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  1. added 2020-04-03
    الهيكل المنطقي للسلوك البشري.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    وزعم ي أن جدول التعمد (العقلانية والعقل والفكر واللغة والشخصية وما إلى ذلك) الذي يتميز بشكل بارز هنا يصف أكثر أو أقل دقة، أو على الأقل بمثابة الاستدلال ل، كيف نفكر وتصرفنا، وهكذا لا يشمل مجرد الفلسفة وعلم النفس، ولكن كل شيء آخر (التاريخ والأدب والرياضيات والسياسة وما إلى ذلك). لاحظ بشكل خاص أن التعمد والعقلانية كما أنا (جنبا إلى جنب مع سيرل، فيتغنشتاين وغيرها) نرى ذلك، ويشمل كل من النظام اللغوي التداولي واعية 2 واللاوعي الآلي قبل اللغوية نظام 1 (...)
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  2. added 2020-04-03
    البنية المنطقية للوعي.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    وزعمي أن جدول التعمد (العقلانية، والوعي، والعقل، والفكر، واللغة، والشخصية، وما إلى ذلك) الذي يتميز بشكل بارز هنا يصف بشكل أكثر أو أقل دقة، أو على الأقل بمثابة مُهَرَق، كيف نفكر ونتصرف، وبالتالي فهو لا يشمل الفلسفة وعلم النفس فحسب، بل كل شيء آخر (التاريخ، الأدب، الرياضيات، السياسة إلخ). لاحظ بشكل خاص أن التعمد والعقلانية كما أنا (جنبا إلى جنب مع سيرل، فيتغنشتاين وغيرها) نرى ذلك، ويشمل كل من النظام اللغوي التداولي واعية 2 واللاوعي الآلي قبل اللغوية نظام 1 الإجراءات (...)
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  3. added 2020-03-22
    인간의 행동의 논리적 구조.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    여기서 눈에 띄게 특징인 의도적(합리성, 생각, 생각, 언어, 성격 등)의 표가 다소 정확하게 묘사되거나 적어도 우리가 어떻게 생각하고 행동하느냐에 대한 추론적인 역할을 한다는 것이 제 주장입니다. 단지 철학과 심리학, 하지만 다른 모든 것 (역사, 문학, 수학, 정치 등). 특히 I (Searle, Wittgenstein 및 다른 사람들과 함께)가 볼 때 의의적 심의 언어 시스템 2와 무의식적 인 사전 언어 시스템 1 행동 또는 반사 신경을 모두 포함합니다. 저는 현대의 가장 저명한 두 학생들의 주요 연구 결과에 대한 비판적 인 설문 조사를 제공합니다. Ludwig (...)
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  4. added 2020-03-21
    人类行为的逻辑结构.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas. NV USA: Reality Press.
    我的论点是,这里突出的故意表(理性、思想、思想、语言、个性等)或多或少地准确地描述了我们思考和行为的方式,因此它不包括仅仅是哲学和心理学,但一切(历史,文学,数学,政治等)。特别要注意,故意和理性,因 为我(连同西尔,维特根斯坦和其他人)认为它,包括有意识的审议语言系统2和无意识的自动前语言系统1的动作或反射。 我提供了一个关键的调查,两个最杰出的学生的行为在现代的一些主要发现, 路德维希·维特根斯坦和约翰·西尔,关于故意的逻辑结构(思想、语言、行为),以维特根斯坦的基本发现为出发点——所有真正的"哲学"问题都是一样的——关于在特定上下文中使用语言的困惑,因 此所有解决方案都是相同的——研究如何在问题语境中使用语言,使其真理条件(满意条件或 COS) 是明确的。基本问题是,一个人可以说什么,但一个人不能意味着(状态明确的COS)任何任意的话语和意义只有在非常具体的上下文中才可能。我从现代两种思想体系(被推广为"思维快,思维慢") 的角度分析各种著作,采用新的意向表和新的双系统命名法。我表明,这是一个强大的启发式描述行为。 因此,如果一个人采取正确的观点,所有行为都是密切相关的。现象幻象(遗忘我们的自动化系统1)是通用的,不仅延伸到整个哲学,而且贯穿整个生命。我确信,如果乔姆斯基、奥巴马、扎克伯格和教皇被告知他们患有与黑 格尔、胡塞尔和海德格尔同样的问题,他们将会难以置信(或者,他们只与毒品和性瘾君子在程度上有所不同,他们的动机是通过心室和核积体来刺激他们的前皮质(和其他100种化学品),这显然是事实。虽然现象学家只浪 费了很多人的时间,但他们却在浪费地球和他们后代的未来。 .
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  5. added 2020-03-21
    인간의 행동의 논리적 구조.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    여기서 눈에 띄게 특징인 의도적(합리성, 생각, 생각, 언어, 성격 등)의 표가 다소 정확하게 묘사되거나 적어도 우리가 어떻게 생각하고 행동하느냐에 대한 추론적인 역할을 한다는 것이 제 주장입니다. 단지 철학과 심리학, 하지만 다른 모든 것 (역사, 문학, 수학, 정치 등). 특히 I (Searle, Wittgenstein 및 다른 사람들과 함께)가 볼 때 의의적 심의 언어 시스템 2와 무의식적 인 사전 언어 시스템 1 행동 또는 반사 신경을 모두 포함합니다. 저는 현대의 가장 저명한 두 학생들의 주요 연구 결과에 대한 비판적 인 설문 조사를 제공합니다. Ludwig (...)
