Results for 'Helmut Leder'

39 found
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  1. Aesthetics and Predictive Processing: Grounds and Prospects of a Fruitful Encounter.Jacopo Frascaroli, Helmut Leder, Elvira Brattico & Sander Van de Cruys - 2024 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 379 (20220410).
    In the last few years, a remarkable convergence of interests and results has emerged between scholars interested in the arts and aesthetics from a variety of perspectives and cognitive scientists studying the mind and brain within the predictive processing (PP) framework. This convergence has so far proven fruitful for both sides: while PP is increasingly adopted as a framework for understanding aesthetic phenomena, the arts and aesthetics, examined under the lens of PP, are starting to be seen as important windows (...)
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  2. Know Thyself? Questioning the Theoretical Foundations of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.Garson Leder - 2017 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 8 (2):391-410.
    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy has become the dominant form of psychotherapy in North America. The CBT model is theoretically based on the idea that all external and internal stimuli are filtered through meaning-making, consciously accessible cognitive schemas. The goal of CBT is to identify dysfunctional or maladaptive thoughts and beliefs, and replace them with more adaptive cognitive interpretations. While CBT is clearly effective as a treatment, there is good reason to be skeptical that its efficacy is due to the causal mechanisms (...)
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  3. Psychotherapy, placebos, and informed consent.Garson Leder - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (7):444-447.
    Several authors have recently argued that psychotherapy, as it is commonly practiced, is deceptive and undermines patients’ ability to give informed consent to treatment. This ‘deception’ claim is based on the findings that some, and possibly most, of the ameliorative effects in psychotherapeutic interventions are mediated by therapeutic common factors shared by successful treatments, rather than because of theory-specific techniques. These findings have led to claims that psychotherapy is, at least partly, likely a placebo, and that practitioners of psychotherapy have (...)
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  4. What Does It Mean to Have a Meaning Problem? Meaning, Skill, and the Mechanisms of Change in Psychotherapy.Garson Leder - 2019 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 26 (3):35-50.
    Psychotherapy is effective. Since the 1970’s, meta-analyses, and meta-analyses of meta-analyses, have consistently shown a significant effect size for psychotherapeutic interventions when compared to no treatment or placebo treatments. This effectiveness is normally taken as a sign of the scientific legitimization of clinical psychotherapy. A significant problem, however, is that most psychotherapies appear to be equally effective. This poses a problem for specific psychotherapies: they may work, but likely not for the reasons that ground their theoretical explanations for their effectiveness. (...)
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  5. How to obtain informed consent for psychotherapy: a reply to criticism.Garson Leder - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (7):450-451.
    In ‘Psychotherapy, Placebos and Informed Consent’, I argued that the minimal standard for informed consent in psychotherapy requires that ‘patients understand that there is currently no consensus about the mechanisms of change in psychotherapy, and that the therapy on offer…is based on disputed theoretical foundations’, and that the dissemination of this information is compatible with the delivery of many theory-specific forms of psychotherapy (including cognitive behavioural therapy [CBT]). I also argued that the minimal requirements for informed consent do not include (...)
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  6. On the fundamental meaning of the principle of least action and consequences for a "dynamic" quantum physics.Helmut Tributsch - 2016 - Journal of Modern Physics 7:365-374.
    The principle of least action, which has so successfully been applied to diverse fields of physics looks back at three centuries of philosophical and mathematical discussions and controversies. They could not explain why nature is applying the principle and why scalar energy quantities succeed in describing dynamic motion. When the least action integral is subdivided into infinitesimal small sections each one has to maintain the ability to minimise. This however has the mathematical consequence that the Lagrange function at a given (...)
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  7. Frege, the complex numbers, and the identity of indiscernibles.Wenzel Christian Helmut - 2010 - Logique Et Analyse 53 (209):51-60.
    There are mathematical structures with elements that cannot be distinguished by the properties they have within that structure. For instance within the field of complex numbers the two square roots of −1, i and −i, have the same algebraic properties in that field. So how do we distinguish between them? Imbedding the complex numbers in a bigger structure, the quaternions, allows us to algebraically tell them apart. But a similar problem appears for this larger structure. There seems to be always (...)
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  8. Opinions and Outlooks on Morphological Computation.Helmut Hauser, Rudolf M. Füchslin & Rolf Pfeifer (eds.) - 2014 - E-Book.
