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  1. Situating Hegel: From Transcendental Philosophy to a Phenomenology of Spirit.Michael Baur - forthcoming - In Kenneth Westphal & Marian Bykova (eds.), The Palgrave Hegel Handbook. New York, NY:
    Michael Baur, "Situating Hegel: From Transcendental Philosophy to a Phenomenology of Spirit," in the Palgrave Hegel Handbook, edited by Marian Bykova and Kenneth Westphal (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020).
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  2. Religion and Early German Romanticism.Jacqueline Mariña - forthcoming - In Elizabeth Millan (ed.), Palgrave Handbook of German Romantic Philosophy.
    This paper explores the reception of Kant's understanding of consciousness by both Romantics and Idealists from 1785 to 1799, and traces its impact on the theory of religion. I first look at Kant's understanding of consciousness as developed in the first Critique, and then looks at how figures such as Fichte, Jacobi, Hölderlin, Novalis, and Schleiermacher received this theory of consciousness and its implications for their understanding of religion.
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  3. Kant and the Fate of Freedom: 1788-1800.Owen Ware - forthcoming - In Joe Saunders (ed.), Freedom After Kant. London, UK:
    Kant’s early readers were troubled by the appearance of a dilemma facing his theory of freedom. On the one hand, if we explain human actions according to laws or rules, then we risk reducing the activity of the will to necessity (the horn of determinism). But, on the other hand, if we explain human actions without laws or rules, then we face an equally undesirable outcome: that reducing the will’s activity to mere chance (the horn of indeterminism). After providing an (...)
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  4. Kant on Freedom.Owen Ware - forthcoming - Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.
    Kant’s early critics maintained that his theory of freedom faces a dilemma: either it reduces the will’s activity to strict necessity by making it subject to the causality of the moral law, or it reduces the will’s activity to blind chance by liberating it from rules of any kind. This Element offers a new interpretation and defense of Kant’s theory against the backdrop of this controversy. It argues that Kant was a consistent proponent of the claim that the moral law (...)
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  5. Hiatus Irrationalis: Lask’s Fateful Misreading of Fichte.G. Anthony Bruno - 2022 - European Journal of Philosophy 30 (3):977-995.
    ‘Facticity’ is a concept that classical phenomenologists like Heidegger use to denote the radically contingent or underivably brute conditions of intelligibility. Yet Fichte coins the term, to which he gives the opposing use of denoting unacceptably brute conditions of intelligibility. For him, radical contingency is a problem to be solved by deriving such conditions from reason. Heidegger rejects Fichte's recoil from facticity with his hermeneutics of facticity, supplanting Fichte's metaphor of our always being in reason's hand with the metaphor of (...)
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  6. The Conceptual Origin of Worldview in Kant and Fichte.Alexander T. Englert - 2022 - Journal of Transcendental Philosophy 3:1-24.
    Kant and Fichte developed the concept of a worldview as a way of reflecting on experience as a whole. But what does it mean to form a worldview? And what role did it play in the German Idealist tradition? This paper seeks to answer these questions through a detailed analysis of the form of a philosophical worldview and its historical portent, both of which remain unexplored in the literature. The dearth of attention is partially to blame on Kant’s desultory development (...)
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  7. The Human Vocation and the Question of the Earth: Karoline von Günderrode’s Philosophy of Nature.Dalia Nassar - 2022 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 104 (1):108-130.
    Contra widespread readings of Karoline von Günderrode’s 1805 “Idea of the Earth ” as a creative adaptation of Schelling’s philosophy of nature, this article proposes that “Idea of the Earth” furnishes a moral account of the human relation to the natural world, one which does not map onto any of the more well-known romantic or idealist accounts of the human-nature relation. Specifically, I argue that “Idea of the Earth” responds to the great Enlightenment question concerning the human vocation, but from (...)
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  8. Art, Authenticity, and Understanding.David Suarez - 2022 - In Jens Pier (ed.), Limits of Intelligibility: Issues from Kant and Wittgenstein. Routledge.
