Media Ethics

Edited by Lavinia Marin (Delft University of Technology)
Assistant editor: Matthew Kieran (University of Leeds)
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  1. Online Misinformation and “Phantom Patterns”: Epistemic Exploitation in the Era of Big Data.Megan Fritts & Frank Cabrera - 2022 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 60 (1):57-87.
    In this paper, we examine how the availability of massive quantities of data i.e., the “Big Data” phenomenon, contributes to the creation, spread, and harms of online misinformation. Specifically, we argue that a factor in the problem of online misinformation is the evolved human instinct to recognize patterns. While the pattern-recognition instinct is a crucial evolutionary adaptation, we argue that in the age of Big Data, these capacities have, unfortunately, rendered us vulnerable. Given the ways in which online media outlets (...)
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  2. Editorial: Theoretical and Practical Issues in the Epistemology of Science Journalism.Carrie Figdor - 2022 - Frontiers in Communication 7 (868849):1-2.
    This Editorial summarizes the papers in a Frontiers in Communication Research Topic that looks at science journalism’s mediating role between the production of scientific knowledge and its public uptake. The four papers in the Research Topic consider science communication and journalism from the perspective of philosophy of science and epistemology. Framing the Research Topic is a conceptual analysis of the multiple aims of science communication and an assessment of empirical evidence to date regarding whether these aims are being met. The (...)
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  3. Another Thing to Worry About.Julian Friedland - 2022 - Boston Globe 20 (1):K2.
    Use of the word “worry” is on the rise. Does that reflect our anxious time — or make it worse?
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  4. Digital Change and Marginalized Communities: Changing Attitudes Towards Digital Media in the Margins.Gen Eickers & Matthias Rath - 2021 - ICERI2021 Proceedings.
    Marginalized communities are confronted with issues resulting from their marginalization, such as exclusion, invisibility, misrepresentation, and hate speech, not only offline but – due to digital change – increasingly online. Our research project DigitalDialog21 aims at evaluating the effects of digital change on society and how digital change, and the risks and possibilities that come with it, is perceived by the population. Digital change is understood as a factor of social change in this project. By investigating digital change and its (...)
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  5. ‘Why Aren’T You Taking Any Notes?’ On Note-Taking as a Collective Gesture.Lavinia Marin & Sean Sturm - 2021 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 53 (13):1399-1406.
    The practice of taking hand-written notes in lectures has been rediscovered recently because of several studies on its learning efficacy in the mainstream media. Students are enjoined to ditch their laptops and return to pen and paper. Such arguments presuppose that notes are taken in order to be revisited after the lecture. Learning is seen to happen only after the event. We argue instead that student’s note-taking is an educational practice worthy in itself as a way to relate to the (...)
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  6. A Fairness Doctrine for the Twenty-First Century.Julian Friedland - 2021 - Areo.
    Michael Goldhaber, who popularized the term the attention economy, said of the US Capitol insurrection: “It felt like an expression of a world in which everyone is desperately seeking their own audience and fracturing reality in the process. I only see that accelerating.” If we don’t do something about this, American democracy may not survive. For when there is no longer any common ground of evidence and reason, history shows that misinformation will eventually overwhelm public discourse and authoritarianism can take (...)
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  7. Civility in the Post-Truth Age: An Aristotelian Account.Maria Silvia Vaccarezza & Michel Croce - 2021 - Humana.Mente - Journal of Philosophical Studies 39 (39):127-150.
    This paper investigates civility from an Aristotelian perspective and has two objectives. The first is to offer a novel account of this virtue based on Aristotle’s remarks about civic friendship. The proposed account distinguishes two main components of civility—civic benevolence and civil deliberation—and shows how Aristotle’s insights can speak to the needs of our communities today. The notion of civil deliberation is then unpacked into three main dimensions: motivational, inquiry-related, and ethical. The second objective is to illustrate how the post-truth (...)
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  8. What Social Media Facilitates, Social Media Should Regulate: Duties in the New Public Sphere.Leonie Smith - 2021 - The Political Quarterly 92 (2):1-8.
    This article offers a distinctive way of grounding the regulative duties held by social media companies (SMCs). One function of the democratic state is to provide what we term the right to democratic epistemic participation within the public sphere. But social media has transformed our public sphere, such that SMCs now facilitate citizens’ right to democratic epistemic participation and do so on a scale that was previously impossible. We argue that this role of SMCs in expanding the scope of what (...)