    Morphological Computation is based on the observation that biological systems seem to carry out relevant computations with their morphology (physical body) in order to successfully interact with their environments. This can be observed in a whole range of systems and at many different scales. It has been studied in animals – e.g., while running, the functionality of coping with impact and slight unevenness in the ground is "delivered" by the shape of the legs and the damped elasticity of the muscle-tendon (...)
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  9. Über die logische Notwendigkeit des EINEN.Helmut Hansen - manuscript
    1078 schlug Anselm von Cantury ein Argument für die Existenz Gottes vor, welches als ontologischer Beweis bekannt wurde. Es basiert auf der Erkennt-nis, dass die Nicht-Existenz Gottes zu einem Widerspruch führt, weswegen die Existenz Gottes als logisch notwendig erscheint. Obwohl diese Schlussfolgerung heutzutage als bedeutungslos kritisiert wird, ist sie immer noch Gegenstand philosophischer und theologischer Betrachtungen. In diesem Aufsatz wird eine moderne, d.h. wissenschaftliche, Metaphysik vorgestellt, die zu derselben Schlussfolgerung führte wie der ontologische Beweis – freilich aus einem ganz anderen (...)
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  10. Art and Imagination in Mathematics.Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2013 - In Michael L. Thompson (ed.), Imagination in Kant's Critical Philosophy. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 49-68.
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  11. Bezugspunkt Gesellschaft. Über die Geselligkeit und Ungeselligkeit der Menschen.Helmut Hofbauer - 2005 - Wroclaw: ATUT.
    This book is a PhD dissertation and a very personal book at the same time. It asks the question whether society can and should be a point of orientation ("Bezugspunkt") for the human individual. Please note, that this cannot be a scientific book: If sociology is defined as society observed by society (or by sociologists, who are the agents of society), society observed by a single person (and for the aim of this single person) cannot be scientific. This is also (...)
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  12. Aesthetics and Morality in Kant and Confucius. A Second Step.Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2010 - In Stephen Palmquist (ed.), Cultivating Personhood. Kant and Asian Philosophy. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 321-332.
    In the framework of his transcendental philosophy, Kant strictly separates morality from aesthetics. The pleasure in the good and the pleasure in the beautiful are two different kinds of pleasure (Arten des Wohlgefallens). As a consequence, a moral act as such cannot be beautiful. It is only in a second step that Kant indicates possible connections, in his comments on aesthetic ideas, symbolism, the sensus communis, and education in general. In Confucius on the other hand we do not find such (...)
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  13. Ethics and Relativism in Wittgenstein.Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2012 - Contributions of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society 20:348-350.
    This essay is about Wittgenstein, first about his views on ethics, second about his conception of language games. Third, it combines the two and shows how problems arise from this. Wittgenstein rejects theories of ethics and emphasises the variety of language games. Such language games are marked by what I call “inner relativity”. Wittgenstein himself was not a relativist, but it seems to me his views easily lead to what I call “outer relativism”. In matters of ethics this is particularly (...)
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  14. On Wittgenstein on Certainty.Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2011 - Contributions of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society 19:320-322.
    In the preface to On Certainty Anscombe and von Wright say that in 1949 Malcolm suggested to Wittgenstein to think again about Moore’s “Defense of Common Sense” (1925) and “Proof of an External World” (1939). Malcolm himself had written on the issue in “Defending Common Sense” (1949). In the preface to the Philosophical Investigations Wittgenstein quotes Nestroy saying that there is usually very little progress in philosophy. But I think some progress has been made from Moore and Malcolm to Wittgenstein (...)
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  15. Aesthetics and Rule Following.Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2016 - Contributions of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society 24:260-262.
    In this essay I point out parallels between Kant’s theory of aesthetics and Wittgenstein’s discussion of rule following. Although Wittgenstein did not write an aesthetics and Kant did not discuss Wittgensteinian rule-following problems, and although both Kant and Wittgenstein begin at very different starting points and use different methods, they end up dealing with similar issues, namely issues about rules, particularity, exemplarity, objectivity, practice, and as-if statements.
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  16. Kann aus dem Urteil über das Angenehme ein Geschmacksurteil ähnlich wie aus dem Wahrnehmungsurteil ein Erfahrungsurteil werden? (Can a Judgment About the Agreeable Become a Judgment of Taste, As a Judgment of Perception Can Become a Judgment of Experience?).Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2001 - In Volker Gerhardt, Rolf-Peter Horstmann & Ralph Schumacher (eds.), Kant und die Berliner Aufklärung. Akten des IX. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses, vol. 3. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 468-476.