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  6. added 2020-03-20
    人間行動の論理構造.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    ここで顕著に特徴付ける意図的性(合理性、心、思考、言語、人格など)のテーブルは、多かれ少なかれ正確に記述されているか、少なくともヒューリスティックとして機能し、私たちがどのように考え、振る舞うか、そし てそれは包含されないという私の主張です。単なる哲学と心理学、しかし、他のすべて(歴史、文学、数学、政治など)。特に、私が(サール、ヴィトゲンシュタインなどと共に)それを見るように、意図的性と合理性には 、意識的な審議言語システム2と無意識の自動言語前システム1の行動または反射神経の両方が含まれていることに注意してください。 私は、現代の行動の最も著名な学生の2人の主要な調査結果のいくつかを批判的な調査を提供し、 ルートヴィヒ・ヴィトゲンシュタインとジョン・サールは、意図的性の論理的構造(心、言語、行動)について、私の出発点として、ウィトゲンシュタインの根本的な発見を取り入れ、真の「哲学的」問題はすべて同じであ り、特定の文脈で言語を使用する方法についての混乱が生じ、すべての解決策は同じであり、言語が文脈でどのように使用できるかを見て、その真実の条件を見て(満足の条件またはCOS)は明確です。基本的な問題は、 任意のanything発話と意味が非常に特定の文脈でのみ可能であることを意味することはできません(明確なCOSを明確にする)ことを意味することはできません。私は、2つの思考システムの現代的な視点(「速 く考え、ゆっくり考える」と一般的)から、意図的性と新しいデュアルシステム命名法の新しいテーブルを採用して、それらによる様々な著作を分析します。これは、動作を記述するための強力なヒューリスティックである ことを示しています。 したがって、正しい視点を取れば、すべての行動は密接に結びついています。「フェノメノロジカル・イリュージョン(自動化システム1の忘却)」は普遍的であり、哲学を通してだけでなく、生涯を通じて広がっています 。私はチョムスキーが、 オバマ、ザッカーバーグ、教皇は、ヘーゲル、フッサール、ハイデガーと同じ問題に苦しんでいると言われた場合(または、腹側テグメンタムと核を介してドーパミン(および100以上の他の化学物質)の送達によって前 頭間皮質の刺激によって動機づけられることで、薬物中毒者や性中毒者とは程度だけが異なると言われた場合、信じられないでしょう。月論者は多くの人々の時間を無駄にしただけで、地球とその子孫の未来を無駄にしてい ます。 .
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  7. added 2020-03-19
    Revisión de La Nueva Ciencia de la Mente (The New Science of the Mind) por Marc Rowlands (2013).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In Comprender las Conexiones entre Ciencia, Filosofía, Psicología, Religión, Política, Economía, Historia y Literatura - Artículos y reseñas 2006-2019. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 227-241.
    Antes de comentar en "La nueva ciencia de la mente", primero ofrezco algunos comentarios sobre filosofía y su relación con la investigación psicológica contemporánea como se ejemplifica en las obras de Searle (S), Wittgenstein (W), Hacker (H) et al. Ayudará a ver mis reseñas de PNC (Filosofía en un Nuevo Siglo), TLP, PI, OC, Making the Social World (MSW) y otros libros por y sobre estos genios, que proporcionan una descripción clara del comportamiento de orden superior, no se encuentra en (...)
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  8. added 2020-03-18
    La Fundación Piedra de Psicología y Filosofía- -Una revisión crítica de 'Sobre la Certeza' (On Certainty) de Ludwig Wittgenstein (1951) (ed 1969) (revision revisado 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In Comprender las Conexiones entre Ciencia, Filosofía, Psicología, Religión, Política, Economía, Historia y Literatura - Artículos y reseñas 2006-2019. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 8-40.
    Una revisión crítica de 'On Certainty' de Wittgenstein, que escribió en 1950-51 y fue publicada por primera vez en 1969. La mayor parte de la revisión se dedica a presentar un marco moderno para la filosofía (la psicología descriptiva del pensamiento de orden superior) y posicionar el trabajo de Wittgenstein y John Searle en este marco y en relación con el trabajo de los demás. Se sugiere que este libro puede ser considerado como la piedra angular de la psicología y (...)
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  9. added 2020-03-17
    ¿Puede haber una filosofía Chino? -- una revisión de ‘La Filosofía de Searle y la Filosofía Chino’ (Searle’s Philosophy and Chinese Philosophy)--Bo Mou Ed 440p (2008) (revision revisada 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In Comprender las Conexiones entre Ciencia, Filosofía, Psicología, Religión, Política, Economía, Historia y Literatura - Artículos y reseñas 2006-2019. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 105-136.