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  9. De la presse en démocratie.Charles Girard - 2019
    Les nouveaux médias représentent-ils une menace ou un progrès pour la presse en régime démocratique ? À partir d’une analyse du rôle politique de la presse, qui contribue au droit de chacun à gouverner, Charles Girard s’interroge sur le renouvellement du métier de journaliste et sur les modes de délibération démocratique.
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  10. (Online) Manipulation: Sometimes Hidden, Always Careless.Michael Klenk - forthcoming - Review of Social Economy.
    Ever-increasing numbers of human interactions with intelligent software agents, online and offline, and their increasing ability to influence humans have prompted a surge in attention toward the concept of (online) manipulation. Several scholars have argued that manipulative influence is always hidden. But manipulation is sometimes overt, and when this is acknowledged the distinction between manipulation and other forms of social influence becomes problematic. Therefore, we need a better conceptualisation of manipulation that allows it to be overt and yet clearly distinct (...)
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  11. Google and Facebook Vs Rawls and Lao-Tzu: How Silicon Valley’s Utilitarianism and Confucianism Are Bad for Internet Ethics.Morten Bay - 2020 - AoIR 2020: The 21th Annual Conference of the Association of Internet Researchers.
    The proposed paper presents an argument in favor of a Rawlsian approach to ethics for Internet technology companies (den Hoven & Rooksby, 2008; Hoffman, 2017). Ethics statements from such companies are analyzed and shown to be utilitarian and teleological in nature, and therefore in opposition to Rawls’ theories of justice and fairness. The statements are also shown to have traits in common with Confucian virtue ethics (Ames, 2011; Nylan, 2008).
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  12. COVID-19 and Mental Health: Government Response and Appropriate Measures.Genevieve Bandares-Paulino & Randy A. Tudy - 2020 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 30 (7):378-382.
    As governments around the world imposed lockdowns or stay-at-home measures, people began to feel the stress as time dragged on. There were already reports on some individuals committing suicide. How do governments respond to such a phenomenon? Our main focus is the Philippine government and how it responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we argue that the problem with COVID-19 went forth just dealing with physical health. First, people suffer not just from being infected but the psychological stress (...)
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  13. Excavating “Excavating AI”: The Elephant in the Gallery.Michael J. Lyons - 2020 - arXiv 2009:1-15.
    Two art exhibitions, “Training Humans” and “Making Faces,” and the accompanying essay “Excavating AI: The politics of images in machine learning training sets” by Kate Crawford and Trevor Paglen, are making substantial impact on discourse taking place in the social and mass media networks, and some scholarly circles. Critical scrutiny reveals, however, a self-contradictory stance regarding informed consent for the use of facial images, as well as serious flaws in their critique of ML training sets. Our analysis underlines the non-negotiability (...)
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  14. Fear, Anger, and Media-Induced Trauma During the Outbreak of COVID-19 in the Czech Republic.Radek Trnka & Radmila Lorencova - 2020 - Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 12.
    Fear, anger and hopelessness were the most frequent traumatic emotional responses in the general public during the first stage of outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic in the Czech Republic (N = 1,000). The four most frequent categories of fear were determined: (a) fear of the negative impact on household finances, (b) fear of the negative impact on the household finances of significant others, (c) fear of the unavailability of health care, and (d) fear of an insufficient food supply. The pessimistic (...)
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  15. Misinformation and Intentional Deception: A Novel Account of Fake News.Michel Croce & Tommaso Piazza - forthcoming - In Maria Silvia Vaccarezza & Nancy Snow (eds.), Virtues, Democracy, and Online Media: Ethical and Epistemic Issues. Routledge.
    This chapter introduces a novel account of fake news and explains how it differs from other definitions on the market. The account locates the fakeness of an alleged news report in two main aspects related to its production, namely that its creators do not think to have sufficient evidence in favor of what they divulge and they fail to display the appropriate attitude towards the truth of the information they share. A key feature of our analysis is that it does (...)
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  16. Julian Assange: Periodismo científico, conspiración y ética hacker.David Villena Saldaña - 2011 - Quehacer 181 (181):58-69.
    This essay attempts to explain the ethics behind WikiLeaks. It also assesses the concepts of conspiration and scientific journalism introduced by Julian Assange in one his manifestos.
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  17. Inoculation Against Populism: Media Competence Education and Political Autonomy.Frodo Podschwadek - 2019 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 6 (2):211-234.