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  17. Where after all are the Meanings? A Defense of Internalism. Searle versus Putnam.Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2004 - Experience and Analysis. Papers of the 27th International Wittgenstein Symposium 12:408-409.
    There has been recent dispute between Putnam and Searle over whether meanings are “in the head”. Putnam makes use of Twin-Earth thought experiments to show that our mental states alone cannot determine what we refer to (and thus “mean”) and that we rely also on external factors, which are not “in the head”. This suggests to me that we in some way mean more than we actually know. Searle on the other hand makes use of what he calls “Intentional contents”, (...)
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  18. Does Thought Happen in the Brain?Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2013 - Contributions of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society 21:453-455.
    What is the nature of thought? Is thought linguistic and some kind of silent speech? Or is it pre-linguistic and some kind of association of ideas and images in the mind? Does it happen in the brain? I will focus on the last question, but also say something about the other two. I will present a simple thought experiment to show that thought must somehow happen in the brain. But then I will soften the impression this might give by pointing (...)
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  19. Urteil (Judgment).Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2011 - In Petra Kolmer & Arnim G. Wildfeuer (eds.), Neues Handbuch Philosophischer Grundbegriffe. Verlag Karl Alber. pp. 2284-2296.
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  20. How Pictorial is Chinese? And Does it Matter?Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2010 - Contributions of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society 18:317-319.
    It has often been said that the Chinese script is pictorial or ideographic, and that this is one of the reasons why Chinese tend to think more analogically than logically, and why in the past the natural sciences developed to a lesser degree in China than in the West. These are strong claims. They have often been oversimplified and exaggerated, but I think there is something to be said for them. Here I will focus on the first question. I will (...)
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  21. "Bedeutungserlebnis" and "Lebensgefühl" in Kant and Wittgenstein: Responsibility and the Future.Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2009 - Contributions of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society 17:451-453.
    This essay is about the inner and the outer in Wittgenstein, in particular his notion of “meaning experience”. Wittgenstein reminds us that we should not think of the inner, psychological the way we think about the outer, physical world. Again and again he keeps returning to certain views about the soul and our mental states. I think that it is not only therapy he has in mind. I will contrast certain aesthetic and ethical aspects of his thoughts with views from (...)
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  22. Transcendental Philosophy and Mind-Body Reductionism.Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2008 - Contributions of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society 16:390-392.
    The notion of “representation” is central to Kant’s transcendental philosophy. But naturalism and mind-body reductionism tend to reduce talk of (first-person) representation to stories of (third-person) causality and evolution. How does Kant fare in this context?
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  23. Chinese Ways of Words.Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2009 - Institut International de Philosophie 5:119-126.
    According to the so-called Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, a language influences the mind of its user. This is more or less trivial, but the problems are in the details. It is difficult to make precise what those influences are, be it in general philosophical or in particular empirical-cultural terms. I will give an account of what I take to be basic aesthetic and grammatical features of the Chinese language compared with what we find in Western languages such as Latin or greek. Then (...)
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  24. Knowledge, Belief, and the A Priori.Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2003 - Contributions of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society 11:369-370.
    This paper has two parts. In the first I give a brief historical account of the a priori and point out the central and problematic role of 'Erfahrung überhaupt' in Kant’s transcendental philosophy. In the second and main part I offer a criticism of Kripke’s arguments for the contingent a priori and I thereby question his radical separation of metaphysics and epistemology.
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  25. Hermann von Helmholtz, Philosophische und populärwissenschaftliche Schriften. 3 Bände.Gregor Schiemann, Michael Heidelberger & Helmut Pulte (eds.) - 2017 - Hamburg: Meiner.
    Aus dem vielfältigen Werk von Hermann von Helmholtz versammelt diese Ausgabe die im engeren Sinne philosophischen Abhandlungen, vor allem zur Wissenschaftsphilosophie und Erkenntnistheorie, sowie Vorträge und Reden, bei denen der Autor seine Ausnahmestellung im Wissenschaftsbetrieb nutzte, um die Wissenschaften und ihre Institutionen in der bestehenden Form zu repräsentieren und zu begründen. Ein Philosoph wollte Helmholtz nicht sein, aber er legte der philosophischen Reflexion wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnis und wissenschaftlichen Handelns große Bedeutung bei. Vor allem bezog er, in der Regel ausgehend von seinen (...)
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  26. A Fundamentally Irreversible World as an Opportunity towards a Consistent Understanding of Quantum and Cosmological Contexts.Tributsch Helmut Helmuttributsch@Aliceit - 2016 - Lournal of Modern Physics 7:1455-1482.