    Early 20th century debates over the possibility of ‘metaphysics’ are grounded in a set of questions and answers whose central themes are already delineated in Kant’s critical philosophy. Wittgenstein and Carnap are sympathetic to Kant’s dismissal of transcendent metaphysics, but skeptical that there could be any substantive account of the fundamental conditions of our meaning-making. By contrast, Heidegger follows Fichte and the early German Romantics in seeing answers to the problems raised by metacritique not in science, but in the non-discursive (...)
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  9. Any Colour You Like: The Interplay of Fichte’s ‘I’, ‘Not-I’, and Anstoß.James Ternent - 2022 - Fichte-Studien 51 (2):441-462.
    In this paper, I explore two differing conceptions of J.G. Fichte’s Anstoß and how it relates to his Transcendental ‘I’, the ground of his Wissenschaftslehre. I argue that one should not attempt to read later interpretations of the Anstoß back into his earlier definition, but find that attempts to tread a middle way between the original and later interpretations have thus far been equally unsuccessful. Instead, I suggest a new way of interpreting the Anstoß as a constituent component of the (...)
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  10. Jörg Noller and John Walsh (eds.), Kant's Early Critics on Freedom of the Will[REVIEW]Aaron Wells - 2022 - Kantian Review 27 (4):673-677.
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  11. My Duty and the Morality of Others: Lying, Truth, and the Good Example in Fichte’s Normative Perfectionism.Stefano Bacin - 2021 - In Stefano Bacin & Owen Ware (eds.), Fichte’s System of Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 201-220.
    The aim of the paper is to shed light on some of the most original elements of Fichte’s conception of morality as expressed in his account of specific obligations. After some remarks on Fichte’s original classification of ethical duties, the paper focuses on the prohibition of lying, the duty to communicate our true knowledge, and the duty to set a good example. Fichte’s account of those duties not only goes beyond the mere justification of universally acknowledged demands, but also deploys (...)
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  12. Facticity and Genesis: Tracking Fichte’s Method in the Berlin Wissenschaftslehre.G. Anthony Bruno - 2021 - Fichte-Studien 49:177-97.
    The concept of facticity denotes conditions of experience whose necessity is not logical yet whose contingency is not empirical. Although often associated with Heidegger, Fichte coins ‘facticity’ in his Berlin period to refer to the conclusion of Kant’s metaphysical deduction of the categories, which he argues leaves it a contingent matter that we have the conditions of experience that we do. Such rhapsodic or factical conditions, he argues, must follow necessarily, independent of empirical givenness, from the I through a process (...)
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  13. Knot of the World: German Idealism between Annihilation and Construction.Kirill Chepurin - 2021 - In Kirill Chepurin & Alex Dubilet (eds.), Nothing Absolute: German Idealism and the Question of Political Theology. New York City, New York, USA: Fordham University Press. pp. 35-53.
    Through an analysis of the ultimate telos of the world and of the subject’s striving in Schelling, the late Fichte, and Friedrich Schlegel—as well as via such concepts as the absolute, bliss, nothingness, God, chaos, and irony—this essay reconfigures German Idealism and Romanticism as spanning the conceptual space between two poles, world-annihilation and world-construction, and traces the ways in which these thinkers attempted to resolve what this essay calls the "transcendental knot," or to think the way the world is without (...)
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  14. The Struggle is Real: An Exploration of 19th Century Notions of Striving, Dialectic, and General Unrest.Dustin Gray - 2021 - Dialogue: Journal of Phi Sigma Tau 63 (2-3):160-7.
    In the comprehension of many 19th century European philosophers, there seems ever present in much of the work, a shared notion of struggle. This notion seems mainly to arise within the confines of human consciousness. The notion of struggle is in fact pervasive in contemporary thought as well, and could simply be inherent to human nature. However, I will maintain specific focus on the notion of struggle as brought to light by a sampling of works by three relevant 19th century (...)
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  15. A Reason to Know.Olof Leffler - 2021 - Journal of Value Inquiry:1-19.
    It is often thought that desire-based versions of reasons internalism, according to which our practical reasons depend on what we desire, are committed to denying that we have any categorical reasons. I shall argue, however, that such theories are committed to a universal desire which gives rise to an unexpected categorical reason – a reason to know our surroundings. I will arrive at this conclusion by using Fichte’s argument for thinking that security from unpredictable and powerful forces of nature is (...)