    This paper offers an analysis of the relation between political populism and mass media, and how this relation becomes problematic for democratic societies. It focuses on the fact that mass media, due to their purpose and infrastructure, can unintentionally reinforce populist messages. Research findings from communication science and political psychology are used to illustrate how, for example, a combination of mass media agenda setting and motivated reasoning can influence citizens’ political decisions and impair their political autonomy. This poses a particular (...)
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  18. Конструювання російського пропагандистського сюжету про «поїзд дружби».Kateryna Boguslavska - 2018 - NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture 1:29-34.
    У статті здійснено спробу простежити генеалогію російського пропагандистського сюжету про «поїзд дружби» від інформаційного приводу до фейкової новини та від фейкової новини до сталої частини канону, послуговуючись яким, російська пропаганда говорить про анексію Криму. За допомогою понять інтеграційної та агітаційної пропаганди Жака Еллюля проаналізовано, у чому саме полягає пропагандистський потенціал цього сюжету. Досліджено, яким чином кінематограф перетворив фейкову новину, покликану налякати та мобілізувати населення, на стійкий пропагандистський сюжет зі сталим набором елементів. Оцінено перспективи його подальшого використання російською владою при спробах (...)
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  19. Зародження теорії і практики нових медіа: проекти Алана Кея і Теда Нельсона.Oleksandr Mandelina - 2018 - NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture 1:11-16.
    Мета статті – з’ясувати концептуальний контекст виникнення нових медіа. Задля цього здійснено огляд ключових для нових медіа ідей Алана Кея та Теда Нельсона, а саме: перетворення комп’ютера на персональний метамедіум за допомогою користувацького інферфейсу та ідеї гіпертексту. Підкреслено, що створення медіа на базі комп’ютерних технологій супроводжувалось впливом медіа-теорії Маклюена та поєднанням технічного і гуманітарного дискурсів. Від початку створення нових медіа осмислювалась їхня метапозиція щодо традиційних медіа через здатність перших до симуляції наявних медіа-форм та створення нових. Теоретичні підвалини нових медіа як (...)
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  20. The Perception of Germany in the Kyivan Press: From Ukrainian People’s Republic to the Hetmanate (November 1917 — December 1918).Ivan Basenko - 2017 - Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal 4:67-84.
    The 1917 February Revolution led to the reshaping of the war-era image of the German enemy. Focusing on the former imperial borderland province of the Southwestern Krai, this article unveils the national, political, and cultural considerations of the local Ukrainian and Russian-language media that affected their attitude towards the Germans. It argues that the developments of the 1917–1918 Ukrainian Revolution presented a unique case of constructing the image of the Germans due to the ongoing rivalry between the respective Ukrainian and (...)
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  21. The Obligation to Diversify One's Sources: Against Epistemic Partisanship in the Consumption of News Media.Alex Worsnip - 2019 - In Carl Fox & Joe Saunders (eds.), Media Ethics: Free Speech and the Requirements of Democracy. London: Routledge. pp. 240-264.
    In this paper, I defend the view that it is wrong for us to consume only, or overwhelmingly, media that broadly aligns with our own political viewpoints: that is, it is wrong to be politically “partisan” in our decisions about what media to consume. We are obligated to consume media that aligns with political viewpoints other than our own – to “diversify our sources”. This is so even if our own views are, as a matter of fact, substantively correct.
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  22. Digitale Entmündigung und User Experience Design. Wie digitale Geräte uns nudgen, tracken und zur Unwissenheit erziehen.Rainer Mühlhoff - 2018 - Leviathan - Berliner Zeitschrift Für Sozialwissenschaft 46 (4).
    Der vorliegende Artikel untersucht moderne Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion im Kontext verbreiteter Hard- und Softwareoberflächen und diskutiert davon ausgehend die Frage nach Aufklärung und Gegenaufklärung im digitalen Zeitalter. Er nimmt das Feld des »User Experience Designs« in den Blick - dies ist ein stilprägender Fachdiskurs, in dem verhaltenswissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse und massendatenbasierte Analysen zur Optimierung von Benutzeroberflächen und Interaktionsdesigns eingesetzt werden. Anhand von Beispielstudien wird argumentiert, dass dieser Gestaltung systematisch drei implizite anthropologische Annahmen zugrunde liegen: Nutzerverhalten gilt als durch prä-reflexive Stimuli beeinflussbar; es gilt (...)
