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  1. Ebert on Boghossian’s Template and Transmission Failure.Alessia Marabini & Luca Moretti - manuscript
    Boghossian (1996) has put forward an interesting explanation of how we can acquire logical knowledge via implicit definitions that makes use of a special template. Ebert (2005) has argued that the template is unserviceable, as it doesn't transmit warrant. In this paper, we defend the template. We first suggest that Jenkins (2008)’s response to Ebert fails because it focuses on doxastic rather than propositional warrant. We then reject Ebert’s objection by showing that it depends on an implausible and incoherent assumption.
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  2. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions Are Converse Relations.Matheus Silva - manuscript
    According to the so-called ‘standard theory’ of conditions, the conditionship relation is converse, that is, if A is a sufficient condition for B, B is a necessary condition for A. This theory faces well-known counterexamples that appeal to both causal and other asymmetric considerations. I show that these counterexamples lose their plausibility once we clarify two key components of the standard theory: that to satisfy a condition is to instantiate a property, and that what is usually called ‘conditionship relation’ is (...)
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  3. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions.Michael Shaffer - forthcoming - In Introduction to Logic. Rebus.
    This chapter introduces and discusses the concepts of necessary and sufficient conditions.
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  4. Paradoxical Hypodoxes.Alexandre Billon - 2019 - Synthese 196 (12):5205-5229.
    Most paradoxes of self-reference have a dual or ‘hypodox’. The Liar paradox (Lr = ‘Lr is false’) has the Truth-Teller (Tt = ‘Tt is true’). Russell’s paradox, which involves the set of sets that are not self-membered, has a dual involving the set of sets which are self-membered, etc. It is widely believed that these duals are not paradoxical or at least not as paradoxical as the paradoxes of which they are duals. In this paper, I argue that some paradox’s (...)
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  5. A Context Principle for the Twenty-First Century.Fabrizio Cariani - 2018 - In Annalisa Coliva, Paolo Leonardi & Sebastiano Moruzzi (eds.), Eva Picardi on Language, Analysis and History. Palgrave. pp. 183-203.
    Taking a lead from Eva Picardi’s work and influence, I investigate the significance of Frege’s context principle for the philosophy of language. I argue that there are some interpretive problems with recent meta-semantic interpretations of the principle. Instead, I offer a somewhat weaker alternative: the context principle is a tool to license certain definitions. Moreover, I claim that it merely lays out one of many possible ways of licensing a definition. This means, among other things, that despite Frege’s imperative injunctions, (...)
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  6. Goodman e o projeto de uma definição construtiva de “indução válida”.Eros Moreira de Carvalho - 2018 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 22 (3):439-460.
    In Fact, Fiction and Forecast, Nelson Goodman claims that the problem of justifying induction is not something over and above the problem of describing valid induction. Such claim, besides suggesting his commitment to the collapse of the distinction between the context of description and the context of justification, seems to open the possibility that the new riddle of induction could be addressed empirically. Discoveries about psychological preferences for projecting certain classes of objects could function as a criterion for determining which (...)
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  7. Boghossian's Template and Transmission Failure.Alessia Marabini & Luca Moretti - 2018 - Al Mukhatabat 26:71-90.
    Within his overarching program aiming to defend an epistemic conception of analyticity, Boghossian (1996 and 1997) has offered a clear-cut explanation of how we can acquire a priori knowledge of logical truths and logical rules through implicit definition. The explanation is based on a special template or general form of argument. Ebert (2005) has argued that an enhanced version of this template is flawed because a segment of it is unable to transmit warrant from its premises to the conclusion. This (...)
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  8. What is Power Sharing? Consociationalism, Centripetalism, and Hybrid Power Sharing.Krzysztof Trzcinski - 2018 - Studia Polityczne 46 (3):9-30.
    In this article, the author analyzes the term "power-sharing" in the context of power exercised within a state. He first examines the term in the very general sense, in which it can be applied to all types and dimensions of sharing of power between various groups and institutional entities. Second, the author examines the meaning of the term in the narrow sense, that is, the phenomenon of systemic sharing of power by groups (segments) whose membership is based on ascribed criteria (...)
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  9. Devious Stipulations.John Horden - 2017 - Oxford Studies in Metaphysics 10.
    Recent attempts to answer ontological questions through conceptual analysis have been controversial. Still, it seems reasonable to assume that if the existence of certain things analytically follows from sentences we already accept, then there is no further ontological commitment involved in affirming the existence of those things. More generally, it is plausible that whenever a sentence analytically entails another, the conjunction of those sentences requires nothing more of the world for its truth than the former sentence alone. In his ‘Analyticity (...)
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  10. Guidelines for Writing Definitions in Ontologies.Selja Seppälä, Alan Ruttenberg & Barry Smith - 2017 - Ciência da Informação 46 (1): 73-88.