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  16. The Thought of a Principle: Rödl’s Fichteanism.Bruno G. Anthony - 2020 - In Marina Bykova (ed.), The Bloomsbury Handbook to Fichte. Bloomsbury.
    Sebastian Rödl portrays much of his work as attempts at articulating a German idealist view of self-consciousness. Although he rarely engages directly with German idealist texts, his accounts of first-person and second-person knowledge arrive at strikingly Fichtean theses regarding the necessary identity of subject and object in the former and the necessary reciprocity of subject and other in the latter. Despite this affinity, I argue, Rödl's accounts lack a feature that is essential to Fichte's and, indeed, to German idealism's distinctive (...)
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  17. Fichte’s Ethics by Michelle Kosch. [REVIEW]Michael Baur - 2020 - European Journal of Philosophy 28 (3):820-824.
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  18. Suspending the World: Romantic Irony and Idealist System.Kirill Chepurin - 2020 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 53 (2):111-133.
    This paper revisits the rhetorics of system and irony in Fichte and Friedrich Schlegel in order to theorize the utopic operation and standpoint that, I argue, system and irony share. Both system and irony transport the speculative speaker to the impossible zero point preceding and suspending the construction of any binary terms or the world itself—an immanent nonplace (of the in-itself, nothingness, or chaos) that cannot be inscribed into the world's regime of comprehensibility and possibility. It is because the philosopher (...)
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  19. Fichte et la puissante impuissance du langage.Luis Fellipe Garcia - 2020 - Archives de Philosophie 83 (1):19-32.
    Cet article montre que Fichte développe une originelle conception du langage dans ses Discours à la Nation allemande d’où il ressort non seulement le besoin de retraduire des concepts philosophiques dans un langage populaire comme aussi celui de formuler un langage plus malléable pour la philosophie en tant que telle. Afin d’explorer cette hypothèse, notre propos suivra les étapes suivantes : (i) nous analyserons la conception fichtéenne du rapport entre popularisation et flexibilisation du langage, ce qui nous permettra (ii) d’explorer (...)
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  20. Techniques of Bridging the Gulf: Dialectic and Reductionism in McDowell and Fichte.Jens Lemanski - 2020 - Edukacja Filozoficzna 69 (1):7-36.
    “Dialectic” has been a matter of growing interest in contemporary philosophy. The present article analyzes dialectical methods and positions them by reference to two paradigmatic texts of German idealism and analytic philosophy, i.e. J.G. Fichte’s Science of Knowing (1804) and J. McDowell’s Mind and World. Both dialectical approaches will be interpreted with regard to their contribution in the debate on reductionism and anti-reductionism: both Fichte and McDowell claim that philosophical positions and logical terms stand in a dualistic relationship to one (...)
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  21. Der Stachel der Selbsttätigkeit und das Ausschöpfen der Freiheit. Zur Vollständigkeit der fünf Weltansichten beim späten Fichte.Michael Lewin - 2020 - Fichte-Studien 48:204-219.
    In the later Fichte the reflection splits the world into a fivefoldness of its possible view. To get through all the a priori arranged levels from sensuality to the Doctrine of Science means to use up all the possibilities of the views of the world. I will examine whether Fichte can offer us a direct proof of completeness of the standpoints or at least show indirectly that there must be exactly five of them. Which answer would he give us if (...)
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  22. Reason, ideas and their functions in classical German philosophy [in Russian] | Разум, идеи и их функции в классической немецкой философии.Michael Lewin - 2020 - Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Philosophy and Conflict Studies 36 (1):4-23.
    Over the last two decades there has been a growing interest in the transcendental dialectic of Critique of Pure Reason in Germany. Authors, however, often do not pay enough attention to the fact that Kant’s theory of reason (in the narrow sense) and the concept of ideas derived from it is not limited to this text. The purpose of this article is to compare and analyze the functionality of mind as a subjective ability developed by Kant and Fichte with the (...)
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  23. The Ambiguity in Schopenhauer’s Doctrine of the Thing-in-Itself.Vasfi Onur Özen - 2020 - Review of Metaphysics 74 (294):251-288.
