Results for 'Neural Development'

997 found
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  1. Networks of Gene Regulation, Neural Development and the Evolution of General Capabilities, Such as Human Empathy.Alfred Gierer - 1998 - Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung C - A Journal of Bioscience 53:716-722.
    A network of gene regulation organized in a hierarchical and combinatorial manner is crucially involved in the development of the neural network, and has to be considered one of the main substrates of genetic change in its evolution. Though qualitative features may emerge by way of the accumulation of rather unspecific quantitative changes, it is reasonable to assume that at least in some cases specific combinations of regulatory parts of the genome initiated new directions of evolution, leading to (...)
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  2. Evolutionary Psychology and the Selectionist Model of Neural Development: A Combined Approach.Bence Nanay - 2002 - Evolution and Cognition 8:200-206.
    Evolutionary psychology and the selectionist theories of neural development are usually regarded as two unrelated theories addressing two logically distinct questions. The focus of evolutionary psychology is the phylogeny of the human mind, whereas the selectionist theories of neural development analyse the ontogeny of the mind. This paper will endeavour to combine these two approaches in the explanation of the human mind. Doing so might help in overcoming some of the criticisms of both theories. The first (...)
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  3. Brains Emerging: On Modularity and Self-Organisation of Neural Development In Vivo and In Vitro.Paul Gottlob Layer - 2019 - In Lars H. Wegner & Ulrich Lüttge (eds.), Emergence and Modularity in Life Sciences. Springer Verlag. pp. 145-169.
    Molecular developmental biology has expanded our conceptions of gene actions, underpinning that embryonic development is not only governed by a set of specific genes, but as much by space–time conditions of its developing modules. Typically, formation of cellular spheres, their transformation into planar epithelia, followed by tube formations and laminations are modular steps leading to the development of nervous tissues. Thereby, actions of organising centres, morphogenetic movements, inductive events between epithelia, tissue polarity reversal, widening of epithelia, and all (...)
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  4. Artificial Neural Network for Predicting Animals Category.Ibrahim M. Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic and Applied Research (IJAAR) 3 (2):18-24.
    Abstract: In this paper an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, was developed and tested for predicting the category of an animal. There is a number of factors that influence the classification of animals. Such as the existence of hair/ feather, if the animal gives birth or spawns, it is airborne, aquatic, predator, toothed, backboned, venomous, has –fins, has-tail, cat-sized, and domestic. They were then used as input variables for the ANN model. A model based on the Multilayer Perceptron Topology (...)
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  5. The Neural Correlates of Visual Imagery: A Co-Ordinate-Based Meta-Analysis.C. Winlove, F. Milton, J. Ranson, J. Fulford, M. MacKisack, Fiona Macpherson & A. Zeman - 2018 - Cortex 105 (August 2018):4-25.
    Visual imagery is a form of sensory imagination, involving subjective experiences typically described as similar to perception, but which occur in the absence of corresponding external stimuli. We used the Activation Likelihood Estimation algorithm (ALE) to identify regions consistently activated by visual imagery across 40 neuroimaging studies, the first such meta-analysis. We also employed a recently developed multi-modal parcellation of the human brain to attribute stereotactic co-ordinates to one of 180 anatomical regions, the first time this approach has been combined (...)
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  6. Concept Nativism and Neural Plasticity.Stephen Laurence & Eric Margolis - 2015 - In Eric Margolis & Stephen Laurence (eds.), The Conceptual Mind: New Directions in the Study of Concepts. MIT Press. pp. 117-147.
    One of the most important recent developments in the study of concepts has been the resurgence of interest in nativist accounts of the human conceptual system. However, many theorists suppose that a key feature of neural organization—the brain’s plasticity—undermines the nativist approach to concept acquisition. We argue that, on the contrary, not only does the brain’s plasticity fail to undermine concept nativism, but a detailed examination of the neurological evidence actually provides powerful support for concept nativism.
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  7. Cultural Influences on the Neural Correlate of Moral Decision Making Processes.Hyemin Han, Gary H. Glover & Changwoo Jeong - 2014 - Behavioural Brain Research 259:215-228.
    This study compares the neural substrate of moral decision making processes between Korean and American participants. By comparison with Americans, Korean participants showed increased activity in the right putamen associated with socio-intuitive processes and right superior frontal gyrus associated with cognitive control processes under a moral-personal condition, and in the right postcentral sulcus associated with mental calculation in familiar contexts under a moral-impersonal condition. On the other hand, American participants showed a significantly higher degree of activity in the bilateral (...)
