Results for 'Linearity of language'

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  1. Ladder Understanding of Language How to Understand a Sentence.Abolfazl Sabramiz - manuscript
    Language is expressed in a consecutive way that is called linearity; it is acceptable to think that language understanding also occurs in a linear way. In this paper, it will be argued that although sentences are expressed in a linear way, they are not understood in the same way, because we develop an understanding of the entwined phrases forming a sentence beyond the single words. Therefore, it is argued that linearity cannot adequately explain sentence understanding. In (...)
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  2. From Linear to Branching-Time Temporal Logics: Transfer of Semantics and Definability.Valentin Goranko & Alberto Zanardo - 2007 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 15 (1):53-76.
    This paper investigates logical aspects of combining linear orders as semantics for modal and temporal logics, with modalities for possible paths, resulting in a variety of branching time logics over classes of trees. Here we adopt a unified approach to the Priorean, Peircean and Ockhamist semantics for branching time logics, by considering them all as fragments of the latter, obtained as combinations, in various degrees, of languages and semantics for linear time with a modality for possible paths. We then consider (...)
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  3. Prospectus to a Homotopic Metatheory of Language.Eric Schmid - forthcoming - Chicago: Edition Erich Schmid.
    Due to the wide scope of (in particular linear) homotopy type theory (using quantum natural language processing), a metatheory can be applied not just to theorizing the metatheory of scientific progress, but ordinary language or any public language defined by sociality/social agents as the precondition for the realizability of (general) intelligence via an inferential network from which judgement can be made. How this metatheory of science generalizes to public language is through the recent advances of quantum (...)
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  4. Modelling Combinatorial Auctions in Linear Logic.Daniele Porello & Ulle Endriss - 2010 - In Daniele Porello & Ulle Endriss (eds.), Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference, {KR} 2010, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 9-13, 2010.
    We show that linear logic can serve as an expressive framework in which to model a rich variety of combinatorial auction mechanisms. Due to its resource-sensitive nature, linear logic can easily represent bids in combinatorial auctions in which goods may be sold in multiple units, and we show how it naturally generalises several bidding languages familiar from the literature. Moreover, the winner determination problem, i.e., the problem of computing an allocation of goods to bidders producing a certain amount of revenue (...)
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  5. Principles and Philosophy of Linear Algebra: A Gentle Introduction.Paul Mayer - manuscript
    Linear Algebra is an extremely important field that extends everyday concepts about geometry and algebra into higher spaces. This text serves as a gentle motivating introduction to the principles (and philosophy) behind linear algebra. This is aimed at undergraduate students taking a linear algebra class - in particular engineering students who are expected to understand and use linear algebra to build and design things, however it may also prove helpful for philosophy majors and anyone else interested in the ideas behind (...)
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  6. AI Powered Anti-Cyber bullying system using Machine Learning Algorithm of Multinomial Naïve Bayes and Optimized Linear Support Vector Machine.Tosin Ige & Sikiru Adewale - 2022 - International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications 13 (5):1 - 5.
    Unless and until our society recognizes cyber bullying for what it is, the suffering of thousands of silent victims will continue.” ~ Anna Maria Chavez. There had been series of research on cyber bullying which are unable to provide reliable solution to cyber bullying. In this research work, we were able to provide a permanent solution to this by developing a model capable of detecting and intercepting bullying incoming and outgoing messages with 92% accuracy. We also developed a chatbot automation (...)
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  7. Commentary and Illocutionary Expressions in Linear Calculi of Natural Deduction.Moritz Cordes & Friedrich Reinmuth - 2017 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 26 (2).
    We argue that the need for commentary in commonly used linear calculi of natural deduction is connected to the “deletion” of illocutionary expressions that express the role of propositions as reasons, assumptions, or inferred propositions. We first analyze the formalization of an informal proof in some common calculi which do not formalize natural language illocutionary expressions, and show that in these calculi the formalizations of the example proof rely on commentary devices that have no counterpart in the original proof. (...)
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  8. Non-normal modalities in variants of linear logic.D. Porello & N. Troquard - 2015 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 25 (3):229-255.