    The general attitude towards Arthur Schopenhauer’s metaphysics is rather fiercely critical and at times even tendentious. It seems that the figure of Schopenhauer as an irredeemably flawed, stubborn, and contradictory philosopher serves as a leitmotiv among scholars. Schopenhauer’s identification of the thing-in-itself with the will continues to be a thorny puzzle in the secondary literature, and it presents perhaps the greatest challenge to Schopenhauer scholars. Schopenhauer borrows the term ‘thing-in-itself’ from Immanuel Kant, who uses it to refer to a reality (...)
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  24. Fichte's Moral Philosophy.Owen Ware - 2020 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    Owen Ware here develops and defends a novel interpretation of Fichte’s moral philosophy as an ethics of wholeness. While virtually forgotten for most of the twentieth century, Fichte’s System of Ethics is now recognized by scholars as a masterpiece in the history of post-Kantian thought and a key text for understanding the work of later German idealist thinkers. This book provides a careful examination of the intellectual context in which Fichte’s moral philosophy evolved and of the specific arguments he offers (...)
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  25. The Second Person in Fichte and Levinas.Owen Ware & Michael L. Morgan - 2020 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 41 (2):1-20.
    Levinas never engaged closely with Fichte’s work, but there are two places in the chapter “Substitution,” in Otherwise than Being (1974), where he mentions Fichte by name. The point that Levinas underscores in both of these passages is that the other’s encounter with the subject is not the outcome of the subject’s freedom; it is not posited by the subject, as Fichte has it, but is prior to any free activity. The aim of this paper is to deepen the comparison (...)
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  26. La crítica de Hegel a la tesis fichteana del obstáculo (Anstoß).Hector Ferreiro - 2019 - In Mariano L. Gaudio & María Jimena Solé (eds.), Fichte en el laberinto del idealismo. Buenos Aires: RAGIF Ediciones. pp. 665-696.
    La doctrina del choque (Anstoß), que Fichte desarrolla ante todo en el Fundamento de toda la Doctrina de la Ciencia, pero también en otros escritos de la época de Jena, ha sido desde antaño objeto de crítica tanto por los admiradores como por los detractores de la filosofía fichteana. Existen al menos dos modos específicamente diferentes y aparentemente contrapuestos de comprender su sentido: según una lectura, el choque sería una autoafección del propio Yo; según otra, un residuo realista, en última (...)
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  27. Fichte's Deduction of the Moral Law.Owen Ware - 2019 - In Steven Hoeltzel (ed.), The Palgrave Fichte Handbook. Palgrave. pp. 239-256.
    It is often assumed that Fichte's aim in Part I of the System of Ethics is to provide a deduction of the moral law, the very thing that Kant – after years of unsuccessful attempts – deemed impossible. On this familiar reading, what Kant eventually viewed as an underivable 'fact' (Factum), the authority of the moral law, is what Fichte traces to its highest ground in what he calls the principle of the 'I'. However, scholars have largely overlooked a passage (...)
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  28. Fichte’s method of moral justification.Owen Ware - 2019 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 27 (6):1173-1193.
    While Kant’s claim that the moral law discloses our freedom to us has been extensively discussed in recent decades, the reactions to this claim among Kant’s immediate successors have gone largely overlooked by scholars. Reinhold, Creuzer, and Maimon were among three prominent thinkers of the era unwilling to follow Kant in making the moral law the condition for knowing our freedom. Maimon went so far as to reject Kant’s method of appealing to our everyday awareness of duty on the grounds (...)
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  29. The Concept of Persons in Kant and Fichte.Owen Ware - 2019 - In Antonia LoLordo (ed.), Persons: A History. Oxford University Press.
    It is well known that Kant seeks to discredit rational psychology on the grounds that we cannot access the nature of the soul by reflecting upon the ‘I think’ of self-consciousness. What is far less understood, however, is why Kant still believes the theorems of rational psychology are analytically true insofar as they represent the ‘I’ through the categories of substance, reality, unity, and existence. Early post-Kantian thinkers like Fichte would abandon this restriction and approach the concept of the ‘I’ (...)
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  30. Genealogy and Jurisprudence in Fichte’s Genetic Deduction of the Categories.G. Anthony Bruno - 2018 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 35 (1):77-96.