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  8. Energy Efficiency Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network.Ahmed J. Khalil, Alaa M. Barhoom, Bassem S. Abu-Nasser, Musleh M. Musleh & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 3 (9):1-7.
    Buildings energy consumption is growing gradually and put away around 40% of total energy use. Predicting heating and cooling loads of a building in the initial phase of the design to find out optimal solutions amongst different designs is very important, as ell as in the operating phase after the building has been finished for efficient energy. In this study, an artificial neural network model was designed and developed for predicting heating and cooling loads of a building based on (...)
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  9. Predicting Tumor Category Using Artificial Neural Networks.Ibrahim M. Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research (IJAHMR) 3 (2):1-7.
    In this paper an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, for predicting the category of a tumor was developed and tested. Taking patients’ tests, a number of information gained that influence the classification of the tumor. Such information as age, sex, histologic-type, degree-of-diffe, status of bone, bone-marrow, lung, pleura, peritoneum, liver, brain, skin, neck, supraclavicular, axillar, mediastinum, and abdominal. They were used as input variables for the ANN model. A model based on the Multilayer Perceptron Topology was established and trained (...)
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  10. Predicting Birth Weight Using Artificial Neural Network.Mohammed Al-Shawwa & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research (IJAHMR) 3 (1):9-14.
    In this research, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed and tested to predict Birth Weight. A number of factors were identified that may affect birth weight. Factors such as smoke, race, age, weight (lbs) at last menstrual period, hypertension, uterine irritability, number of physician visits in 1st trimester, among others, as input variables for the ANN model. A model based on multi-layer concept topology was developed and trained using the data from some birth cases in hospitals. The (...)
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  11. Neural Plasticity and the Limits of Scientific Knowledge.Pasha Parpia - 2015 - Dissertation, University of Sussex
    Western science claims to provide unique, objective information about the world. This is supported by the observation that peoples across cultures will agree upon a common description of the physical world. Further, the use of scientific instruments and mathematics is claimed to enable the objectification of science. In this work, carried out by reviewing the scientific literature, the above claims are disputed systematically by evaluating the definition of physical reality and the scientific method, showing that empiricism relies ultimately upon the (...)
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  12. Beyond Writing: The Development of Literacy in the Ancient Near East.Karenleigh Overmann - 2016 - Cambridge Archaeological Journal 2 (26):285–303.
    Previous discussions of the origins of writing in the Ancient Near East have not incorporated the neuroscience of literacy, which suggests that when southern Mesopotamians wrote marks on clay in the late-fourth millennium, they inadvertently reorganized their neural activity, a factor in manipulating the writing system to reflect language, yielding literacy through a combination of neurofunctional change and increased script fidelity to language. Such a development appears to take place only with a sufficient demand for writing and reading, (...)
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  13. The Neural, Evolutionary, Developmental, and Bodily Basis of Metaphor.Jay Seitz - 2005 - New Ideas in Psychology 23 (2):74-95.
    We propose that there are four fundamental kinds of metaphor that are uniquely mapped onto specific brain ‘‘networks’’ and present preliterate (i.e., evolutionary, including before the appearance of written language in the historical record), prelinguistic (i.e., developmental, before the appearance of speech in human development), and extralinguistic (i.e., neuropsychological, cognitive) evidence supportive of this view. We contend that these basic metaphors are largely nonconceptual and entail (a) perceptual–perceptual, (b) cross-modal, (c) movement–movement, and (d) perceptual-affective mappings that, at least, in (...)
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  14. Lung Cancer Detection Using Artificial Neural Network.Ibrahim M. Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 3 (3):17-23.
    In this paper, we developed an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for detect the absence or presence of lung cancer in human body. Symptoms were used to diagnose the lung cancer, these symptoms such as Yellow fingers, Anxiety, Chronic Disease, Fatigue, Allergy, Wheezing, Coughing, Shortness of Breath, Swallowing Difficulty and Chest pain. They were used and other information about the person as input variables for our ANN. Our ANN established, trained, and validated using data set, which its title is “survey (...)