    Este libro es invaluable como sinopsis de algunos de los trabajos de uno de los más grandes filósofos de los últimos tiempos. Hay mucho valor en el análisis de sus respuestas a las confusiones básicas de la filosofía, y en los intentos generalmente excelentes de conectar el pensamiento chino clásico con la filosofía moderna. Tomo una visión moderna de Wittgensteiniano para colocarla en perspectiva. Aquellos que deseen un marco completo hasta la fecha para el comportamiento humano de la moderna dos (...)
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  10. added 2020-03-13
    Revisão de 'The Mind's I' ( O Olho da Mente) de Douglas Hofstadter e Daniel Dennett (1981) (revisão revisada em 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In Entendendo as Conexões entre Ciência, Filosofia, Psicologia, Religião, Política, Economia, História e Literatura - Artigos e Avaliações 2006-2019. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 269-277.
    Um saco misto dominado pelo absurdo reducionista da H & D. Esta é uma continuação do famoso (ou infame como eu diria agora, considerando seu absurdo implacável) Godel, Escher, Bach (1980). Assim como seu antecessor, preocupa-se em grande parte com os fundamentos da inteligência artificial, mas é composto principalmente por histórias, ensaios e extratos de uma ampla gama de pessoas, com alguns ensaios de DH e DD e comentários para todas as contribuições de um ou outro deles. Para minhas opiniões (...)
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  11. added 2020-02-18
    A Estrutura Lógica da Consciência.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    É minha afirmação que a tabela da intencionalidade (racionalidade, mente, pensamento, linguagem, personalidade etc.) que apresenta proeminentemente aqui descreve mais ou menos precisamente, ou pelo menos serve como um heurista para, como pensamos e nos comportamos, e por isso engloba não meramente filosofia e psicologia, mas tudo o resto (história, literatura, matemática, política etc.). Note especialmente que a intencionalidade e a racionalidade como eu (juntamente com Searle, Wittgenstein e outros) a vêem, inclui tanto ações ou reflexos automatizados inconscientes do Sistema (...)
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  12. added 2020-02-13
    La Estructura Lógica de Conciencia.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    Es mi afirmación que la tabla de intencionalidad (racionalidad, mente, pensamiento, lenguaje, personalidad, etc.) que presenta prominentemente aquí describe más o menos con precisión, o al menos sirve como heurística para, cómo pensamos y nos comportamos, y por lo tanto no abarca simplemente filosofía y psicología, sino todo lo demás (historia, literatura, matemáticas, política, etc.). Tenga en cuenta especialmente que la intencionalidad y racionalidad como yo (junto con Searle, Wittgenstein y otros) lo veo, incluye tanto el Sistema Linguístico deliberativo consciente (...)
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  13. added 2020-02-13
    A Estrutura Lógica da Consciência.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    É minha afirmação que a tabela da intencionalidade (racionalidade, mente, pensamento, linguagem, personalidade etc.) que apresenta proeminentemente aqui descreve mais ou menos precisamente, ou pelo menos serve como um heurista para, como pensamos e nos comportamos, e por isso engloba não meramente filosofia e psicologia, mas tudo o resto (história, literatura, matemática, política etc.). Note especialmente que a intencionalidade e a racionalidade como eu (juntamente com Searle, Wittgenstein e outros) a vêem, inclui tanto ações ou reflexos automatizados inconscientes do Sistema (...)
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  14. added 2020-02-12
    Psicologia como Filosofia - Filosofia como Psicologia - Artigos e Avaliações 2006-2019.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    Uma vez que os problemas filosóficos são o resultado de nossa psicologia inata, ou como Wittgenstein disse, devido à falta de perspicuidade da linguagem, eles correm ao longo do discurso e comportamento humano, por isso há necessidade infinita de análise filosófica, não apenas no 'humano ciências' de filosofia, sociologia, antropologia, ciência política, psicologia, história, literatura, religião, etc., mas nas "ciências duras" da física, matemática e biologia. É universal misturar as questões do jogo de linguagem com as reais científicas sobre quais (...)
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  15. added 2020-01-27
    Minimal Disagreement.Dan Zeman - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-22.
    In the recent debate about the semantics of perspectival expressions (predicates of taste, aesthetic adjectives, moral terms, epistemic modals, epistemic terms etc.), disagreement has played a crucial role. In a nutshell, what I call “the challenge from disagreement” is the objection that certain views on the market (i.e., contextualism) cannot account for the intuition of disagreement present in ordinary exchanges involving perspectival expressions like “Licorice is tasty./No, it's not.” Various contextualist answers to this challenge have been proposed, and this has (...)
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  16. added 2020-01-22
    La Estructura Lógica de Conciencia.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    Es mi afirmación que la tabla de intencionalidad (racionalidad, mente, pensamiento, lenguaje, personalidad, etc.) que presenta prominentemente aquí describe más o menos con precisión, o al menos sirve como heurística para, cómo pensamos y nos comportamos, y por lo tanto no abarca simplemente filosofía y psicología, sino todo lo demás (historia, literatura, matemáticas, política, etc.). Tenga en cuenta especialmente que la intencionalidad y racionalidad como yo (junto con Searle, Wittgenstein y otros) lo veo, incluye tanto el Sistema Linguístico deliberativo consciente (...)