    Fichte argues that the conclusion of Kant’s transcendental deduction of the categories is correct yet lacks a crucial premise, given Kant’s admission that the metaphysical deduction locates an arbitrary origin for the categories. Fichte provides the missing premise by employing a new method: a genetic deduction of the categories from a first principle. Since Fichte claims to articulate the same view as Kant in a different, it is crucial to grasp genetic deduction in relation to the sorts of deduction that (...)
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  31. Fichte’s Normative Ethics: Deontological or Teleological?Owen Ware - 2018 - Mind 127 (506):565-584.
    One of the most controversial issues to emerge in recent studies of Fichte concerns the status of his normative ethics, i.e., his theory of what makes actions morally good or bad. Scholars are divided over Fichte’s view regarding the ‘final end’ of moral striving, since it appears this end can be either a specific goal permitting maximizing calculations (the consequentialist reading defended by Kosch 2015), or an indeterminate goal permitting only duty-based decisions (the deontological reading defended by Wood 2016). While (...)
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  32. Kants Denkraum: Subjektivität als Prinzip. Interview mit Prof. Dr. Jürgen Stolzenberg.Andrey S. Zilber - 2018 - Kantian Journal 37 (3):77-96.
    This interview with Professor Dr Jürgen Stolzenberg, board member of the Kant-Gesellschaft and co-editor of the Kant-Lexikon (2015), explores a wide range of topics — from Leibniz and Wolff to Heidegger and Husserl. The leading idea of Stolzenberg’s philosophical research is the justification of the principle of modern subjectivity in Kant’s philosophy and its transformations until our days. He discusses the meaning and development of the concept of self-consciousness and the understanding of subjectivity in Kant’s ethics as well as in (...)
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  33. »Ein Bewußtsein, das selbst Pflicht ist«: Fichtes unkantische Auffassung des Gewissens und ihr philosophischer Kontext.Stefano Bacin - 2017 - Fichte-Studien 44:306-325.
    Aim of the paper is contributing to a context-informed understanding of Fichte’s theory of conscience. This crucial element in his moral philosophy (and, in fact, in his whole philosophy) represents the last of the many significant accounts of conscience in the 18th century, before in the following century the role of conscience in moral life was repeatedly put into question. Accordingly, in my paper I argue that: (1) Fichte puts forward an un-Kantian account of conscience, following, instead, a quite different (...)
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  34. Schelling on the Possibility of Evil: Rendering Pantheism, Freedom, and Time Consistent.G. Anthony Bruno - 2017 - SATS 18 (1):1-18.
    German idealism stems in large part from Fichte’s response to a dilemma involving the concepts of pantheism, freedom and time: either time is the form of the determination of modes of substance, as held by a pantheistic or ‘dogmatic’ person, or the form of acts generated by human freedom, as held by an idealistic person. Fichte solves the dilemma by refuting dogmatism and deducing time from idealism’s first principle. But his diagnosis is more portentous: by casting the lemmas in terms (...)
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  35. Imagining Modernity: Kant's Wager on Possibility.Augustin Dumont - 2017 - Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 38 (1):53-86.
    In the introduction to the Critique of Pure Reason (2nd edition), Kant claims that a transcendental cognition is a one ‘that is occupied not so much with objects but rather with our mode of cognition of objects insofar as is this ought to be possible a priori (a priori möglich sein soll)’. In this paper, I argue that Kant scholarship should take into account the specific signification of the term ‘sollen’, which might require us to reconsider the usual distinction between (...)
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  36. Psychologischer Skeptizismus. Nietzsches Kritik am Deutschen Idealismus.Michael Lewin - 2017 - Coincidentia. Zeitschrift für Europäische Geistesgeschichte 8:383-406.
    Eine Untersuchung zu Nietzsches Kritik am Deutschen Idealismus im Rahmen seiner allgemeinen Idealismuskritik und seiner Lehre vom Willen zur Macht.
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  37. Selfhood and Relationality.Jacqueline Mariña - 2017 - In Joel Rasmussen, Judith Wolfe & Johannes Zachhuber (eds.), Oxford Handbook for Nineteenth Century Christian Thought. Oxford University Press. pp. 127-142.