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  15.  89
    Thinking Through the Implications of Neural Reuse for the Additive Factors Method.Luke Kersten - 2019 - In A. K. Goel, C. M. Seifert & C. Freska (eds.), Proceedings of the 41st Annual Conference of Cognitive Science Society. pp. 2005-2010.
    One method for uncovering the subprocesses of mental processes is the “Additive Factors Method” (AFM). The AFM uses reaction time data from factorial experiments to infer the presence of separate processing stages. This paper investigates the conceptual status of the AFM. It argues that one of the AFM’s underlying assumptions is problematic in light of recent developments in cognitive neuroscience. Discussion begins by laying out the basic logic of the AFM, followed by an analysis of the challenge presented by (...) reuse. Following this, implications are analysed and avenues of response considered. (shrink)
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  16.  48
    Environmental Variability and the Emergence of Meaning: Simulational Studies Across Imitation, Genetic Algorithms, and Neural Nets.Patrick Grim - 2006 - In Angelo Loula & Ricardo Gudwin (eds.), Artificial Cognition Systems. Idea Group. pp. 284-326.
    A crucial question for artificial cognition systems is what meaning is and how it arises. In pursuit of that question, this paper extends earlier work in which we show that emergence of simple signaling in biologically inspired models using arrays of locally interactive agents. Communities of "communicators" develop in an environment of wandering food sources and predators using any of a variety of mechanisms: imitation of successful neighbors, localized genetic algorithms and partial neural net training on successful neighbors. Here (...)
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  17. Comparison of Neural Network NARMA-L2 Model Reference and Predictive Controllers for Nonlinear Quarter Car Active Suspension System.Mustefa Jibril - 2020 - International Research Journal of Modernization in Engineering Technology and Science 2 (3):178-188.
    Recently, active suspension system will become important to the vehicle industries because of its advantages in improving road managing and ride comfort. This paper offers the development of mathematical modelling and design of a neural network control approach. The paper will begin with a mathematical model designing primarily based at the parameters of the active suspension system. A nonlinear three by four-way valve-piston hydraulic actuator became advanced which will make the suspension system under the active condition. Then, the (...)
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  18.  13
    Novel Tool Development and the Dynamics of Control: The Rodent Touchscreen Operant Chamber as a Case Study.Jacqueline Anne Sullivan - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
    In the quest to discover the neural bases of cognition, rigorous behavioral tools are equally as important as sophisticated tools for neural intervention. This paper evaluates several episodes in the development of a novel behavioral tool for rodent cognitive testing, the rodent touchscreen operant chamber. Using conceptual tools on offer in the philosophical literature on exploratory experimentation and control, I illuminate how optimization of this behavioral tool and an understanding of the causal knowledge it may be used (...)
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  19.  98
    Uncovering the Antecedents of Trust in Social Commerce: An Application of the Non-Linear Artificial Neural Network Approach.Hussam Al Halbusi - 2022 - Competitiveness Review 4.
    Purpose – The internet creates ample opportunities to start a mobile social commerce business. The literature confirms the issue of customer trust for social commerce businesses is a challenge that must be addressed. Hence, this study aims to examine the antecedents of trust in mobile social commerce by applying linear and non-linear relationships based on partial least squares structural equation modeling and an artificial neural network model. -/- Design/methodology/approach – This study applied a non-linear artificial neural network approach (...)
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  20. Temporal Decentering and the Development of Temporal Concepts.Teresa McCormack & Christoph Hoerl - 2008 - In P. Indefrey & M. Gullberg (eds.), Time to Speak. Cognitive and Neural Prerequisites of Time in Language. Blackwell. pp. 89-113.
    This article reviews some recent research on the development of temporal cognition, with reference to Weist's (1989) account of the development of temporal understanding. Weist's distinction between two levels of temporal decentering is discussed, and empirical studies that may be interpreted as measuring temporal decentering are described. We argue that if temporal decentering is defined simply in terms of the coordination of the temporal locations of three events, it may fail to fully capture the properties of mature temporal (...)
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  21. From Desire to Subjective Value: On the Neural Mechanisms of Moral Motivation.Daniel Hartner - 2014 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 7 (1):1-26.
    Increasingly, empirically minded moral philosophers are using data from cognitive science and neuroscience to resolve some longstanding philosophical questions about moral motivation, such as whether moral beliefs require the presence of a desire to motivate. These empirical approaches are implicitly committed to the existence of folk psychological mental states like beliefs and desires. However, data from the neuroscience of decision-making, particularly cellular-level work in neuroeconomics, is now converging with data from cognitive and social neuroscience to explain the processes through which (...)