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  17. added 2019-12-19
    Revisão de ‘Eu sou um Loop Estranho’ (I am a Strange Loop) por Douglas Hofstadter (2007) (revisão revisada 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - In Delírios Utópicos Suicidas no Século XXI Filosofia, Natureza Humana e o Colapso da Civilization- Artigos e Comentários 2006-2019 5ª edição. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 112-128.
    Último sermão da Igreja do naturalismo fundamentalista pelo pastor Hofstadter. Como o seu muito mais famoso (ou infame por seus erros filosóficos implacáveis) Godel, Escher, Bach, ele tem uma plausibilidade superficial, mas se se compreende que este é um scientismo desenfreado que mistura questões científicas reais com os filosóficos (ou seja, o somente as edições reais são que jogos da língua nós devemos jogar) então quase todo seu interesse desaparece. Eu forneci um quadro para análise baseada na psicologia evolutiva e (...)
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  18. added 2019-12-12
    A estrutura lógica da consciência (comportamento, personalidade, racionalidade, pensamento de ordem superior, intencionalidade).Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - In Delírios Utópicos Suicidas no Século XXI Filosofia, Natureza Humana e o Colapso da Civilization- Artigos e Comentários 2006-2019 5ª edição. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 2-8.
    Depois de meio século no esquecimento, a natureza da consciência é agora o tema mais quente nas ciências comportamentais e filosofia. Começando com o trabalho pioneiro de Ludwig Wittgenstein na década de 1930 (os livros azul e marrom) e dos anos 50 para o presente por seu sucessor lógico John Searle, eu criei a seguinte tabela como uma heurística para promover este estudo. As linhas mostram vários aspectos ou formas de estudo e as colunas mostram os processos involuntários e comportamentos (...)
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  19. added 2019-12-04
    Scientismo sobre los esteroides: un resena de ‘Freedom Evolves’ (Libertad Evoluciona) por Daniel Dennett (2003) (revisión revisada 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - In Delirios Utópicos Suicidas en el Siglo 21 La filosofía, la naturaleza humana y el colapso de la civilización Artículos y reseñas 2006-2019 4a Edición. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 189-204.
    "La gente dice una y otra vez que la filosofía no progresa realmente, que todavía estamos ocupados con los mismos problemas filosóficos que los griegos. Pero la gente que dice esto no entiende por qué tiene que ser así. Es porque nuestro lenguaje ha permanecido igual y nos sigue seduciendo para que hagan las mismas preguntas. Mientras siga habiendo un verbo "ser" que parezca como si funciona de la misma manera que "comer y beber", siempre y cuando todavía tengamos los (...)
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  20. added 2019-12-04
    Reseña de ‘I am a Strange Loop’ (Soy un Lazo Extraño) de Douglas Hofstadter (2007) (revisión revisada 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - In Delirios Utópicos Suicidas en el Siglo 21 La filosofía, la naturaleza humana y el colapso de la civilización Artículos y reseñas 2006-2019 4a Edición. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 205-221.
    Último sermón de la iglesia del naturalismo fundamentalista por el pastor Hofstadter. Al igual que su mucho más famoso (o infame por sus incesantemente errores filosóficos) trabajo Godel, Escher, Bach, tiene una plausibilidad superficial, pero si se entiende que se trata de un científico rampante que mezcla problemas científicos reales con los filosóficos (es decir, el sólo los problemas reales son los juegos de idiomas que debemos jugar) entonces casi todo su interés desaparece. Proporciono un marco para el análisis basado (...)
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  21. added 2019-12-04
    Otro retrato de caricatura de la mente de la metafísicos reduccionista-un review de Peter Carruthers ' La Opacidad de la Mente ' (The Opacity of Mind) (2011) (revisión revisada 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - In Delirios Utópicos Suicidas en el Siglo 21 La filosofía, la naturaleza humana y el colapso de la civilización Artículos y reseñas 2006-2019 4a Edición. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 222-249.
    El materialismo, el reduccionismo, el Behaviorismo, el funcionalismo, la teoría de los sistemas dinámicos y el computacionalismo son puntos de vista populares, pero Wittgenstein demostró que no era coherente. El estudio del comportamiento abarca toda la vida humana, pero el comportamiento es en gran medida automático e inconsciente e incluso la parte consciente, expresada principalmente en lenguaje (que Wittgenstein equipara con la mente), no es perspicuo, por lo que es fundamental tener un marco que Searle llame a la estructura lógica (...)
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  22. added 2019-12-01
    Reseña de ' Filosofía en un Nuevo Siglo ' (‘Philosophy in a New Century’)por John Searle (2008) (revisión revisada 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - In Delirios Utópicos Suicidas en el Siglo 21 La filosofía, la naturaleza humana y el colapso de la civilización Artículos y reseñas 2006-2019 4TH Edición. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 125-144.