    This article presents modal versions of resource-conscious logics. We concentrate on extensions of variants of linear logic with one minimal non-normal modality. In earlier work, where we investigated agency in multi-agent systems, we have shown that the results scale up to logics with multiple non-minimal modalities. Here, we start with the language of propositional intuitionistic linear logic without the additive disjunction, to which we add a modality. We provide an interpretation of this language on a class of Kripke (...)
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  9. Japanese English students 'knowledge of and attitudes towards the English language'.Peter Ilic - 2012 - Dialogos 12:13-40.
    This short enquiry investigates the relationships between knowledge of English and attitude towards the English language as held by Japanese university students. The goal of this study was to gain a better understanding of how attitude affects the learning of English and whether gender or geographic location of a student ’s hometown plays a role. A random sample of 85 participants completed a 26 item questionnaire which measured background information, attitude to English and knowledge of English. The difference in (...)
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  10.  82
    Begriffsgeschichte, the Introduction of Western Time Consciousness into the Chinese Language, and Chinese Modernity.Sinkwan Cheng - 2015 - In Representing the Future: Zur kulturellen Logik der Zukunft. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag. pp. 217-231.
    Drawing from Koselleck’s Begriffsgeschichte, this paper explores how and why China’s linguistic revolutions took place alongside the country’s quest for scientific, economic and political modernity. When discussing the contributions made by translation of Western texts to China’s modernization process, scholars have been focusing on content issues. They have overlooked how translation, _through effecting changes in the Chinese language, has transformed the Chinese people’s Weltanschauung at a fundamental level—only with that transformation did China become truly ready for modernity_. For example, (...)
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  11. AI Powered Anti-Cyber bullying system using Machine Learning Algorithm of Multinomial Naïve Bayes and Optimized Linear Support Vector Machine.Tosin Ige - 2022 - International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications 13 (5):1 - 5.
    Unless and until our society recognizes cyber bullying for what it is, the suffering of thousands of silent victims will continue.” ~ Anna Maria Chavez. There had been series of research on cyber bullying which are unable to provide reliable solution to cyber bullying. In this research work, we were able to provide a permanent solution to this by developing a model capable of detecting and intercepting bullying incoming and outgoing messages with 92% accuracy. We also developed a chatbot automation (...)
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  12. Language, Lambdas, and Logic.Reinhard Muskens - 2003 - In R. Oehrle & J. Kruijff (eds.), resource sensitivity, binding, and anaphora. kluwer. pp. 23--54.
    The paper develops Lambda Grammars, a form of categorial grammar that, unlike other categorial formalisms, is non-directional. Linguistic signs are represented as sequences of lambda terms and are combined with the help of linear combinators.
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  13. At Noon: (Post)Nihilistic Temporalities in The Age of Machine-Learning Algorithms That Speak.Talha Issevenler - 2023 - The Agonist : A Nietzsche Circle Journal 17 (2):63–72.
    This article recapitulates and develops the attempts in the Nietzschean traditions to address and overcome the proliferation of nihilism that Nietzsche predicted to unfold in the next 200 years (WP 2). Nietzsche approached nihilism not merely as a psychology but as a labyrinthic and pervasive historical process whereby the highest values of culture and founding assumptions of philosophical thought prevented the further flourishing of life. Therefore, he thought nihilism had to be encountered and experienced on many, often opposing, fronts to (...)
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  14. Constructing a concept of number.Karenleigh Overmann - 2018 - Journal of Numerical Cognition 2 (4):464–493.
    Numbers are concepts whose content, structure, and organization are influenced by the material forms used to represent and manipulate them. Indeed, as argued here, it is the inclusion of multiple forms (distributed objects, fingers, single- and two-dimensional forms like pebbles and abaci, and written notations) that is the mechanism of numerical elaboration. Further, variety in employed forms explains at least part of the synchronic and diachronic variability that exists between and within cultural number systems. Material forms also impart characteristics like (...)
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  15. Diagnosis of Blood Cells Using Deep Learning.Ahmed J. Khalil & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2022 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 6 (2):69-84.
    In computer science, Artificial Intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and other animals. Computer science defines AI research as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. Deep Learning is a new field of research. One of the branches of Artificial Intelligence Science deals with the creation of theories and algorithms that (...)