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  22. Predicting Whether a Couple is Going to Get Divorced or Not Using Artificial Neural Networks.Ibrahim M. Nasser - 2019 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 3 (10):49-55.
    In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed and validated to predict whether a couple is going to get divorced or not. Prediction is done based on some questions that the couple answered, answers of those questions were used as the input to the ANN. The model went through multiple learning-validation cycles until it got 100% accuracy.
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  23. THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION: from the space vacuum to neural networks and moving forward.Oleg Bazaluk - 2014 - ISPC.
    In the book, the author defines the evolution as a continuous and nonlinear complex of the structure of matter, interaction types and environments of existence; analyzes existing in modern science and philosophy approaches to the study of the process of evolution, degree of development factors and causes of evolution. Unifying interdisciplinary research in cosmology, evolution, biology, neuroscience and philosophy, the author presents his vision of the evolution model of «Evolving matter», which allows us to consider not only the laws (...)
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  24. The Most Optimal Dual-Aspect-Dual-Mode Framework for Consciousness: Recent Developments.Ram Lakhan Pandey Vimal - 2009 - Chromatikon 5:295-307.
    In the third Whitehead Psychology Nexus Studies, we have discussed the dual-aspect-dual-mode proto-experience -subjective experience framework of consciousness based on neuroscience, its implication in war, suffering, peace, and happiness, the process of sublimation for optimizingthem and converting the negative aspects of seven groups of self-protective energy system into their positive aspects from both western and eastern perspectives. In this article, we summarize the recent development since then as follows. In, we rigorously investigated the classical and quantum matching and selection (...)
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  25. Embraining Culture: Leaky Minds and Spongy Brains.Julian Kiverstein & Mirko Farina - 2011 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy (2).
    We offer an argument for the extended mind based on considerations from brain development. We argue that our brains develop to function in partnership with cognitive resources located in our external environments. Through our cultural upbringing we are trained to use artefacts in problem solving that become factored into the cognitive routines our brains support. Our brains literally grow to work in close partnership with resources we regularly and reliably interact with. We take this argument to be in line (...)
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  26. Teleosemantics, Selection and Novel Contents.Justin Garson & David Papineau - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (3):36.
    Mainstream teleosemantics is the view that mental representation should be understood in terms of biological functions, which, in turn, should be understood in terms of selection processes. One of the traditional criticisms of teleosemantics is the problem of novel contents: how can teleosemantics explain our ability to represent properties that are evolutionarily novel? In response, some have argued that by generalizing the notion of a selection process to include phenomena such as operant conditioning, and the neural selection that underlies (...)
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  27.  63
    Measuring the Immeasurable Mind: Where Contemporary Neuroscience Meets the Aristotelian Tradition.Matthew Owen - 2021 - Lexington Books (Rowman & Littlefield).
    In Measuring the Immeasurable Mind: Where Contemporary Neuroscience Meets the Aristotelian Tradition, Matthew Owen argues that despite its nonphysical character, it is possible to empirically detect and measure consciousness. -/- Toward the end of the previous century, the neuroscience of consciousness set its roots and sprouted within a materialist milieu that reduced the mind to matter. Several decades later, dualism is being dusted off and reconsidered. Although some may see this revival as a threat to consciousness science aimed at measuring (...)
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  28.  76
    On Paul Cilliers’ Approach to Complexity: Post-Structuralism Versus Model Exclusivity.Ragnar Van Der Merwe - 2021 - INDECS: Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems 19 (4):457-469.
    Paul Cilliers has developed a novel post-structural approach to complexity that has influenced several writers contributing to the current complexity literature. Concomitantly however, Cilliers advocates for modelling complex systems using connectionist neural networks (rather than analytic, rule-based models). In this paper, I argue that it is dilemmic to simultaneously hold these two positions. Cilliers’ post-structural interpretation of complexity states that models of complex systems are always contextual and provisional; there is no exclusive model of complex systems. This sentiment however (...)
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  29.  8
    Streaching the Notion of Moral Responsibility in Nanoelectronics by Appying AI.Robert Albin & Amos Bardea - 2021 - In Ethics in Nanotechnology Social Sciences and Philosophical Aspects, Vol. 2. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 75-87.