    Antes de comentar sobre el libro, ofrezco comentarios sobre Wittgenstein y Searle y la estructura lógica de la racionalidad. Los ensayos aquí son en su mayoría ya publicados durante la última década (aunque algunos han sido actualizados), junto con un artículo inédito, y nada aquí vendrá como una sorpresa para aquellos que han mantenido su trabajo. Al igual que W, es considerado como el mejor filósofo de su tiempo y su obra escrita es sólida como una roca y pionera en (...)
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  23. added 2019-11-29
    Reseña de 'The Outer Limits of Reason' por Noson Yanofsky 403p (2013).Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - In Observaciones Sobre Imposibilidad, Incompleta, Paracoherencia,Indecisión,Aleatoriedad, Computabilidad, Paradoja E Incertidumbre En Chaitin, Wittgenstein, Hofstadter, Wolpert, Doria, Dacosta, Godel, Searle, Rodych, Berto,Floyd, Moyal-Sharrock Y Yanofsky. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 71-90.
    Doy una revisión detallada de ' los límites externos de la razón ' por Noson Yanofsky desde una perspectiva unificada de Wittgenstein y la psicología evolutiva. Yo indiqué que la dificultad con cuestiones como la paradoja en el lenguaje y las matemáticas, la incompletitud, la indeterminación, la computabilidad, el cerebro y el universo como ordenadores, etc., surgen de la falta de mirada cuidadosa a nuestro uso del lenguaje en el adecuado contexto y, por tanto, el Error al separar los problemas (...)
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  24. added 2019-11-14
    Dialectics of the Author-Reader Relationship: Criticizing the Revolutionary Tradition of Stereotypical Propaganda Writing Through Reaffirmation of Authorial Intentionalism.Miguel Elvir Quitain - manuscript
    Propaganda is one of the most apparent avenues of ideological struggle. Amidst the battlefield in the social consciousness, the purpose of this study is to forward revolutionary ideology through intensification of revolutionary propaganda, specifically the pamphlet. It is a crucial step for revolutionaries in the aim to forward their methods of propaganda writing to overcome the illness of stereotypical propaganda writing as described by Mao Zedong. Stereotypical propaganda writing in the practice of progressive propaganda leads to a genesis of a (...)
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  25. added 2019-10-03
    Psychology as Philosophy, Philosophy as Psychology--Articles and Reviews 2006-2019.Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    Since philosophical problems are the result of our innate psychology, or as Wittgenstein put it, due to the lack of perspicuity of language, they run throughout human discourse and behavior, so there is endless need for philosophical analysis, not only in the ‘human sciences’ of philosophy, sociology, anthropology, political science, psychology, history, literature, religion, etc., but in the ‘hard sciences’ of physics, mathematics, and biology. It is universal to mix the language game questions with the real scientific ones as to (...)
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  26. added 2019-09-04
    Remarques sur l'impossibilité l'incomplétude, la paracohérence l'indécision, le hasard, la calculabilité, le paradoxe et l'incertitude - dans Chaitin, Wittgenstein, Hofstadter, Wolpert, Doria da Costa, Godel, Searle, Rodych, Berto Floyd, Moyal-Sharrock et Yanofsky.Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    On pense généralement que l'impossibilité, l'incomplétdulité, la paracohérence, l'indécidabilité, le hasard, la calcul, le paradoxe, l'incertitude et les limites de la raison sont des questions scientifiques physiques ou mathématiques disparates ayant peu ou rien dans terrain d'entente. Je suggère qu'ils sont en grande partie des problèmes philosophiques standard (c.-à-d., jeux de langue) qui ont été la plupart du temps résolus par Wittgenstein plus de 80 ans. Je fournis un bref résumé de quelques-unes des principales conclusions de deux des plus éminents (...)
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  27. added 2019-08-25
    关于在柴廷、维特根斯坦、霍夫施塔特、沃尔珀特、多里亚、达科斯塔、戈德尔、西尔、罗迪赫、贝托、弗洛伊德、贝托、弗洛伊德、莫亚尔-沙罗克和亚诺夫斯基.Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    人们普遍认为,不可能性、不完整性、不一致性、不可度、随机性、可预见性、悖论、不确定性和理性极限是完全不同的科学物理或数学问题,在常见。我认为,它们主要是标准的哲学问题(即语言游戏),这些问题大多在80 多年前由维特根斯坦解决。 -/- "在这种情况下,我们'想说'当然不是哲学,而是它的原材料。因此,例如,数学家倾向于对数学事实的客观性和现实性说的,不是数学哲学,而是哲学处理的东西。维特根斯坦 PI 234 -/- "哲学家们经常看到科学的方法,他们不可抗拒地试图以科学的方式提问和回答问题。这种倾向是形而上学的真正源泉,将哲学家带入完全的黑暗之中。 维特根斯坦 -/- 我简要地总结了现代两位最杰出的学生路德维希·维特根斯坦和约翰·西尔关于故意的逻辑结构(思想、语言、行为)的一些主要发现,作为我的起点Wittgenstein 的基本发现——所有真正的"哲学"问题都是相同的——关于在特定上下文中如何使用语言的困惑,因此所有解决方案都是一样的——研究如何在相关上下文中使用语言,使其真实性条件(满意度或 COS 条件)是明确的。基本问题是,人们可以说什么,但一个人不能意味着(状态明确COS)任何任意的话语和意义只有在非常具体的上下文中才可能。 -/- 在两种思想体系的现代视角(被推广为"思维快,思维慢")的框架内,我从维特根斯坦人的角度剖析了一些主要评论员关于这些问题的一些著作,并采用了一个新的表意向性和新的双系统命名法。 我表明,这是一个强大的启发式描述这些假定的科学,物理或数学问题的真实性质,这是真正最好的处理作为标准哲学问题,如何使用语言(语言游戏在维特根斯坦的术语)。 -/- 我的论点是,这里突出特征的意向表(理性、思想、思想、语言、个性等)或多或少地准确地描述了,或者至少作为启发式,我们思考和行为的方式,所以它包含不只是哲学和心理学,但其他一切(历史,文学,数学,政治等) 。特别要注意,我(以及西尔、维特根斯坦和其他人)认为,故意和理性包括有意识的审议语言系统2和无意识的自动预语言系统1行为或反射。 .