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  16. Breaking Out of One’s Head (& Awakening to the World).Gregory Nixon - 2019 - In Alex S. Kohav (ed.), Mysticism and Meaning: : Multidisciplinary Perspectives. St Petersburg, Florida: Three Pines Press. pp. 29-57.
    Herein, I review the shattering moment in my life when I awoke from the dream of self to find being as part of the living world and not in my head, discovering my perspectival center to be literally everywhere. Since awakening to the world takes one beyond thought and language thus also beyond the symbolic construction of time, it is strange to place this event and its aftermath as happening long ago in my life. It is forever present. This (...)
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  17. How can a line segment with extension be composed of extensionless points?Brian Reese, Michael Vazquez & Scott Weinstein - 2022 - Synthese 200 (2):1-28.
    We provide a new interpretation of Zeno’s Paradox of Measure that begins by giving a substantive account, drawn from Aristotle’s text, of the fact that points lack magnitude. The main elements of this account are (1) the Axiom of Archimedes which states that there are no infinitesimal magnitudes, and (2) the principle that all assignments of magnitude, or lack thereof, must be grounded in the magnitude of line segments, the primary objects to which the notion of linear magnitude applies. Armed (...)
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  18. Afro-Brazilian Religions and the Prospects for a Philosophy of Religious Practice.José Eduardo Porcher & Fernando Carlucci - 2023 - Religions 14 (2):146.
    In this paper, we take our cue from Kevin Schilbrack’s admonishment that the philosophy of religion needs to take religious practices seriously as an object of investigation. We do so by offering Afro-Brazilian traditions as an example of the methodological poverty of current philosophical engagement with religions that are not text-based, belief-focused, and institutionalized. Anthropologists have studied these primarily orally transmitted traditions for nearly a century. Still, they involve practices, such as offering and sacrifice as well as spirit possession and (...)
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  19. Breaking Out of One's Head.Gregory Michael Nixon - 2019 - In Alex S. Kohav (ed.), Mysticism and Meaning: : Multidisciplinary Perspectives. St Petersburg, Florida: Three Pines Press. pp. 29-57.
    Herein, I review the shattering moment in my life when I awoke from the dream of self to find being as part of the living world and not in my head, discovering my perspectival center to be literally everywhere. Since awakening to the world takes one beyond thought and language thus also beyond the symbolic construction of time, it is strange to place this event and its aftermath as happening long ago in my life. It is forever present. This (...)
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  20. Breaking Out of One's Head (& Awakening to the World).Gregory Nixon - 2011 - Journal of Consciousness Exploration and Research 2 (7):1006-1022.
    Herein, I review the moment in my life when I awoke from the dream of self to find being as part of the living world. It was a sudden, momentous event that is difficult to explain since transcending the self ultimately requires transcending the language structures of which the self consists. Since awakening to the world took place beyond the enclosure of self-speech, it also took place outside our symbolic construction of time. It is strange to place this event (...)
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  21. Level theory, part 2: Axiomatizing the bare idea of a potential hierarchy.Tim Button - 2021 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 27 (4):461-484.
    Potentialists think that the concept of set is importantly modal. Using tensed language as an heuristic, the following bar-bones story introduces the idea of a potential hierarchy of sets: 'Always: for any sets that existed, there is a set whose members are exactly those sets; there are no other sets.' Surprisingly, this story already guarantees well-foundedness and persistence. Moreover, if we assume that time is linear, the ensuing modal set theory is almost definitionally equivalent with non-modal set theories; specifically, (...)
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  22. Ghostly pasts and postponed futures: The disorder of time during the corona pandemic.Siobhan Kattago - 2021 - Memory Studies 14 (6):1401-1413.
    Since the first lockdown in March 2020, time seems to have slowed to a continuous present tense. The Greek language has three words to express different experiences of time: aion, chronos and kairos. If aion is the boundless and limbo-like time of eternity, chronos represents chronological, sequential, and linear time. Kairos, however, signifies the rupture of ordinary time with the opportune moment, epiphany and redemption, revolution, and most broadly, crisis and emergency. This paper argues that the pandemic is impacting (...)
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  23. Remarks on the Geometry of Complex Systems and Self-Organization.Luciano Boi - 2012 - In Vincenzo Fano, Enrico Giannetto, Giulia Giannini & Pierluigi Graziani (eds.), Complessità e Riduzionismo. ISONOMIA - Epistemologica Series Editor. pp. 28-43.
