which sensible and over-sensible are rigidly separated. On the other hand, the early Chinese tradition of Daoism suggests an undivided experience of the world in which the aesthetic engagement with the myriad things (wanwu 萬物) makes actions effective. In particular, I consider how the Zhuangzi, one of the main books of (...)
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  3. The Soundscape of the Huainanzi: Poetry, Performance, Philosophy, and Praxis in Early China.Peter Tsung Kei Wong - 2022 - Early China 45:515-539.
    This article proposes that oral performance could be a philosophical activity in early China. The focus is on the Huainanzi, a densely rhymed philosophical treatise compiled by Liu An in the second century b.c.e. I show that the tome contains various sound-correlated poetic forms that are intended not only to enable textual performance but also, by means of aural mimesis, to encourage the intuitive understanding of its philosophical messages. Thus scholars of ancient poetry, philosophy, or intellectual history, despite being habituated (...)
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  4. Positive Psychology and Philosophy-as-Usual: An Unhappy Match?Josef Mattes - 2022 - Philosophies 7 (3):52.
    The present article critiques standard attempts to make philosophy appear relevant to the scientific study of well-being, drawing examples in particular from works that argue for fundamental differences between different forms of wellbeing, and claims concerning the supposedly inherent normativity of wellbeing research. Specifically, it is argued that philosophers in at least some relevant cases fail to apply what is often claimed to be among their core competences: conceptual rigor—not only in dealing with the psychological construct of flow, but also (...)
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  5. Book Review: The Sense of Antirationalism: The Religious Thought of Zhuangzi and Kierkegaard. [REVIEW]Robert Allinson - 2003 - Journal of Religion 83:477-479.
    This book is co-written in a lively, engaging form by Karen Carr, from the discipline of religious studies and Philip Ivanhoe, whose background is in the disciplines of religious studies and Asian languages and philosophy. Unlike typical co-authorship, these two authors write separate pieces about Zhuangzi and Soren Kierkegaard and then together offer a combined vision. Refreshingly, the emphasis is on contrast of exemplars of two different and irreconcilable ways instead of comparison between similar thinkers. The two authors are to (...)
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  6. A Never-Stable Word: Zhuangzi’s Zhiyan and ‘Tipping-Vessel’ Irrigation.Daniel Fried - 2007 - Early China 31:145-70.
    The article uses sinological and archaeological research to highlight the origins of the term "goblet words" (zhiyan 卮言) in Zhuangzi, and then offers a philosophical reading of the nature of the trope in the context of Zhuangzi's linguistic skepticism.
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  7. On Becoming a Rooster: Zhuangzian Conventionalism and the Survival of Death.Michael Tze-Sung Longenecker - 2022 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 21 (1):61-79.
    The Zhuangzi 莊子 depicts persons as surviving their deaths through the natural transformations of the world into very different forms—such as roosters, cart-wheels, rat livers, and so on. It is common to interpret these passages metaphorically. In this essay, however, I suggest employing a “Conventionalist” view of persons that says whether a person survives some event is not merely determined by the world, but is partly determined by our own attitudes. On this reading, Zhuangzi’s many teachings urging us to embrace (...)
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  8. The Unskilled Zhuangzi: Big and Useless and Not So Good at Catching Rats.Eric Schwitzgebel - 2019 - In Skill and Mastery Philosophical Stories from the Zhuangzi. London, UK: pp. 101-110.
    The mainstream tradition in recent Anglophone Zhuangzi interpretation treats spontaneous skillful responsiveness – similar to the spontaneous responsiveness of a skilled artisan, athlete, or musician – as a, or the, Zhuangzian ideal. However, this interpretation is poorly grounded in the Inner Chapters. On the contrary, in the Inner Chapters, this sort of skillfulness is at least as commonly criticized as celebrated. Even the famous passage about the ox-carving cook might be interpreted more as a celebration of the knife’s passivity than (...)
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  9. Beyond Our Control? Two Responses to Uncertainty and Fate in Early China.Mercedes Valmisa - 2015 - In Livia Kohn (ed.), New Visions of the Zhuangzi. St. Petersburg, FL, USA: pp. 1-22.
    The first contribution, by Mercedes Valmisa, begins by repositioning the Zhuangzi 莊子 as a whole within pre-Qin thought under the impact of newly excavated materials. Moving away from the traditional classification of texts according to schools, it focuses instead on varying approaches to life issues. Centering the discussion on life situations and changes we have no control over, including the unpredictable vagaries of fate (ming 命), it outlines several typical responses. One is adaptation, finding ways to go along with what (...)