    Ontologies are being used increasingly to promote the reusability of scientific information by allowing heterogeneous data to be integrated under a common, normalized representation. Definitions play a central role in the use of ontologies both by humans and by computers. Textual definitions allow ontologists and data curators to understand the intended meaning of ontology terms and to use these terms in a consistent fashion across contexts. Logical definitions allow machines to check the integrity of ontologies and reason over data annotated (...)
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  11. The Functions of Definitions in Ontologies.Selja Seppälä, Alan Ruttenberg, & Barry Smith - 2016 - In R. Ferrario & W. Kuhn (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference (FOIS 2016). IOS Pres. pp. 37-50.
    To understand what ontologies do through their definitions, we propose a theoretical explanation of the functions of definitions in ontologies backed by empirical neuropsychological studies. Our goal is to show how these functions should motivate (i) the systematic inclusion of definitions in ontologies and (ii) the adaptation of definition content and form to the specific context of use of ontologies.
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  12. Definitions in Ontologies.Selja Seppälä, Alan Ruttenberg, Yonatan Schreiber & Barry Smith - 2016 - Cahiers de Lexicologie 109 (2):175‐207.
    Definitions vary according to context of use and target audience. They must be made relevant for each context to fulfill their cognitive and linguistic goals. This involves adapting their logical structure, type of content, and form to each context of use. We examine from these perspectives the case of definitions in ontologies.
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  13. Czym jest stabilność polityczna państwa?Krzysztof Trzcinski - 2015 - Przegląd Politologiczny 2:37-47.
    [WHAT IS POLITICAL STABILITY?] Artykuł traktuje o problemie definiowania pojęcia „stabilność polityczna” państwa. Głównym jego celem jest odpowiedź na pytanie, co znaczy stwierdzenie, że dane państwo jest stabilne politycznie. Artykuł składa się z czterech części. W pierwszej wyjaśniany jest leksykalny sens słów: „stabilny”, „stabilność” i „stabilizacja”. W drugiej części analizowane jest rozumienie znaczenia terminu „stabilność polityczna” w piśmiennictwie politologicznym. Trzecia część artykułu poświęcona jest omówieniu kwantytatywnych prób ujmowania sensu pojęcia stabilności politycznej. W zakończeniu podjęta została próba zdefiniowania przedmiotowego terminu polegająca (...)
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  14. La concezione epistemica dell'analiticità.Alessia Marabini - 2014 - Aracne editrice.
    La rinascita negli ultimi decenni di un nutrito dibattito intorno alla nozione di analiticità dopo le critiche a suo tempo mosse da Quine alla batteria di nozioni utilizzate da Rudolf Carnap (ad esempio, postulati di significato, regole semantiche, definizioni implicite, convenzioni e stipulazioni esplicite) prende le mosse da una riflessione critica sulle argomentazioni di Quine e tenta, da un lato, di approfondire meglio il legame fra analiticità e conoscenza a priori, e, dall’altro, di capire meglio il ruolo che la definizione (...)
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  15. Introduction to the Logic of Definitions.Barry Smith - 2013 - In International Workshop on Definitions in Ontologies, organized in conjunction with the Fourth International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO), Montreal, July 7, 2013, (CEUR, 1061). pp. 1-2.
    What follows is a summary of basic principles pertaining to the definitions used in constructing an ontology. A definition is a statement of necessary and sufficient conditions. What this means in the simplest case can be understood as follows. To say that ɸ‐ing is a necessary condition for being an A is just another way of saying that every A ɸ’s; to say that ɸ‐ing is a sufficient condition for being an A is just another way of saying that everything (...)
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  16. The Contingent a Priori and the Publicity of a Priori Knowledge.Daniel Z. Korman - 2010 - Philosophical Studies 149 (3):387 - 393.
    Kripke maintains that one who stipulatively introduces the term ' one meter' as a rigid designator for the length of a certain stick s at time t is in a position to know a priori that if s exists at t then the length of s at t is one meter. Some (e.g., Soames 2003) have objected to this alleged instance of the contingent a priori on the grounds that the stipulator's knowledge would have to be based in part on (...)
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  17. Truth, Ramsification, and the Pluralist's Revenge.Cory Wright - 2010 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (2):265–283.
    Functionalists about truth employ Ramsification to produce an implicit definition of the theoretical term _true_, but doing so requires determining that the theory introducing that term is itself true. A variety of putative dissolutions to this problem of epistemic circularity are shown to be unsatisfactory. One solution is offered on functionalists' behalf, though it has the upshot that they must tread on their anti-pluralist commitments.
