Results for 'Petr Pavlas'

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  1. The Role of Protestantism in the Emergence of Modern Science: Critiques of Harrison's Hypothesis.Petr Pavlas - 2015 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 37 (2):159-171.
    According to Peter Harrison's book The Bible, Protestantism and the Rise of Natural Science modern science came into existence as a result of the emphasis of Protestants on the literal sense of the Scripture, their refusal of the earlier symbolic or allegorical interpretation, and their efforts at fixing the meaning of the biblical text in which each passage was to be ascribed a single and unique meaning. This article tries to summarize the most significant critiques of Harrison's hypothesis and to (...)
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  2.  44
    Zápasníci s Přírodou: Vědci a Ti Druzí. [REVIEW]Petr Pavlas - 2013 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 35 (1):162-169.
    Recenze: Peter HARRISON - Ronald L. NUMBERS - Michael H. SHANK Wrestling with Nature: From Omens to Science. Chicago: Univer- sity of Chicago Press 2011, 416 s.
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  3.  75
    Human Induction in Machine Learning: A Survey of the Nexus.Petr Spelda & Vit Stritecky - forthcoming - ACM Computing Surveys.
    As our epistemic ambitions grow, the common and scientific endeavours are becoming increasingly dependent on Machine Learning (ML). The field rests on a single experimental paradigm, which consists of splitting the available data into a training and testing set and using the latter to measure how well the trained ML model generalises to unseen samples. If the model reaches acceptable accuracy, an a posteriori contract comes into effect between humans and the model, supposedly allowing its deployment to target environments. Yet (...)
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  4. What Can Artificial Intelligence Do for Scientific Realism?Petr Spelda & Vit Stritecky - 2020 - Axiomathes 31 (1):85-104.
    The paper proposes a synthesis between human scientists and artificial representation learning models as a way of augmenting epistemic warrants of realist theories against various anti-realist attempts. Towards this end, the paper fleshes out unconceived alternatives not as a critique of scientific realism but rather a reinforcement, as it rejects the retrospective interpretations of scientific progress, which brought about the problem of alternatives in the first place. By utilising adversarial machine learning, the synthesis explores possibility spaces of available evidence for (...)
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  5. The Future of Human-Artificial Intelligence Nexus and its Environmental Costs.Petr Spelda & Vit Stritecky - 2020 - Futures 117.
    The environmental costs and energy constraints have become emerging issues for the future development of Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). So far, the discussion on environmental impacts of ML/AI lacks a perspective reaching beyond quantitative measurements of the energy-related research costs. Building on the foundations laid down by Schwartz et al., 2019 in the GreenAI initiative, our argument considers two interlinked phenomena, the gratuitous generalisation capability and the future where ML/AI performs the majority of quantifiable inductive inferences. The (...)
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  6.  30
    Svět a věda u Ludwiga von Misese. Esej o misesovské metafyzice.Petr Specian - 2012 - Filozofia 67 (4):335-346.
    The paper deals with von Mises’ metaphysics and argues that his methodological dualism concerns only his epistemology. The framework of Mises´s ontology is materialistic monism. Although Mises strongly criticizes materialism, his critique does not concern metaphysical ontological materialism as long as it does not try to eliminate the specific method of the social sciences. In this sense Mises’ metaphysics is fully naturalistic – it does not include any “spiritual” agents and postulates a world consisting exclusively of elementary physical particles. The (...)
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  7. Konec Se Blíží? Kritické Připomínky K Teorii Kolapsů.Petr Špecián - 2016 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 38 (4):425-448.
    Studie poukazuje na tři základní slabiny současného českého diskurzu o kolapsech komplexních společností, jehož předním mluvčím se stal egyptolog Miroslav Bárta. Zaprvé nedošlo k vyrovnání s absencí vědeckého konsenzu ohledně determinantů historického vývoje a teorii, která by poskytla jednotící rámec pro zařazení a interpretaci konkrétních prediktorů kolapsu, byla věnována jen minimální pozornost. Zadruhé nebyla podána jasná odpověď na otázku, která společenská struktura je při studiu kolapsu vlastně předmětem zkoumání, přestože se volné přechody mezi rovinami kultur, států a civilizací nejeví z (...)