    The development of machine learning and deep learning (DL) in the field of AI (artificial intelligence) is the direct result of the advancement of nano-electronics. Machine learning is a function that provides the system with the capacity to learn from data without being programmed explicitly. It is basically a mathematical and probabilistic model. DL is part of machine learning methods based on artificial neural networks, simply called neural networks (NNs), as they are inspired by the biological NNs (...)
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  30. Erweiterte Kognition und mentaler Externalismus.Holger Lyre - 2010 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 64 (2):190-215.
    Recent developments under the keywords dynamicism, embodiment and situated cognition suggest the view that cognitive systems are not confined to the neural sys‐tem but leak into the world beyond the traditional system boundaries. This is the thesis of extended cognition. Such an extension of the cognitive vehicles leads to a new kind of content externalism, known as active externalism. The essay pursues three objectives: firstly, to distinguish the theses of extended cognitive and active externalism. Secondly, to delineate active externalism (...)
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  31. Schizophrenia and the Dysfunctional Brain.Justin Garson - 2010 - Journal of Cognitive Science 11:215-246.
    Scientists, philosophers, and even the lay public commonly accept that schizophrenia stems from a biological or internal ‘dysfunction.’ However, this assessment is typically accompanied neither by well-defined criteria for determining that something is dysfunctional nor empirical evidence that schizophrenia satisfies those criteria. In the following, a concept of biological function is developed and applied to a neurobiological model of schizophrenia. It concludes that current evidence does not warrant the claim that schizophrenia stems from a biological dysfunction, and, in fact, that (...)
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  32. The Role of Bodily Perception in Emotion: In Defense of an Impure Somatic Theory.Luca Barlassina & Albert Newen - 2014 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 89 (3):637-678.
    In this paper, we develop an impure somatic theory of emotion, according to which emotions are constituted by the integration of bodily perceptions with representations of external objects, events, or states of affairs. We put forward our theory by contrasting it with Prinz's pure somatic theory, according to which emotions are entirely constituted by bodily perceptions. After illustrating Prinz's theory and discussing the evidence in its favor, we show that it is beset by serious problems—i.e., it gets the neural (...)
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  33. Consciousness Results When Communication Modifies the Form of Self-Estimated Fitness.J. H. van Hateren -
    The origin and development of consciousness is poorly understood. Although it is clearly a naturalistic phenomenon evolved through Darwinian evolution, explaining it in terms of physicochemical, neural, or symbolic mechanisms remains elusive. Here I propose that two steps had to be taken in its evolution. First, living systems evolved an intrinsic goal-directedness by internalizing Darwinian fitness as a self-estimated fitness. The self-estimated fitness participates in a feedback loop that effectively produces intrinsic meaning in the organism. Second, animals with (...)
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  34.  76
    Conceptual Fingerprints: Lexical Decomposition by Means of Frames – a Neuro-Cognitive Model.Wiebke Petersen & Markus Werning - 2007 - In U. Priss, S. Polovina & R. Hill (eds.), Conceptual structures: Knowledge architectures for smart applications. Heidelberg: pp. 415-428.
    Frames, i.e., recursive attribute-value structures, are a general format for the decomposition of lexical concepts. Attributes assign unique values to objects and thus describe functional relations. Concepts can be classified into four groups: sortal, individual, relational and functional concepts. The classification is reflected by different grammatical roles of the corresponding nouns. The paper aims at a cognitively adequate decomposition, particularly, of sortal concepts by means of frames. Using typed feature structures, an explicit formalism for the characterization of cognitive frames is (...)
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  35.  23
    A Plastic Temporal Code for Conscious State Generation.Birgitta Dresp-Langley - 2009 - Neural Plasticity 2009 (482696):1-15..
    Consciousness is known to be limited in processing capacity and often described in terms of a unique processing stream across a single dimension: time. In this paper, we discuss a purely temporal pattern code, functionally decoupled from spatial signals, for conscious state generation in the brain. Arguments in favour of such a code include Dehaene et al.'s long-distance reverberation postulate, Ramachandran's remapping hypothesis, evidence for a temporal coherence index and coincidence detectors, and Grossberg's Adaptive Resonance Theory. A time-bin resonance model (...)
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  36. A Layered View of Shape Perception.E. J. Green - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (2).