    Let us start by some general definitions of the concept of complexity. We take a complex system to be one composed by a large number of parts, and whose properties are not fully explained by an understanding of its components parts. Studies of complex systems recognized the importance of “wholeness”, defined as problems of organization (and of regulation), phenomena non resolvable into local events, dynamics interactions in the difference of behaviour of parts when isolated or in higher configuration, etc., in (...)
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  24.  96
    Being In A 'Blanked-Out' State of Mind.Ayad Gharbawi - manuscript
    Being in a ‘Blanked Out State’ - Extinction of Self/Consciousness of A Human -/- Author: Ayad Gharbawi 2023 -/- Word Count: 1,088 Key Words: Human Existence; Human Non-existence; Mind; Awareness; Non-awareness; Extinction of Mind, Self and Physicality -/- Dear Sir/Madam; -/- I hope this email finds you well. -/- This paper seeks to prove that in certain mental states, the Mind can be in what we call in the English language, ‘being in a blanked-out state.’ This means the conscious (...)
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  25. Towards Knowledge-driven Distillation and Explanation of Black-box Models.Roberto Confalonieri, Guendalina Righetti, Pietro Galliani, Nicolas Toquard, Oliver Kutz & Daniele Porello - 2021 - In Roberto Confalonieri, Guendalina Righetti, Pietro Galliani, Nicolas Toquard, Oliver Kutz & Daniele Porello (eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop on Data meets Applied Ontologies in Explainable {AI} {(DAO-XAI} 2021) part of Bratislava Knowledge September {(BAKS} 2021), Bratislava, Slovakia, September 18th to 19th, 2021. CEUR 2998.
    We introduce and discuss a knowledge-driven distillation approach to explaining black-box models by means of two kinds of interpretable models. The first is perceptron (or threshold) connectives, which enrich knowledge representation languages such as Description Logics with linear operators that serve as a bridge between statistical learning and logical reasoning. The second is Trepan Reloaded, an ap- proach that builds post-hoc explanations of black-box classifiers in the form of decision trees enhanced by domain knowledge. Our aim is, firstly, to target (...)
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  26. Adaptation and its Analogues: Biological Categories for Biosemantics.Hajo Greif - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 90:298-307.
    “Teleosemantic” or “biosemantic” theories form a strong naturalistic programme in the philosophy of mind and language. They seek to explain the nature of mind and language by recourse to a natural history of “proper functions” as selected-for effects of language- and thought-producing mechanisms. However, they remain vague with respect to the nature of the proposed analogy between selected-for effects on the biological level and phenomena that are not strictly biological, such as reproducible linguistic and cultural forms. This (...)
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  27. Introduction to CAT4. Part 1. Axioms.Andrew Thomas Holster - manuscript
    CAT4 is proposed as a general method for representing information, enabling a powerful programming method for large-scale information systems. It enables generalised machine learning, software automation and novel AI capabilities. It is based on a special type of relation called CAT4, which is interpreted to provide a semantic representation. This is Part 1 of a five-part introduction. The focus here is on defining the key mathematical structures first, and presenting the semantic-database application in subsequent Parts. We focus in Part 1 (...)
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  28. Lineales.Martin Hyland & Valeria de Paiva - 1991 - O Que Nos Faz Pensar:107-123.
    The first aim of this note is to describe an algebraic structure, more primitive than lattices and quantales, which corresponds to the intuitionistic flavour of Linear Logic we prefer. This part of the note is a total trivialisation of ideas from category theory and we play with a toy-structure a not distant cousin of a toy-language. The second goal of the note is to show a generic categorical construction, which builds models for Linear Logic, similar to categorical models GC (...)
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  29. Philosophy of Language.Walter Ott - 2014 - In Daniel Kaufman (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Seventeenth Century Philosophy. New York: Routledge. pp. 354-382.
    How language works — its functions, mechanisms, and limitations — matters to the early moderns as much as it does to contemporary philosophers. Many of the moderns make reflection on language central to their philosophical projects, both as a tool for explaining human cognition and as a weapon to be used against competing views. Even in philosophers for whom language is less central, we can find important connections between their views on language and their other philosophical (...)