    In a preceding publication a fundamentally oriented and irreversible world was shown to be de- rivable from the important principle of least action. A consequence of such a paradigm change is avoidance of paradoxes within a “dynamic” quantum physics. This becomes essentially possible because fundamental irreversibility allows consideration of the “entropy” concept in elementary processes. For this reason, and for a compensation of entropy in the spread out energy of the wave, the duality of particle and wave has to be (...)
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  27. Perry Link: An Anatomy of Chinese; Rhythm, Metaphor. Harvard University Press 2013. [REVIEW]Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2014 - Etudes Chinoises 33 (1):174-181.
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  28. Helmut Müller-Sievers, Self-Generation: Biology, Philosophy, and Literature Around 1800. [REVIEW]Karen Detlefsen - 1998 - Philosophy in Review 18 (4):285-287.
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  29. Controlling the Noise: A Phenomenological Account of Anorexia Nervosa and the Threatening Body.Lucy Osler - 2021 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 28 (1):41-58.
    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a complex disorder characterised by self-starvation, an act of self-destruction. It is often described as a disorder marked by paradoxes and, despite extensive research attention, is still not well understood. Much AN research focuses upon the distorted body image that individuals with AN supposedly experience. However, based upon reports from individuals describing their own experience of AN, I argue that their bodily experience is much more complex than this focus might lead us to believe. Such research (...)
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  30. Mind-Body problemets olösbarhet frigör viljan.Jan Scheffel - manuscript
    Mind-body problemet analyseras i ett reduktionistiskt perspektiv. Genom att kombinera emergensbegreppet med algoritmisk informationsteori visas i ett tankeexperiment att ett starkt epistemiskt emergent system kan konstrueras utifrån en relativt enkel, ickelinjär process. En jämförelse med hjärnans avsevärt mer komplexa neurala nätverk visar att även medvetandet kan karakteriseras som starkt epistemiskt emergent. Därmed är reduktionistisk förståelse av medvetandet inte möjlig; mind-body problemet har alltså inte en reduktionistisk lösning. Medvetandets ontologiskt emergenta karaktär kan därefter konstateras utifrån en kombinatorisk analys; det är därmed (...)
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  31.  62
    Arkham's Sirens. Analyzing the Roles of the Body and the Transcendental Subject in Arkham's Villainesses and Antiheroines.Favaro Marco - 2023 - In Favaro Marco & Justin F. Martin (eds.), Batman’s Villains and Villainesses: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Arkham’s Souls. Lexington Books. pp. 229-244.
    Cartesian and Western religious and philosophical traditions distinguish the body from the mind, viewing the former as a prison or a burden. The mind (spirit, soul, rationality) is identified as good, while the body is devalued and associated with evil. Some philosophers restored the body's value: humans are not imprisoned spirits, but they are their bodies. Husserl, for example, claims that human beings are not an immaterial substance in a Körper, a physical body, but Leib, a living body that solves (...)
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  32. Thinking about Thinking about Thinking about Thinking (about Poker).Jonathan Ellis - 2006 - In E. Bronson (ed.), Poker and Philosophy. Open Court Press.
    Remember that childhood game “Odds or Evens” you used to play in order to settle important disputes such as who gets the last slice of pizza? There was only one element of skill to that game: trying to figure out what the other person would throw. But that wasn’t easy. If your opponent was savvy, that meant trying to figure out what he thought you were going to throw. And that sometimes meant figuring out what he thought you thought he (...)
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  33. Giuseppina Grammatico y los fragmentos de Heráclito: traducción en la “σύναψις silencio-palabra”.Álvaro Salazar Valenzuela - 2019 - Limes 30 (30):233-250.
    Title: «Giuseppina Grammatico and Heraclitus’ fragments: Translation in the “σύναψις silence-word”». Abstract: This work is intended to be a first translatological approach of the synapsis in Giuseppina Grammatico’s exegesis called The Synapsis Silence-Word in the Fragments of Heraclitus. Thus, this reflection aims to analyze how in Heraclitus’ fragments visited and translated by Grammatico we can see not only a synapsis —observed by her—, but a union between the silence and the word in which it is produced a translation process. All (...)
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  34. Giuseppina Grammatico y los fragmentos de Heráclito: traducción en la “σύναψις silencio-palabra”.Álvaro Salazar Valenzuela - 2019 - Limes 30 (30):233-250.