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  28. added 2019-08-19
    The Logical Structure of Philosophy Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology Religion, Politics, Economics Literature and History - Articles and Reviews 2006-2019.Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    It is my contention that the table of intentionality (rationality, mind, thought, language, personality etc.) that features prominently here describes more or less accurately, or at least serves as an heuristic for, how we think and behave, and so it encompasses not merely philosophy and psychology, but everything else (history, literature, mathematics, politics etc.). Note especially that intentionality and rationality as I (along with Searle, Wittgenstein and others) view it, includes both conscious deliberative linguistic System 2 and unconscious automated prelinguistic (...)
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  29. added 2019-06-05
    VIII-Cognitive Expressivism, Faultless Disagreement, and Absolute but Non-Objective Truth.Stephen J. Barker - 2010 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 110 (2pt2):183-199.
    I offer a new theory of faultless disagreement, according to which truth is absolute (non-relative) but can still be non-objective. What's relative is truth-aptness: a sentence like ‘Vegemite is tasty’ (V) can be truth-accessible and bivalent in one context but not in another. Within a context in which V fails to be bivalent, we can affirm that there is no issue of truth or falsity about V, still disputants, affirming and denying V, were not at fault, since, in their context (...)
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  30. added 2019-06-02
    Does Language Have a Downtown? Wittgenstein, Brandom, and the Game of “Giving and Asking for Reasons”.Pietro Salis - 2019 - Disputatio. Philosophical Research Bulletin 8 (9):1-22.
    Wittgenstein’s Investigations proposed an egalitarian view about language games, emphasizing their plurality (“language has no downtown”). Uses of words depend on the game one is playing, and may change when playing another. Furthermore, there is no privileged game dictating the rules for the others: games are as many as purposes. This view is pluralist and egalitarian, but it says little about the connection between meaning and use, and about how a set of rules is responsible for them in practice. Brandom’s (...)
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  31. added 2019-05-10
    Razing Babel: Two Sonnets for Too Xenophobic Times.Harold Anthony Lloyd - 2016 - Huffington Post.
    Brief reflections in prose and verse on the vital importance of linguistic diversity.
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  32. added 2019-04-30
    A Closer Look at the Perceptual Source in Copy Raising Constructions.Rachel Etta Rudolph - 2019 - Proceedings of Sinn Und Bedeutung 23 2:287-304.
    Simple claims with the verb ‘seem’, as well as the specific sensory verbs, ‘look’, ‘sound’, etc., require the speaker to have some relevant kind of perceptual acquaintance (Pearson, 2013; Ninan, 2014). But different forms of these reports differ in their perceptual requirements. For example, the copy raising (CR) report, ‘Tom seems like he’s cooking’ requires the speaker to have seen Tom, while its expletive subject (ES) variant, ‘It seems like Tom is cooking’, does not (Rogers, 1972; Asudeh and Toivonen, 2012). (...)
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  33. added 2019-04-23
    Wittgenstein on the Foundations of Language : A Non Foundational Narration.Enakshi Mitra - 2009 - Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences 16 (2009):165-200.
    The primary objective of this paper is to show that for later Wittgenstein, language cannot be based on a pre-linguistic foundation. Following closely on the tracks of the philosopher, it argues that none of the proposed foundations that are claimed to relate language to reality - viz. verbal definitions, ostensive techniques, mental images, quantitative measurement , Fregean thought or intention - is able to sustain its assumed pre-interpretive character. In a dense exegetical engagement with Wittgenstein, the paper lays out that (...)
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  34. added 2019-04-11
    Perspectival Plurality, Relativism, and Multiple Indexing.Dan Zeman - 2018 - In Rob Truswell, Chris Cummins, Caroline Heycock, Brian Rabern & Hannah Rohde (eds.), Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 21, Vol. 2. Semantics Archives. pp. 1353-1370.
    In this paper I focus on a recently discussed phenomenon illustrated by sentences containing predicates of taste: the phenomenon of " perspectival plurality " , whereby sentences containing two or more predicates of taste have readings according to which each predicate pertains to a different perspective. This phenomenon has been shown to be problematic for (at least certain versions of) relativism. My main aim is to further the discussion by showing that the phenomenon extends to other perspectival expressions than predicates (...)