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  23. Lynton Crosby and the Dark Arts of Democracy.Joe Saunders - 2019 - In Joe Saunders & Carl Fox (eds.), Media Ethics, Free Speech and the Requirements of Democracy. Routledge.
    This paper explores the political campaigning strategies of Lynton Crosby, and argues that they pose a threat to democracy. In doing so, I looks to shed light on Crosby’s tactics, but also to elucidate exactly what is anti-democratic about them. I argue that there are two worrying aspects to this. The first involves Crosby’s lack of respect for voters’ beliefs, interests and values, whereas the second concerns his propensity for avoiding debate.
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  24. Clicktatorship and Democrazy: Social Media and Political Campaigning.Martin A. M. Gansinger & Ayman Kole - 2018 - In M. A. M. Gansinger & Ayman Kole (eds.), Vortex of the Web. Potentials of the online environment. Hamburg: pp. 15-40.
    This chapter aims to direct attention to the political dimension of the social media age. Although current events like the Cambridge Analytica data breach managed to raise awareness for the issue, the systematically organized and orchestrated mechanisms at play still remain oblivious to most. Next to dangerous monopoly-tendencies among the powerful players on the market, reliance on automated algorithms in dealing with content seems to enable large-scale manipulation that is applied for economical and political purposes alike. The successful replacement of (...)
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  25. Ética de la televisión. Consejos de sabios para la caja tonta. [REVIEW]Miguel Angel Quintana Paz - 2006 - Comunicación y Pluralismo 1:190-192.
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  26. How to Report on War in the Light of an African Ethic.Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - In Jonathan O. Chimakonam, Edwin Etieyibo & Ike Odimegwu (eds.), Essays on Contemporary Issues in African Philosophy. Springer. pp. 145-162.
    While there is a budding literature on media ethics in the light of characteristic sub-Saharan moral values, there is virtually nothing on wartime reporting more specifically. Furthermore, the literature insofar as it has a bearing on wartime reporting suggests that embedded journalism and patriotic journalism are ethically justified during war. In this essay, I sketch a prima facie attractive African moral theory, grounded on a certain interpretation of the value of communal relationship, and bring out what it entails for the (...)
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  27. Trust Me: News, Credibility Deficits, and Balance.Carrie Figdor - 2018 - In Joe Saunders & Carl Fox (eds.), Media Ethics, Free Speech, and the Requirements of Democracy. New York, USA and Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 69-86.
    When a society is characterized by a climate of distrust, how does this impact the professional practices of news journalism? I focus on the practice of balance, or fair presentation of both sides in a story. I articulate a two-step model of how trust modulates the acceptance of tes-timony and draw out its implications for justifying the practice of balance.
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  28. Cámaras ocultas y ética periodística: ¿una pareja malavenida?Miguel Angel Quintana Paz - 2006 - Cuadernos de Periodistas 8:69-78.
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  29. A New Take on Deceptive Advertising: Beyond Frankfurt’s Analysis of ‘BS’.Andrew Johnson - 2010 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 29 (1-4):5-32.
    The publication of Harry Frankfurt’s 1986 essay “On Bullshit,” and especially its republication as a book in 2005, have sparked a great deal of interest in the philosophical analysis of the concept of bullshit. The present essay seeks to contribute to the ever-widening discussion of the concept by applying it to the realm of advertising. First, it is argued that Frankfurt’s definition of bullshit is too narrow, and an alternative definition is defended that accommodates both Frankfurt’s truth-indifferent bullshit and what (...)
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  30. Mediatization Theory and Digital Media.Niels Ole Finnemann - 2011 - Communications 36 (1):67-89.
    In the 20th century, the term “media logic” was introduced to denote the influence of independent mass media on political systems and other institutions. In recent years the idea has been reworked and labeled “mediatization” to widen the framework by including new media and new areas of application. In Section Two the paper discusses different conceptualizations. It is argued that even if they bring new insights, they cannot be unified into one concept, and that they also lack a consistent definition (...)
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  31. A Virtual Pulse: Cautionary Notes About Public Mourning in the Digital Age.Shelley M. Park - 2016 - APA Newsletter on LGBTQ Issue 16 (1):3-6.
    Reflections on digital mourning in the wake of the mass shooting at the Pulse nightclub in Orlando 2016.
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  32. El Racionalismo Musulmán En la Edad Media.Miguel Manzanera Salavert - 2011 - Endoxa 28:71.