    Nineteenth century Christian thought about self and relationality was stamped by the reception of Kant’s groundbreaking revision to the Cartesian cogito. For René Descartes (1596-1650), the self is a thinking thing (res cogitans), a simple substance retaining its unity and identity over time. For Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), on the other hand, consciousness is not a substance but an ongoing activity having a double constitution, or two moments: first, the original activity of consciousness, what Kant would call original apperception, and second, (...)
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  38. The Causes of Our Belief in Free Will: Spinoza on Necessary, ‘Innate,’ yet False Cognition.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2017 - In Spinoza’s Ethics: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
    This chapter will discuss Spinoza’s critique of free will, though our brief study of this topic in the first part of the chapter will aim primarily at preparing us to address the main topic of the chapter, which is Spinoza’s explanation of the reasons which force us to believe in free will. At times, Spinoza seems to come very close to asserting the paradoxical claim that we are not free to avoid belief in free will. In the second part of (...)
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  39. Fichte on Conscience.Owen Ware - 2017 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 95 (2):376-394.
    There is no question that Fichte's theory of conscience is central to his system of ethics. Yet his descriptions of its role in practical deliberation appear inconsistent, if not contradictory. Many scholars have claimed that for Fichte conscience plays a material role by providing the content of our moral obligations—the Material Function View. Some have denied this, however, claiming that conscience only plays a formal role by testing our moral convictions in any given case—the Formal Function View. My aim in (...)
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  40. Intersubjectivity, Species-Being, Actual Occasions: Social Ontology from Fichte to Whitehead.Weekes Anderson - 2016 - In Lukaszc Lamza & Jakub Dziadkowiec (eds.), Recent Advances in the Creation of a Process-Based Worldview: Human Life in Process. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 47–59.
    Whitehead claims there is only one type of individual in the universe—the actual entity—but there are necessarily multiple tokens of this type. This turns out to be paradoxical. Nevertheless, a type of individuality that is necessarily plural because, for each token, relations to other tokens are constitutive is something familiar from ordinary language, everyday politics, and, not least, 19th century German social thought. Whitehead’s actual entity generalizes the notion of species-being we find in Fichte, Feuerbach, and Marx. The rationale for (...)
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  41. “As From a State of Death”: Schelling’s Idealism as Mortalism.G. Anthony Bruno - 2016 - Comparative and Continental Philosophy 8 (3):288-301.
    If a problem is the collision between a system and a fact, Spinozism and German idealism’s greatest problem is the corpse. Life’s end is problematic for the denial of death’s qualitative difference from life and the affirmation of nature’s infinite purposiveness. In particular, German idealism exemplifies immortalism – the view that life is the unconditioned condition of all experience, including death. If idealism cannot explain the corpse, death is not grounded on life, which invites mortalism – the view that death (...)
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  42. Импульсы трансцендетально-философской теории субъекта Фихте для обоснования понятия гражданского образования.Stahl Jürgen - 2016 - Esse 2 (1):77 – 98.
    It is known that in connection with proposed educational reforms in the German states around 1800, Johann Gottliebe Fichte, following the Enlightenment concepts, developed a program, which considered education as an indispensable human right. In this program, the idea of providing all the citizens with the opportunity to get an education has been formulated as a social task and a condition of social and political modernization. In accordance with Fichte’s thought, over the cultivation of individuals, a new morality, and then, (...)
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  43. Trascendentale.Alberto Vanzo - 2016 - In Luca Illetterati & Paolo Giuspoli (eds.), Filosofia classica tedesca: Le parole chiave. Carocci.
    This chapter explores Kant’s, Reinhold’s, Fichte’s, and Hegel’s stances toward transcendental philosophy and transcendental arguments. Having explained the new meaning that Kant assigned to the term ‘transcendental’, the chapter surveys his attempt to develop a transcendental philosophy by employing transcendental arguments. Since these arguments presuppose unproven matters of fact, authors who were deeply concerned by scepticism deemed them unsuitable for the task. The chapter explains how Reinhold and Fichte sought to establish solid foundations for transcendental philosophy without relying on transcendental (...)
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  44. Kant on the Ontological Argument.Ian Proops - 2015 - Noûs 49 (1):1-27.