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  30. Combinatoriality and Compositionality in Everyday Primate Skills.Nathalie Gontier - forthcoming - International Journal of Primatology.
    Human language, hominin tool production modes, and multimodal communications systems of primates and other animals are currently well-studied for how they display compositionality or combinatoriality. In all cases, the former is defined as a kind of hierarchical nesting and the latter as a lack thereof. In this article, I extend research on combinatoriality and compositionality further to investigations of everyday primate skills. Daily locomotion modes as well as behaviors associated with subsistence practices, hygiene, or body modification rely on the (...)
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  31. Philosophy of language for metaethics.Mark Schroeder - 2011 - In Gillian Russell & Delia Graff Fara (eds.), Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Language. New York, USA: Routledge.
    Metaethics is the study of metaphysics, epistemology, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language, insofar as they relate to the subject matter of moral or, more broadly, normative discourse – the subject matter of what is good, bad, right or wrong, just, reasonable, rational, what we must or ought to do, or otherwise. But out of these four ‘core’ areas of philosophy, it is plausibly the philosophy of language that is most central to metaethics – and (...)
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  32. Exploring word recognition in a semi-alphabetic script: The case of Devanagari.J. Vaid & Ashum Gupta - 2002 - Brain and Language 81:679-690.
    Unlike other writing systems that are readily classifiable as alphabetic or syllabic in their structure, the Indic Devanagari script (of which Hindi is an example) has properties of both syllabic and alphabetic writing systems. Whereas Devanagari consonants are written in a linear left-to-right order, vowel signs are positioned nonlinearly above, below, or to either side of the consonants. This fact results in certain words in Hindi for which, in a given syllable, the vowel precedes the consonant in writing but follows (...)
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  33. Ontology of language, with applications to demographic data.S. Clint Dowland, Barry Smith, Matthew A. Diller, Jobst Landgrebe & William R. Hogan - 2023 - Applied ontology 18 (3):239-262.
    Here we present what we believe is a novel account of what languages are, along with an axiomatically rich representation of languages and language-related data that is based on this account. We propose an account of languages as aggregates of dispositions distributed across aggregates of persons, and in doing so we address linguistic competences and the processes that realize them. This paves the way for representing additional types of language-related entities. Like demographic data of other sorts, data about (...)
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  34. Ecology of languages. Sociolinguistic environment, contacts, and dynamics. (In: From language shift to language revitalization and sustainability. A complexity approach to linguistic ecology).Albert Bastardas-Boada - 2019 - Barcelona, Spain: Edicions de la Universitat de Barcelona.
    Human linguistic phenomenon is at one and the same time an individual, social, and political fact. As such, its study should bear in mind these complex interrelations, which are produced inside the framework of the sociocultural and historical ecosystem of each human community. Understanding this phenomenon is often no easy task, due to the range of elements involved and their interrelations. The absence of valid, clearly developed paradigms adds to the problem and means that the theoretical conclusions that emerge may (...)
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  35. Role of Language in Identity Formation: An Analysis of Influence of Sanskrit on Identity Formation.Varanasi Ramabrahmam Varanasi - 2017 - In Omprakash (ed.), Linguistic Foundations of Identity. Aakar. pp. 289-303.
    The contents of Brahmajnaana, the Buddhism, the Jainism, the Sabdabrahma Siddhanta and Shaddarsanas will be discussed to present the true meaning of individual’s identity and I. The influence of spirituality contained in Upanishadic insight in the development of Sanskrit language structure, Indian culture, and individual identity formation will be developed. The cultural and psychological aspects of a civilization on the formation of its language structure and prominence given to various parts of speech and vice versa will be touched (...)
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  36. MODES OF LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND COMMUNICATION.Varanasi Ramabrahmam - 2012 - In In the Proceedings of waves conference at Boston, USA, July 13-15, 2012.
    Four modes of language acquisition and communication are presented translating ancient Indian expressions on human consciousness, mind, their form, structure and function clubbing with the Sabdabrahma theory of language acquisition and communication. The modern scientific understanding of such an insight is discussed. . A flowchart of language processing in humans will be given. A gross model of human language acquisition, comprehension and communication process forming the basis to develop software for relevantmind-machine modeling will be presented. The (...)