    Avicena´s Metaphysics is probably the most mature expression of the Muslim rationalist thinking from the Middle Ages. From a Marxist point of view, this essay investigates how this way of thinking came to be, its historical roots and the economic, political and social network that made it possible. It also tries to uncover the theoretical problems it addresses and the intellectual needs tries to solve. Finally, this paper outlines a brief review of its historical significance as well as its future (...)
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  33. Russell Burns, John Logie Baird, Television Pioneer. History of Technology Series, 28. London: Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2000. Pp. XXV+417. ISBN 0-85296-797-7. [REVIEW]Sean F. Johnston - 2002 - British Journal for the History of Science 35 (2):213-250.
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  34. Solidarity - Enlightened Leadership.Ignace Haaz - 2016 - In Christoph Stückelberger, Walter Fust & Obiora Ike (eds.), Global Ethics for Leadership: Values and Virtues for Life. Globethics.net. pp. 163-174.
    Solidarity could be defined in the broad sense either as a means or as an end. Considered as an end, solidarity is the motive of any virtuous action based on altruistic reasons, such as helping others to rescue someone in order to prevent a harmful situation. E. g. contributing to lift and rescue a heavy person, lying unconscious in the street on the floor, who is being handled by rescuers, but who might be needing an additional person, could express the (...)
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  35. Honor Among Thieves: Some Reflections on Professional Codes of Ethics.John T. Sanders - 1993 - Professional Ethics, a Multidisciplinary Journal 2 (3):83-103.
    As complicated an affair as it may be to give a fully acceptable general characterization of professional codes of ethics that will capture every nuance, one theme that has attracted widespread attention portrays them as contrivances whose primary function is to secure certain obligations of professionals to clients, or to the external community. In contrast to such an "externalist" characterization of professional codes, it has occasionally been contended that, first and foremost, they should be understood as internal conventions, adopted among (...)
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  36. Virtuelle Welten, das Problem des Fremdpsychischen und die Entwicklung des moralischen Bewusstseins.Godehard Brüntrup - 2010 - In Manuela Pietraß & Rüdiger Funiok (eds.), Mensch und Medien: Philosophische und sozialwissenschaftliche Perspektiven. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. pp. 47-64.
    Paper on the metaphysics of virtual worlds, the problem of other minds, and the origins of ethical behavior.
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  37. The Information Age Needs Knowledge and Morality.Ruel F. Pepa - manuscript
    In situations of information overload, where cases of garbage-in-garbage-out are commonplace, it is necessary to sort out important and appropriate data for one’s specific purposes. A deluge of seemingly interrelated or interconnected data may lead us from one analytic moment to another without consideration for the credibility of our sources. Since people generally tend to be on one side of an issue rather than the other, information exploration and gathering can become a quantitative rather than qualitative exercise, as we are (...)
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  38. Commentary On: Chiara Pollaroli's "T(R)Opical Patterns in Advertising".Gilbert Plumer - 2013 - In D. Mohammed & M. Lewiński (eds.), Virtues of Argumentation. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of the Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation [CD-ROM]. Centre for Research in Reasoning, Argumentation and Rhetoric, and the University of Windsor. pp. 1-5.
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  39. The Media of the Spectral.Mihail Evans - 2011 - Glimpse: Journal of the Society for Media and Phenomenology 13:55-60.
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  40. Some Remarks on the Controversial Idea of PR Ethics.Cecilia Tohaneanu - 2014 - Romanian Journal of Journalism and Communication 1 (44).
    The paper attempts to outline the actual academic debates around the concept of PR ethics. The first part aims to show the intimate link between professionalism and ethics as well as their bearing on the reputation of the PR field. Whether and how ethical public relations are possible is the main issue analyzed in the second part of the article. The two paradigms of public relations, “the attorney-adversary system” and “the two-way symmetrical model”, are put face to face in order (...)
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  41. What is Media Ethics ? (Marathi Version).Shriniwas श्रीनिवास Hemade हेमाडे - October 2014 - Daily Loksatta, A Indian Express Publication, Mumbai. Tattvabhan- The Philosophical Consciousness:08.
    What is Media Ethics ? Read in Marathi. पत्रकारिता या व्यवसायाचे स्वरूप एका चमत्कारिक विरोधाभासाने भरलेले आहे. तो असा की, पत्रकारिता ही पूर्णपणे खासगी नोकरी असते आणि माध्यमे हे खासगी क्षेत्र असते. पण त्यांचा चिंतन विषय मात्र निखळ सामाजिक असतो.