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  10. Freedom and Agency in the Zhuangzi: Navigating Life’s Constraints.Karyn Lai - 2021 - Tandf: British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-21.
    The Zhuangzi, a 4th century BCE Chinese text, is optimistic about life unrestrained by entrenched values. This paper contributes to existing debates on Zhuangzian freedom in three ways. First, it reflects on how it is possible to enjoy the freedom envisaged in the Zhuangzi. Many discussions welcome the Zhuangzi’s picture of release from life shaped by canonical visions, without also giving thought to life without these driving visions. Consider this scenario: in a world with limitless possibilities, would it not be (...)
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  11. “庄子‘道通为一’新探” (A New Interpretation of Zhuangzi’s “Dao as One”).Chenyang Li - 2013 - 哲学研究 2:54-58.
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  12. Skill and Expertise in Three Schools of Classical Chinese Thought.Hagop Sarkissian - 2020 - In Ellen Fridland & Carlotta Pavese (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Skill and Expertise. Routledge. pp. 40-52.
    The classical Chinese philosophical tradition (ca. 6th to 3rd centuries BCE) contains rich discussion of skill and expertise. Various texts exalt skilled exemplars (whether historical persons or fictional figures) who guide and inspire those seeking virtuosity within a particular dao (guiding teaching or way of life). These texts share a preoccupation with flourishing, or uncovering and articulating the constituents of an exemplary life. Some core features thought requisite to leading such a life included spontaneity, naturalness, and effortless ease. However, there (...)
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  13. Happiness for a Fish: Zhuāngzǐ and Huizi at the Hao River.Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - In Helen De Cruz (ed.), Philosophy Illustrated: Forty-two Thought Experiments to Broaden your Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    I discuss the famous 'happiness for a fish' exchange between Zhuāngzǐ and Huizi.
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  14. The Cicada Catcher: Learning for Life.Karyn L. Lai - 2019 - In Karyn L. Lai & Wai-wai Chiu (eds.), Skill and Mastery Philosophical Stories from the Zhuangzi. UK: Rowman and Littlefield International. pp. 143 - 162.
    The cicada catcher focuses as much on technique as he does on outcomes. In response to Confucius’ question, he articulates in detail the learning he has undertaken to develop techniques at each level of competence. This chapter explains the connection between the cicada catcher’s development of technique and his orientation toward outcomes. It uses details in this story to contribute to recent discussions in epistemology on the cultivation of technique.
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  15. Zhuangzi's Suggestiveness: Skeptical Questions.Karyn L. Lai - 2017 - In Stephen Hetherington (ed.), What Makes a Philosopher Great? London and NY: Routledge. pp. 30-47.
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  16. Environmental Concern: Can Humans Avoid Being Partial? Epistemological Awareness in the Zhuangzi.Karyn L. Lai - 2013 - In Carmen Meinert (ed.), Nature, Environment and Culture in East Asia: The Challenge of Climate Change. Brill. pp. 69-82.
    Discussions of human partiality—anthropocentrism—in the literature in environmental ethics have sought to locate reasons for unnecessary and thoughtless degradation of the earth’s environment. Many of the debates have focused on metaethical issues, attempting to set out the values appropriate for an environmental ethic not constrained within an anthropocentric framework. In this essay, I propose that the fundamental problem with anthropocentrism arises when it is assumed that that is the only meaningful evaluative perspective. I draw on ideas in the Zhuangzi, a (...)
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  17. ‘Following the Way of Heaven’: Exemplarism, Emulation, and Daoism.Ian James Kidd - 2020 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 6 (1):1-15.
    Many ancient traditions recognise certain people as exemplars of virtue. I argue that some of these traditions incorporate a 'cosmic' mode of emulation, where certain of the qualities or aspects of the grounds or source of the world manifest, in human form, as virtues. If so, the ultimate objection of emulation is not a human being. I illustrate this with the forms of Daoist exemplarity found in the Book of Zhuangzi, and end by considering the charge that the aspiration to (...)
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  18. A Pluralist Account of Spiritual Exemplarity.Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - In Tyler McNabb & Victoria S. Harrison (eds.), Philosophy and the Spiritual Life. Routledge.
    This Chapter sketches a pluralist account of spiritual exemplarity. Starting from recent work by Linda Zagzebski, three main kinds of spiritual exemplarity are described, distinguished by their underlying aspiration. I name these the aspirations to allegiance, enlightened insight, and emulation, illustrated with examples from the Western and South and East Asian spiritual dispensations. The Chapter concludes by warning against tendencies either to occlude this plurality or to illicitly privilege one of these aspirations by nominating it alone as the 'authentic' form (...)
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