    This article develops a view of shape representation both in visual experience and in subpersonal visual processing. The view is that, in both cases, shape is represented in a ‘layered’ manner: an object is represented as having multiple shape properties, and these properties have varying degrees of abstraction. I argue that this view is supported both by the facts about visual phenomenology and by a large collection of evidence in perceptual psychology. Such evidence is provided by studies of shape discriminability, (...)
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  37. Enactivism and the New Teleology: Reconciling the Warring Camps.Ralph D. Ellis - 2014 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies (2):173-198.
    Enactivism has the potential to provide a sense of teleology in purpose-directed action, but without violating the principles of efficient causation. Action can be distinguished from mere reaction by virtue of the fact that some systems are self-organizing. Self-organization in the brain is reflected in neural plasticity, and also in the primacy of motivational processes that initiate the release of neurotransmitters necessary for mental and conscious functions, and which guide selective attention processes. But in order to flesh out the (...)
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  38. Manipulating the Contents of Consciousness.Alfredo Vernazzani - 2015 - Proceedings of the 37th Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society.
    I argue for a manipulationist-mechanistic framework for content-NCC research in the case of visual consciousness (Bechtel 2008; Neisser 2012). Reference to mechanisms is common in the NCC research. Furthermore, recent developments in non-invasive brain stimulation techniques (NIBS) lend support to a manipulationist standpoint. The crucial question is to understand what is changed after manipulation of a brain mechanism. In the second part of the paper I review the literature on intentionalism, and argue that intervention on the neural mechanism is (...)
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  39. ANN for Predicting Medical Expenses.Khaled Salah & Ahmed Altalla - 2016 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 2 (10):11-16.
    Abstract: In this research, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed and tested to predict the rate of treatment expenditure on an individual or family in a country. A number of factors have been identified that may affect treatment expenses. Factors such as age, grade level such as primary, preparatory, secondary or college, sex, size of disability, social status, and annual medical expenses in fixed dollars excluding dental and outpatient clinics among others, as input variables for the ANN (...)
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  40. ANN for Predicting Birth Weight.Shawwah Mohammad & Murshidy Suheil - 2020 - International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research (IJAHMR) 1 (3):9-12.
    In this research, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed and tested to predict Birth Weight. A number of factors were identified that may affect birth weight. Factors such as smoke, race, age, weight (lbs) at last menstrual period, hypertension, uterine irritability, number of physician visits in 1st trimester, among others, as input variables for the ANN model. A model based on multi-layer concept topology was developed and trained using the data from some birth cases in hospitals. The (...)
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  41. Neuroscience V. Privacy? : A Democratic Perspective.Annabelle Lever - 2012 - In Sarah Richmond, Geraint Rees & Sarah J. L. Edwards (eds.), I Know What You're Thinking: Brain Imaging and Mental Privacy. Oxford University Press. pp. 205.
    Recent developments in neuroscience create new opportunities for understanding the human brain. The power to do good, however, is also the power to harm, so scientific advances inevitably foster as many dystopian fears as utopian hopes. For instance, neuroscience lends itself to the fear that people will be forced to reveal thoughts and feelings which they would not have chosen to reveal, and of which they may be unaware. It also lends itself to the worry that people will be encouraged (...)
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  42. ANN for Predicting Animals Category.Nassar Ibraheem & AlKahlout Mohammad - 2020 - International Journal of Academic and Applied Research (IJAAR) 3 (2):18-23.
    In this paper an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, was developed and tested for predicting the category of an animal. There is a number of factors that influence the classification of animals. Such as the existence of hair/ feather, if the animal gives birth or spawns, it is airborne, aquatic, predator, toothed, backboned, venomous, has –fins, has-tail, cat-sized, and domestic. They were then used as input variables for the ANN model. A model based on the Multilayer Perceptron Topology was (...)
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  43.  50
    ANN for Predicting Antibiotic Susceptibility.Maaruf Ahmed & Qassas Randa - 2016 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 10 (2):1-4.
    Abstract: In this research, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed and tested to predict efficiency of antibiotics in treating various bacteria types. Attributes that were taken in account are: organism name, specimen type, and antibiotic name as input and susceptibility as an output. A model based on one input, one hidden, and one output layers concept topology was developed and trained using a data from Queensland government's website. The evaluation shows that the ANN model is capable of (...)