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  37. Phenomenology and Ontology of Language and Expression: Merleau-Ponty on Speaking and Spoken Speech.Hayden Kee - 2018 - Human Studies 41 (3):415-435.
    This paper clarifies Merleau-Ponty’s distinction between speaking and spoken speech, and the relation between the two, in his Phenomenology of Perception. Against a common interpretation, I argue on exegetical and philosophical grounds that the distinction should not be understood as one between two kinds of speech, but rather between two internally related dimensions present in all speech. This suggests an interdependence between speaking and spoken aspects of speech, and some commentators have critiqued Merleau-Ponty for claiming a priority of speaking over (...)
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  38. Experimental Philosophy of Language.Nathaniel Hansen - 2015 - Oxford Handbooks Online.
    Experimental philosophy of language uses experimental methods developed in the cognitive sciences to investigate topics of interest to philosophers of language. This article describes the methodological background for the development of experimental approaches to topics in philosophy of language, distinguishes negative and positive projects in experimental philosophy of language, and evaluates experimental work on the reference of proper names and natural kind terms. The reliability of expert judgments vs. the judgments of ordinary speakers, the role that (...)
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  39. Logic and Ontology of Language.Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska - 2019 - In Bartłomiej Skowron (ed.), Contemporary Polish Ontology. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 109-132.
    The main purpose of the paper is to outline the formal-logical, general theory of language treated as a particular ontological being. The theory itself is called the ontology of language, because it is motivated by the fact that the language plays a special role: it reflects ontology and ontology reflects the world. Language expressions are considered to have a dual ontological status. They are understood as either concretes, that is tokens – material, physical objects, or types (...)
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  40. The Logicality of Language: A new take on Triviality, “Ungrammaticality”, and Logical Form.Guillermo Del Pinal - 2017 - Noûs 53 (4):785-818.
    Recent work in formal semantics suggests that the language system includes not only a structure building device, as standardly assumed, but also a natural deductive system which can determine when expressions have trivial truth-conditions (e.g., are logically true/false) and mark them as unacceptable. This hypothesis, called the `logicality of language', accounts for many acceptability patterns, including systematic restrictions on the distribution of quantifiers. To deal with apparent counter-examples consisting of acceptable tautologies and contradictions, the logicality of language (...)
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  41. The creative aspect of language use and the implications for linguistic science.Eran Asoulin - 2013 - Biolinguistics 7:228-248.
    The creative aspect of language use provides a set of phenomena that a science of language must explain. It is the “central fact to which any signi- ficant linguistic theory must address itself” and thus “a theory of language that neglects this ‘creative’ aspect is of only marginal interest” (Chomsky 1964: 7–8). Therefore, the form and explanatory depth of linguistic science is restricted in accordance with this aspect of language. In this paper, the implications of the (...)
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  42. How can philosophy of language help us navigate the political news cycle?Teresa Marques - 2020 - In Elly Vintiadis (ed.), Philosophy by Women 22 Philosophers Reflect on Philosophy and Its Value. New York, USA: Routledge.
    In this chapter, I try to answer the above question, and another question that it presupposes: can philosophy of language help us navigate the political news cycle? A reader can be sceptical of a positive answer to the latter question; after all, citizens, political theorists, and journalists seem to be capable of following current politics and its coverage in the news, and there is no reason to think that philosophy of language in particular should be capable of helping (...)
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  43. Wittgenstein on critique of language.Mudasir A. Tantray - 2018 - International Journal of Creative Research Thoughts 6 (1):5-9.
    This paper tries to determine the philosophical nature of language, its functions, structure and content. It also explains the concept of natural language, ordinary and ideal language i.e. how there is a need of artificial perfect logical language without errors and unclearness in that language. This paper further shows the logical form of language with its syntactical, semantical, innate and acquired criteria for the evaluation of the languages. It deals with the analysis of (...) to clear what is unclear, to know what is unknown, to make definite what is vague. In this paper I used the method; logical method for interpretation and argumentation, analytical method for simplification, and critical method to investigate the real domain of language. This paper does not deal with ordinary functions of the language but it deals with the conceptual and modular functions of the language. The fundamental aim of this written up is to determine the analytical approach of Wittgenstein to sketch the ‘language as a tool to discuss the state of affairs or facts of the worlds that is also what philosophy does. This paper describes the contributions of rationalism and empiricism in the field of knowing the truths of language. (shrink)
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  44. Rules of Language and First Person Authority.Martin F. Fricke - 2012 - Polish Journal of Philosophy 6 (2):15-32.