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  35. added 2019-04-11
    The Use of the Binding Argument in the Debate About Location.Dan Zeman - 2017 - In Sarah-Jane Conrad & Klaus Petrus (eds.), Meaning, Context and Methodology. Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 191-212.
    In this paper I inquire into the methodological status of one of the arguments that have figured prominently in contemporary debates about the semantics of a variety of expressions, the so-called “Binding Argument”. My inquiry is limited to the case of meteorological sentences like “It is raining”, but my conclusion can be extended to other types of sentences as well. Following Jason Stanley, I distinguish between three interpretations of the argument. My focus is on the third, weakest interpretation, according to (...)
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  36. added 2019-04-01
    Introduction. The School: Its Genesis, Development and Significance.U. Wybraniec-Skardowska - 2018 - In Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska & Ángel Garrido (eds.), in: The Lvov-Warsaw School. Past and Present. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 3-14.
    The Introduction outlines, in a concise way, the history of the Lvov-Warsaw School – a most unique Polish school of worldwide renown, which pioneered trends combining philosophy, logic, mathematics and language. The author accepts that the beginnings of the School fall on the year 1895, when its founder Kazimierz Twardowski, a disciple of Franz Brentano, came to Lvov on his mission to organize a scientific circle. Soon, among the characteristic features of the School was its serious approach towards philosophical studies (...)
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  37. added 2019-02-24
    Review of Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations by David Stern (2004)(Review Revised 2019).Michael Starks - 2019 - In The Logical Structure of Human Behavior. pp. 166-193.
    Overall Stern does a fine analysis of Wittgenstein (W) and is one of the top W scholars, but in my view, they all fall short of a full appreciation, as I explain at length in this review and many others. If one does not understand W (and preferably Searle also), then I don't see how one could have more than a superficial understanding of philosophy and of higher order thought and thus of all complex behavior (psychology, sociology, anthropology, history, literature, (...)
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  38. added 2019-02-24
    Review of 'John R Searle-Thinking About the Real World' by Franken Et Al Eds. (2010)(Review Revised 2019).Michael Starks - 2019 - In The Logical Structure of Human Behavior. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 405-424.
    This book is the result of Searle's stay in the Munster University Philosophy Dept in 2009 and all the papers except his introductory one and his final response are from persons associated with Munster. However, all the papers were written or revised later and so are one of the most up to date looks at his views available as of mid-2013. S has in my view made more fundamental contributions to higher order descriptive psychology (philosophy) than anyone since Wittgenstein (W), (...)
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  39. added 2019-02-24
    Review of 'Tractatus Logico Philosophicus' by Ludwig Wittgenstein (1922)(Review Revised 2019).Michael Starks - 2019 - In The Logical Structure of Human Behavior. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 348-363.
    TLP is a remarkable document which continues to seduce some the best minds in philosophy, with new books and articles dealing partly or entirely with it appearing frequently over a century after it was first conceived. The first thing to note is that W later rejected it entirely for reasons he spent the rest of his life explaining. He was doing philosophy (descriptive psychology) as though the mind was a logical mathematical machine that processed facts, and behavior was the result. (...)
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  40. added 2019-02-23
    The Logical Structure of Philosophy, Psychology, Mind and Language as Revealed in the Writings of Ludwig Wittgenstein and John Searle (Revised 2019).Michael Starks - 2019 - In The Logical Structure of Human Behavior. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 8-109.
    I provide a critical survey of some of the major findings of Wittgenstein and Searle on the logical structure of intentionality(mind, language, behavior), taking as my starting point Wittgenstein’s fundamental discovery –that all truly ‘philosophical’ problems are the same—confusions about how to use language in a particular context, and so all solutions are the same—looking at how language can be used in the context at issue so that its truth conditions (Conditions of Satisfaction or COS) are clear. The basic problem (...)
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  41. added 2019-02-12
    Does Language Determine Our Scientific Ideas?H. G. Callaway - 1992 - Dialectica 46 (3-4):225-242.
    SummaryThis paper argues that the influence of language on science, philosophy and other field is mediated by communicative practices. Where communications is more restrictive, established linguistic structures exercise a tighter control over innovations and scientifically motivated reforms of language. The viewpoint here centers on the thesis that argumentation is crucial in the understanding and evaluation of proposed reforms and that social practices which limit argumentation serve to erode scientific objectivity. Thus, a plea is made for a sociology of scientific belief (...)
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  42. added 2019-01-22
    Deceiving without answering.Peter van Elswyk - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (5):1157-1173.
    Lying is standardly distinguished from misleading according to how a disbelieved proposition is conveyed. To lie, a speaker uses a sentence to say a proposition she does not believe. A speaker merely misleads by using a sentence to somehow convey but not say a disbelieved proposition. Front-and-center to the lying/misleading distinction is a conception of what-is-said by a sentence in a context. Stokke (2016, 2018) has recently argued that the standard account of lying/misleading is explanatorily inadequate unless paired with a (...)