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  42. Failure of the Audiovisual Media Law and the Contradiction That Holds Public Interest Hostage.Raimonda Nelku - 2014 - SOCRATES 2 (1):76-88.
    Democratic transitions of Eastern countries brought about the need to shifting from eastern into western paradigms. Transitioning into western models of media, more specifically to the public system of broadcasting became a prerequisite for achieving the EU status for Eastern European transitioning countries. It has been twelve years since Albania entered the process of transformation from being a State TV towards becoming a Public Television. The article aims to provide a theoretical framework of public television networks in western countries pointing (...)
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  43. BBS News Vol.3.Shamima Lasker - 2012 - Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics 3 (3):27.
    Two Members of BBS awarded Erasmus Mundus Master of Bioethics -/- Shamima Parvin Lasker, Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy, City Dental College, Dhaka & General Secretary of BBS and Dr Abu Sadat Mohammad Nurunnabi, Lecturer of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka & Life member of BBS awarded Master of Bioethics in 2012. Both they are the scholars of Erasmus Mundus Master of Bioethics. Degree was awarded by K.U.Leuven, Belgium, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Netherlands and Università degli Studi di Padova, Italy. (...)
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  44. Journalism for Peace and Justice: Towards a Comparative Analysis of Media Paradigms.Robert A. Hackett - 2010 - Studies in Social Justice 4 (2):179-198.
    This paper compares different normative and institutional paradigms of journalism with respect to peaceful conflict resolution and democratic communication. It begins with the problematic but still dominant 'regime of objectivity,' and then considers three contemporary challengers: peace journalism, alternative media, and media democratization/communication rights movements. The paradigms are compared in terms of such factors as public philosophy, epistemological assumptions, characteristic practices, institutional entailments, relationship to dominant institutions and power structures, allies and opponents, and antagonisms and synergies between them. I conclude (...)
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  45. New Scepticism About Science.Carrie Figdor - 2013 - Philosophers' Magazine 60 (1):51 - 56.
    In this essay I raise a dilemma for science journalists based on recent skepticism raised by scientists about the credibility of published results in many fields. Due to systematic biases in the publication record, most published findings in these fields (including psychology and biological subfields) are almost certainly false. So should science reporters stop reporting these findings, given their mission to report verified truths? Or should they report the findings while saying they are almost certainly false?
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  46. Professional Ethics, Media and Good Governance.Desh Raj Sirswal - 2013 - Intellection (01):Jan-June 2013.
    Philosophy is a vast subject and it is growing day by day in many branches although it has many traditional branches like epistemology, metaphysics, ethics and logic etc. Professional ethics is a discipline of philosophy and a part of subject called as ETHICS. In professional ethics we study the morals and code of conduct to be used while one practices in his/her profession. Media is also a profession and there is also a code of conduct to this profession better. If (...)
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  47. VNRs: Is the News Audience Deceived?Matthew Broaddus, Mark D. Harmon & Kristin Farley Mounts - 2011 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 26 (4):283-296.
    Every day, television news operations have available dozens of video news releases (VNRs), public relations handout videos designed to mimic news formats. Electronic tracking indicates some of these VNRs are used. Critics typically assail VNRs on ethical grounds, that VNRs deceive audience members into thinking they are watching news gathered by reporters, rather than a promotional pitch. Using a snowball technique, the researchers presented survey respondents with authentic-looking local television news stories; 157 respondents evaluated three stories (out of nine). Some (...)
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  48. Twilight as a Cultural Force.Ginny Whitehouse - 2011 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 26 (3):240 - 242.
    Journal of Mass Media Ethics, Volume 26, Issue 3, Page 240-242, July-September.
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  49. Beyond Serving a Purpose: Additional Ethical Focuses for Public Policy Agents.Vanessa Scholes - 2011 - In Jonathan Boston, Andrew Bradstock & David Eng (eds.), Ethics and public policy: contemporary issues. Victoria University Press.
    From the point of view of a theorist in ethics, the interest in public policy usually centres on the policy outcomes. But this point of view does not take much account of the roles and practices through which public policies are enacted. What additional ethical focuses for the policy agent might these entail? I outline four features of policy making, centred on the agent's performance of their role in the process, that raise ethical issues. These features are: the nature of (...)
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  50. Who is a Journalist?Jay Black - 2010 - In Christopher Meyers (ed.), Journalism Ethics: A Philosophical Approach. Oxford University Press. pp. 103--116.
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