    This paper examines theories of first person authority proposed by Dorit Bar-On (2004), Crispin Wright (1989a) and Sydney Shoemaker (1988). What all three accounts have in common is that they attempt to explain first person authority by reference to the way our language works. Bar-On claims that in our language self-ascriptions of mental states are regarded as expressive of those states; Wright says that in our language such self-ascriptions are treated as true by default; and Shoemaker suggests (...)
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  45. Knowledge of Language as Self-Knowledge.John Schwenkler - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    In a series of early essays, beginning with "Must We Mean What We Say?", Stanley Cavell offers a sustained response to the argument that ordinary language philosophy is nothing more than amateur linguistics, carried out from the armchair -- so that philosophers' claims about "what we say", and what we mean when we say it, are necessarily in need of proper empirical support. The present paper provides a close reading of Cavell and a defense of his argument that, since (...)
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  46. The Expressivist Conception of Language and World: Humboldt and the Charge of Linguistic Idealism and Relativism.Jo-Jo Koo - 2007 - In Jon Burmeister & Mark Sentesy (eds.), On language: analytic, continental and historical contributions. Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 3-26.
    Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835) is rightly regarded as a thinker who extended the development of the so-called expressivist conception of language and world that Johann Georg Hamann (1730-1788) and especially Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) initially articulated. Being immersed as Humboldt was in the intellectual climate of German Romanticism, he aimed not only to provide a systematic foundation for how he believed linguistic research as a science should be conducted, but also to attempt to rectify what he saw as the (...)
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  47. A pragmatic view of the poetic function of language.Alessandro Capone - 2023 - Semiotica 2023 (250):1-25.
    In this paper, I try to expatiate on the poetic function of language on the basis of considerations by Jakobson and Waugh. I try to bring in the consideration that pragmatics plays an important role in elucidating the poetic function of language. Contextualism allows us to interpret a poem: referents must be fixed or need not be fixed due to the requirements of the discourse; citations are brought in through pragmatic ways; polyphony is achieved by taking into account (...)
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  48. The Logicality of Language: Contextualism versus Semantic Minimalism.Guillermo Del Pinal - 2022 - Mind 131 (522):381-427.
    The logicality of language is the hypothesis that the language system has access to a ‘natural’ logic that can identify and filter out as unacceptable expressions that have trivial meanings—that is, that are true/false in all possible worlds or situations in which they are defined. This hypothesis helps explain otherwise puzzling patterns concerning the distribution of various functional terms and phrases. Despite its promise, logicality vastly over-generates unacceptability assignments. Most solutions to this problem rest on specific stipulations about (...)
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  49. The Logicality of Language: A new take on triviality, `ungrammaticality', and logical form.Guillermo Del Pinal - 2017 - Noûs 53 (4):785-818.
    Recent work in formal semantics suggests that the language system includes not only a structure building device, as standardly assumed, but also a natural deductive system which can determine when expressions have trivial truth‐conditions (e.g., are logically true/false) and mark them as unacceptable. This hypothesis, called the ‘logicality of language’, accounts for many acceptability patterns, including systematic restrictions on the distribution of quantifiers. To deal with apparent counter‐examples consisting of acceptable tautologies and contradictions, the logicality of language (...)
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  50. Can Uses of Language in Thought Provide Linguistic Evidence?Andrei Moldovan - 2010 - In Erich Rast & Luiz Carlos Baptista (eds.), Meaning and Context. Peter Lang. pp. 269-291.
    In this article I focus on the argument that Jeff Speaks develops in Speaks (2008). There, Speaks distinguishes between uses of language in conversation and uses of language in thought. Speaks’s argument is that a phenomenon that appears both when using language in communication and when using language in thought cannot be explained in Gricean conversational terms. A Gricean account of implicature involves having very complicated beliefs about the audience, which turn out to be extremely bizarre (...)
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