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  18. An Improved Ontological Representation of Dendritic Cells as a Paradigm for All Cell Types.Anna Maria Masci, Cecilia N. Arighi, Alexander D. Diehl, Anne E. Liebermann, Chris Mungall, Richard H. Scheuermann, Barry Smith & Lindsay Cowell - 2009 - BMC Bioinformatics 10 (1):70.
    Recent increases in the volume and diversity of life science data and information and an increasing emphasis on data sharing and interoperability have resulted in the creation of a large number of biological ontologies, including the Cell Ontology (CL), designed to provide a standardized representation of cell types for data annotation. Ontologies have been shown to have significant benefits for computational analyses of large data sets and for automated reasoning applications, leading to organized attempts to improve the structure and formal (...)
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  19. A Definition of Necessity.George Bealer - 2006 - Philosophical Perspectives 20 (1):17–39.
    In the history of philosophy, especially its recent history, a number of definitions of necessity have been ventured. Most people, however, find these definitions either circular or subject to counterexamples. I will show that, given a broadly Fregean conception of properties, necessity does indeed have a noncircular counterexample-free definition.
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  20. Obywatelstwo w Europie. Idea i jej wyraz formalny w perspektywie historycznej.Krzysztof Trzcinski - 2002 - Studia Europejskie 2:45-67.
    Obywatelstwo należy do najistotniejszych kategorii określających pozycję człowieka w państwie. W niektórych okresach dziejów pojęcie obywatelstwa istniało jedynie w sferze idei, w innych idea uległa urzeczywistnieniu, a członkostwo w państwie (lub mieście) oraz status obywatelski znalazły formalny wyraz na niwie prawnoustrojowej. Kształtowanie się obywatelstwa stanowi proces długi i wielofazowy. Obywatelstwo w Europie pozostaje bowiem już od starożytności w stanie permanentnego rozwoju i wciąż wzbogacane jest o nowe treści (lub też czasem zubożane o pewne elementy); tym niemniej jego rdzeń, nakreślony w (...)
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  21. In Defense of Definitions.David Pitt - 1999 - Philosophical Psychology 12 (2):139-156.
    The arguments of Fodor, Garret, Walker and Parkes [(1980) Against definitions, Cognition, 8, 263-367] are the source of widespread skepticism in cognitive science about lexical semantic structure. Whereas the thesis that lexical items, and the concepts they express, have decompositional structure (i.e. have significant constituents) was at one time "one of those ideas that hardly anybody [in the cognitive sciences] ever considers giving up" (p. 264), most researchers now believe that "[a]ll the evidence suggests that the classical [(decompositional)] view is (...)
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  22. Truth and Circular Definitions. [REVIEW]Francesco Orilia & Achille C. Varzi - 1996 - Minds and Machines 6 (1):124–129.
    This original and enticing book provides a fresh, unifying perspective on many old and new logico-philosophical conundrums. Its basic thesis is that many concepts central in ordinary and philosophical discourse are inherently circular and thus cannot be fully understood as long as one remains within the confines of a standard theory of definitions. As an alternative, the authors develop a revision theory of definitions, which allows definitions to be circular without this giving rise to contradiction (but, at worst, to “vacuous” (...)
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  23. Remarks on Classical Analysis.George Bealer - 1983 - Journal of Philosophy 80 (11):711-712.
    Abstract of a paper to be presented in an APA symposium on Classical Analysis, December 30, 1983, commenting on a paper by Ernest Sosa.
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  24. Discussion: The Truth and Falsity of Definitions.Rem B. Edwards - 1966 - Philosophy of Science 33 (1/2):76.
    This article examines several answers to the question, can lexical definitions be true or false.
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  25. Das Normative Moment im Bedeutungsbegriff.Erik Ahlman - 1926 - In Suomalaisen Tiedeakatemian toimituksia. Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae. Ser. B. Sarja B. Helsinki: Finnish Academy. pp. 1-93.
    In der Wissenschaft wie im alltaglichen Leben tritt oft die Frage vor uns: was ist die Bedeutung dieses oder jenes Ausdrucks? Eine erschöpfende Antwort auch nur in einem Einzelfalle ist jedoch unmöglich, ehe die dahinter verborgene allgemeinere prinzipielle Frage gelost ist: was ist überhaupt Bedeutung, was wird darunter verstanden resp. was ist darunter zu verstehen? Die Sprachphilosophie und Sprachforschung der letzten Zeit hat sich reichlich damit abgemüht, den Begriff Bedeutung in seinem Wesen zu erfassen. Jedoch sind wir der Meinung, dass (...)
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  26. Nothingness-Definition Antinomy Analysis.Berke Nihat Akay - manuscript
    Trying to define nothingness has always been a challenge for philosophers. What exactly is it? Does it share properties similar to spaces? Can we treat it as a ''thing'' ? We can say an object is inside nothingness, but how do we imagine that ''containment'' ?
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