    Title: «Giuseppina Grammatico and Heraclitus’ fragments: Translation in the “σύναψις silence-word”». Abstract: This work is intended to be a first translatological approach of the synapsis in Giuseppina Grammatico’s exegesis called The Synapsis Silence-Word in the Fragments of Heraclitus. Thus, this reflection aims to analyze how in Heraclitus’ fragments visited and translated by Grammatico we can see not only a synapsis —observed by her—, but a union between the silence and the word in which it is produced a translation process. All (...)
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  35. Naturerkenntnis Und Natursein.Gregor Schiemann, Michael Hauskeller & Christoph Rehmann-Sutter (eds.) - 1998 - Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
    Indem dieser Band sich auf das Verhältnis von Naturerkennen und Natursein konzentriert, thematisiert er einen wesentlichen Ausschnitt aus dem weiten Spektrum von Böhmes philosophischer Arbeit. Um die Naturthematik möglichst breit zu entfalten und für Querverbindungen offenzuhalten, ist der vorliegende Band in drei Abschnitte gegliedert. Im ersten Abschnitt stehen Charakter und Reichweite der wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnis von Natur im Mittelpunkt. Der zweite Teil des Bandes stellt alternative Perspektiven auf Natur vor. Im dritten Teil schließlich stehen der Mensch und sein Verhältnis zu sich (...)
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  36. Sztuka jako świętowanie.Leszek Sosnowski - forthcoming - Estetyka I Krytyka 5 (5):90-105.
    Art as Festival Art has been a privileged sphere in the sense that it appeales to art-receivers because of its power of taking them outside the sphere of everyday life (commonplaceness) and practicality. For the first time the philosophers of ancient Greece propagated this view. In this paper the Pythagorean and Aristotle’s views are considered; however they have different metaphysical bases, there is some aspect common to theirs aesthetics. In 20th century it is Helmut Kuhn, Hans-Georg Gadamer and Władysław (...)
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  37.  49
    ФІЛОСОФСЬКА АНТРОПОЛОГІЯ ЯК НАПРЯМ ЄВРОПЕЙСЬКОЇ ФІЛОСОФІЇ ХХ СТОЛІТТЯ (АНТРОПОЛОГІЧНІ ПРОЕКТИ МАКСА ШЕЛЕРА ТА ГЕЛЬМУТА ПЛЕСНЕРА) (7th edition).Інна Савинська - 2010 - Київський Національний Університет Імені Тараса Шевченка. Гуманітарні Студії 7:90-99.
    У статті розглядаються передумови формування філософської антропології як самостійної дисципліни та аналізуються антропологічні проєкти Макса Шелера та Гельмута Плеснера. -/- This article examines the preconditions of forming of philosophical anthropology as an independent discipline and analyses the anthropological projects of Max Scheler and Helmut Plessner. Keywords: philosophical anthropology; eccentric; anthropological principles; personality.
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  38. Kosmos & Kontingenz: Eine Gegengeschichte.Philipp Weber (ed.) - 2016 - Paderborn, Germany: Fink Verlag.
    Preliminary Material /Reto Rössler, Tim Sparenberg and Philipp Weber -- Kosmos & Kontingenz /Reto Rössler, Tim Sparenberg and Philipp Weber -- "De la théorie à la pratique“ /Eva Marie Noller -- Mittelalterliche Kosmologie und Kontingenz /Cornelia Selent -- Kontingenz der Stimmen im Kosmos der Lettern -,Atomologie', Technologie und William Baldwins Beware the Cat /Ronja Bodola -- Hypothese, Abweichung und Traum Keplers Ellipsen /Reto Rössler -- "Nur leerer Raum und Schatten“ /Hartmut Böhme -- Gewissheit als sentiment /Christian Reidenbach -- Poiesis im (...)
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  39. Europäische Union - ein Schritt näher.Monika Kucner - 2002 - Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Germanica 3:229-249.
    Idea integracji europejskiej nie jest wymysłem naszych czasów. Jest to proces złożony, który dojrzewał na przestrzeni kilku wieków i który w naszym stuleciu zaczął nabierać wyrazistych kształtów. Społeczeństwa europejskie znużone bezsensem wzajemnie wyniszczających wojen, zaczęły poszukiwać takiej formy koegzystencji, która umożliwiłaby im wspólne decydowanie o polityce, gospodarce czy kulturze. W roku 1950 francuski minister spraw zagranicznych Robert Schuman zadeklarował gotowość rządu francuskiego do współpracy z rządem niemieckim w sektorze węgla i stali, w celu zagwarantowania pokoju na kontynencie. Plan Schumana urzeczywistnił (...)
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