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  43. added 2019-01-04
    Dynamic Semantics.Karen S. Lewis - 2017 - Oxford Handbooks Online.
    This article focuses on foundational issues in dynamic and static semantics, specifically on what is conceptually at stake between the dynamic framework and the truth-conditional framework, and consequently what kinds of evidence support each framework. The article examines two questions. First, it explores the consequences of taking the proposition as central semantic notion as characteristic of static semantics, and argues that this is not as limiting in accounting for discourse dynamics as many think. Specifically, it explores what it means for (...)
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  44. added 2019-01-04
    Do We Need Dynamic Semantics?Karen S. Lewis - 2014 - In Alexis Burgess & Brett Sherman (eds.), Metasemantics: New Essays on the Foundations of Meaning. Oxford University Press. pp. 231-258.
    I suspect the answer to the question in the title of this paper is no. But the scope of my paper will be considerably more limited: I will be concerned with whether certain types of considerations that are commonly cited in favor of dynamic semantics do in fact push us towards a dynamic semantics. Ultimately, I will argue that the evidence points to a dynamics of discourse that is best treated pragmatically, rather than as part of the semantics.
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  45. added 2018-11-21
    The Acquaintance Inference with 'Seem'-Reports.Rachel Etta Rudolph - 2019 - Proceedings of the Chicago Linguistics Society 54:451-460.
    Some assertions give rise to the acquaintance inference: the inference that the speaker is acquainted with some individual. Discussion of the acquaintance inference has previously focused on assertions about aesthetic matters and personal tastes (e.g. 'The cake is tasty'), but it also arises with reports about how things seem (e.g. 'Tom seems like he's cooking'). 'Seem'-reports give rise to puzzling acquaintance behavior, with no analogue in the previously-discussed domains. In particular, these reports call for a distinction between the specific acquaintance (...)
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  46. added 2018-09-17
    التقييم الفائق كمقاربة سيمانطيقية لمشكلة الغموض في العلوم الإنسانية Supervaluation as a Semantic Approach to the Problem of Vagueness in Human Sciences.Salah Osman - 2018 - In Sabah Guelamine (ed.), قراءات للنماذج المعرفية في مجال العلوم الإنسانية. pp. 38 - 59.
    لقد بُذلت محاولات عديدة لتجاوز غموض قضايا العلوم الطبيعية والإنسانية من قبل المناطقة وفلاسفة اللغة، لا سيما خلال القرن العشرين، لكن تبرز منها محاولتان أكثر أهمية من غيرهما؛ تجلت الأولى في تطوير المنطق الرمزي الكلاسيكي ثنائي القيم إلى ما يُعرف بالمنطق متعدد القيم. ووفقًا لهذا الأخير لم يعد الحكم المنطقي – على أية قضية – مقصورًا على قيمتي الصدق التقليديتين: صادقة & كاذبة، كما يقضي بذلك قانون الثالث المرفوع، بل بات لدينا عدد لا متناه من القيم المتصلة التي تتوسط بين (...)
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  47. added 2018-08-14
    Zeno of Elea' Paradoxes (The Dialectic of Stability and Motion from a Contemporary Mathematical View) مفارقات زينون: جدل الثبات والحركة من منظور رياضي معاصر.Salah Osman - 2004 - Menoufia University, Faculty of Arts Journal, Egypt 58:99 - 139.
    لا شك أن مفارقات زينون في الحركة قد تم تناولها – تحليلاً ونقدًا – في كثيرٍ من أدبيات العلم والفلسفة قديمًا وحديثًا، حتى لقد ساد الظن بأن ملف المفارقات قد أغُلق تمامًا، لاسيما بعد أن نجح الحساب التحليلي في التعامل منطقيًا مع صعوبات الأعداد اللامتناهية، لكن الفرض الأساسي لهذا البحث يزعم عكس ذلك؛ أعني أن الملف مازال مفتوحًا وبقوة – خصوصًا على المستوى الرياضي الفيزيائي – وأن إغلاقه النهائي قد لا يتم في المستقبل القريب. من جهة أخرى، إذا كانت فكرة (...)
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  48. added 2018-08-01
    Review: Contextos, creencias y anaforas. [REVIEW]Maite Ezcurdia - 1996 - Critica 28 (83):97 - 129.
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  49. added 2018-07-09
    Conversation with Robert Brandom.Pietro Salis - 2018 - Aphex (18):1-27.
    In this broad interview Robert Brandom talks about many themes concerning his work and about his career and education. Brandom reconstructs the main debts that he owes to colleagues and teachers, especially Wilfrid Sellars, Richard Rorty, and David Lewis, and talks about the projects he’s currently working on. He also talks about contemporary and classical pragmatism, and of the importance of classical thinkers like Kant and Hegel for contemporary debates. Other themes go deeper into the principal topics of his theoretical (...)
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  50. added 2018-05-25
    Review of Giacomo Turbanti, Robert Brandom's Normative Inferentialism. [REVIEW]Pietro Salis - 2018 - Argumenta (6):384-389.
    Review of the book "Robert Brandom's Normative Inferentialism" by Giacomo Turbanti.
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