    The article examines Kant's various criticisms of the broadly Cartesian ontological argument as they are developed in the Critique of Pure Reason. It is argued that each of these criticisms is effective against its intended target, and that these targets include—in addition to Descartes himself—Leibniz, Wolff, and Baumgarten. It is argued that Kant's most famous criticism—the charge that being is not a real predicate—is directed exclusively against Leibniz. Kant's argument for this thesis—the argument proceeding from his example of a hundred (...)
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  45. Alexander Schnell’s Project for a Constructive Phenomenology.Mark J. Thomas - 2015 - Research in Phenomenology 45 (3):441-449.
    Review article on Alexander Schnell’s book “Hinaus: Entwürfe zu einer phänomenologischen Metaphysik und Anthropologie” (Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2011). According to Schnell, an exclusively descriptive phenomenology is not enough; phenomenology must also be constructive. He thus outlines an ambitious project for constructive phenomenology that promises (1) to provide an ultimate justification for knowledge and (2) to ground a phenomenological metaphysics and anthropology, each of which is centered on the “image” (Bild). Insofar as Schnell fills in the details of this outline, (...)
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  46. Hermann Lotze: An Intellectual Biography.William Ray Woodward - 2015 - New York: Cambridge University Press.
    As a philosopher, psychologist, and physician, the German thinker Hermann Lotze defies classification. Working in the mid-nineteenth-century era of programmatic realism, he critically reviewed and rearranged theories and concepts in books on pathology, physiology, medical psychology, anthropology, history, aesthetics, metaphysics, logic, and religion. Leading anatomists and physiologists reworked his hypotheses about the central and autonomic nervous systems. Dozens of fin-de-siècle philosophical contemporaries emulated him, yet often without acknowledgment, precisely because he had made conjecture and refutation into a method. In spite (...)
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  47. Ontological Catastrophe: Zizek and the Paradoxical Metaphysics of German Idealism.Joseph Carew - 2014 - Ann Arbor: Open Humanities Press.
    In Ontological Catastrophe, Joseph Carew takes up the central question guiding Slavoj Žižek’s philosophy: How could something like phenomenal reality emerge out of the meaninglessness of the Real? Carefully reconstructing and expanding upon his controversial reactualization of German Idealism, Carew argues that Žižek offers us an original, but perhaps terrifying, response: experience is possible only if we presuppose a prior moment of breakdown as the ontogenetic basis of subjectivity. Drawing upon resources found in Žižek, Lacanian psychoanalysis, and post-Kantian philosophy, Carew (...)
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  48. Between Reinhold and Fichte: August Ludwig Hülsen’s Contribution to the Emergence of German Idealism by Ezequiel L. Posesorski.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2014 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 52 (2):382-383.
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  49. Freedom and Pluralism in Schelling’s Critique of Fichte’s Jena Wissenschaftslehre.G. Anthony Bruno - 2013 - Idealistic Studies 43 (1-2):71-86.
    Our understanding of Schelling’s internal critique of German idealism, including his late attack on Hegel, is incomplete unless we trace it to the early “Philosophical Letters on Dogmatism and Criticism,” which initiate his engagement with the problem of systematicity—that judgment makes deriving a system of a priori conditions from a first principle necessary, while this capacity’s finitude makes this impossible. Schelling aims to demonstrate this problem’s intractability. My conceptual aim is to reconstruct this from the “Letters,” which reject Fichte’s claim (...)
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  50. Evil and Moral Responsibility in The Vocation of Man.Jane Dryden - 2013 - In Daniel Breazeale & Tom Rockmore (eds.), Fichte's Vocation of Man: New Interpretive and Critical Essays. Albany, NY, USA: State University of New York Press. pp. 185-198.
    When discussing the problem of evil, philosophers often distinguish between physical evil (harm caused within the natural world such as natural disasters, disease, and the like), and moral evil (harm caused by human agency). Mapping this traditional distinction is mapped onto the third section of Fichte’s The Vocation of Man would at first seem fairly straightforward: for Fichte, evil arising from nature occurs through “blind mechanism” and is unfree; in contrast, evil done by human beings arises out of free agency. (...)
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