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  44.  94
    From What to How: An Initial Review of Publicly Available AI Ethics Tools, Methods and Research to Translate Principles Into Practices.Jessica Morley, Luciano Floridi, Libby Kinsey & Anat Elhalal - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2141-2168.
    The debate about the ethical implications of Artificial Intelligence dates from the 1960s :741–742, 1960; Wiener in Cybernetics: or control and communication in the animal and the machine, MIT Press, New York, 1961). However, in recent years symbolic AI has been complemented and sometimes replaced by Neural Networks and Machine Learning techniques. This has vastly increased its potential utility and impact on society, with the consequence that the ethical debate has gone mainstream. Such a debate has primarily focused on (...)
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  45.  58
    The Co-Ascription of Ordered Lexical Pairs: A Cognitive-Science-Based Semantic Theory of Meaning and Reference: Part 2.Thomas Johnston - manuscript
    (1) This is Part 2 of the semantic theory I call TM. In Part 1, I developed TM as a theory in the analytic philosophy of language, in lexical semantics, and in the sociology of relating occasions of statement production and comprehension to formal and informal lexicographic conclusions about statements and lexical items – roughly, as showing how synchronic semantics is a sociological derivative of diachronic, person-relative acts of linguistic behavior. I included descriptions of new cognitive psychology experimental paradigms which (...)
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  46.  31
    The CNS-Independent Consciousness System: The Model System of All Nature and the Framework of All Sciences.Jin Ma -
    This paper presents the unification of all knowledge and the framework of all sciences, so it goes the theory of consciousness, the method to measure consciousness, and the three keys of the Strong AI. “Logicality and non-absoluteness” is found out to be the intrinsicality of nature, so the “Fundamental Law of Nature” is discovered. Then, the “general methodology of research” and the “model system of nature” are developed to explain everything, especially consciousness. The Coupling Theory of Consciousness tells that nature (...)
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  47. The Psychology of Memory, Extended Cognition, and Socially Distributed Remembering.John Sutton, Celia B. Harris, Paul G. Keil & Amanda J. Barnier - 2010 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 9 (4):521-560.
    This paper introduces a new, expanded range of relevant cognitive psychological research on collaborative recall and social memory to the philosophical debate on extended and distributed cognition. We start by examining the case for extended cognition based on the complementarity of inner and outer resources, by which neural, bodily, social, and environmental resources with disparate but complementary properties are integrated into hybrid cognitive systems, transforming or augmenting the nature of remembering or decision-making. Adams and Aizawa, noting this distinctive complementarity (...)
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  48. Metaphysics , Meaning, and Morality: A Theological Reflection on A.I.Jordan Joseph Wales - 2022 - Journal of Moral Theology 11 (Special Issue 1):157-181.
    Theologians often reflect on the ethical uses and impacts of artificial intelligence, but when it comes to artificial intelligence techniques themselves, some have questioned whether much exists to discuss in the first place. If the significance of computational operations is attributed rather than intrinsic, what are we to say about them? Ancient thinkers—namely Augustine of Hippo (lived 354–430)—break the impasse, enabling us to draw forth the moral and metaphysical significance of current developments like the “deep neural networks” that are (...)
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  49. The Problem of Mental Action.Thomas Metzinger - 2017 - Philosophy and Predicitive Processing.
    In mental action there is no motor output to be controlled and no sensory input vector that could be manipulated by bodily movement. It is therefore unclear whether this specific target phenomenon can be accommodated under the predictive processing framework at all, or if the concept of “active inference” can be adapted to this highly relevant explanatory domain. This contribution puts the phenomenon of mental action into explicit focus by introducing a set of novel conceptual instruments and developing a first (...)
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  50. Psychedelics, Meditation, and Self-Consciousness.Raphaël Millière, Robin L. Carhart-Harris, Leor Roseman, Fynn-Mathis Trautwein & Aviva Berkovich-Ohana - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
    In recent years, the scientific study of meditation and psychedelic drugs has seen remarkable developments. The increased focus on meditation in cognitive neuroscience has led to a cross-cultural classification of standard meditation styles validated by functional and structural neuroanatomical data. Meanwhile, the renaissance of psychedelic research has shed light on the neurophysiology of altered states of consciousness induced by classical psychedelics, such as psilocybin and LSD, whose effects are mainly mediated by agonism of serotonin receptors. Few attempts have been made (...)
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