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  8.  59
    Petr Nigri z Kadaně a jeho pojetí „pomyslného jsoucna“.Efrem Jindracek - 2011 - Filosoficky Casopis 59 (5):717-732.
    Petrus Nigri (Schwarz) se narodil západočeské Kadani (něm. Kaaden) kolem roku 1435 a spolu se svými třemi bratry vstoupil v Německu do dominikánského řádu. Během svého studia prošel velkou část Evropy (Německo, Itálii, Španělsko, Čechy a Maďarsko) a nakonec se stal rektorem generálního studia v Budíně (1481). Obecně je znám spíše jako význačný středověký hebraista. Do dějin filosofie se zapsal zvláště jako autor Clipeus thomsitarum (před r. 1474), což je filosofický komentář na Porfýriův Úvod (Isagoge) a na aristotelovské Kategorie, formou (...)
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  9.  75
    Potřebuje Ekonomie Psychologii?Petr Špecián - 2015 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 37 (3):279-301.
    Studie ukazuje kontrast mezi ekonomickým přístupem jdoucím ve šlépějích Garyho Beckera a přístupem behaviorální ekonomie. Důraz je kladen na metodologické srovnání obou alternativ a vyhodnocení potenciálu, který má behaviorální ekonomie pro uskutečnění paradigmatické změny na půdě ekonomického myšlení. Ukazuji, že behaviorální ekonomii se dosud nepodařilo nabídnout teoretickou alternativu homo economicus. Také její potenciál pro dlouhodobé překonání teorie racionální volby v oblasti predikčního úspěchu, který je pro ekonomy standardním kritériem vyhodnocování teorií, může být omezený.
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  10.  29
    Od Misese k Schutzovi. Otázka apriorismu v ekonomii.Petr Špecián - 2012 - Politická Ekonomie 60 (3):395--410.
    The study analyzes Mises‘s approach to the question of apriorism in a broader methodological context. It shows that it is not inevitable to advocate the aprioristic character of economics (resp. science of human action), as Mises does, to maintain the subjectivist-individualist methodology and the effort to adequately grasp the general laws of human action from its perspective. The present redefinition of apriorism is developed on the basis of thoughts of Barry Smith and Alfred Schutz. It suggests abandoning the apodictic character (...)
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  11.  30
    Phenomenological Perspectives on Economics: Schütz Versus Düppe.Petr Špecián - 2019 - HORIZON. Studies in Phenomenology 8 (2):613-631.
    The article explores novel directions in the phenomenology of economics. It analyzes how the approaches of Till Düppe and Alfred Schütz, both inspired by Edmund Husserl, may shed light on the historical development of economics. I examine the substance and meaning of economics in the context of the forceful criticism of the whole discipline recently raised by Düppe. This examination uncovers important weaknesses and omissions inherent in Düppe’s argument against the economists’ scientific aspirations. The analysis of the social scientific endeavors (...)
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  12.  18
    Peaceful Use of Lasers in Space: Context-Based Legitimacy in Global Governance of Large Technical Systems.Petr Boháček, Pavel Dufek & Nikola Schmidt - 2021 - Alternatives 3 (46):63–85.
    Technology offers unique sets of opportunities, from human flourishing to civilization survival, but also challenges, from partial misuse to global apocalypse. Yet technology is shaped by the social environment in which it is developed and used, prompting questions about its desirable governance format. In this context, we look at governance challenges of large technical systems, specifically the peaceful use of high-power lasers in space, in order to propose a conceptual framework for legitimate global governance. Specifically, we adopt a context-based approach (...)
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  13. Spirituality as a Subject of Academic Studies in Continental Theology of the Twentieth Century.Petr Mikhaylov - 2015 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 7 (2):193--207.
    I examine mystical experience through the history of European religious thought, its modern state, and different spiritual practices of the Patristic epoch. The survey gives some definitions: mystical experience is situated in the field of spirituality along with practices of its acquisition -- ascetics; and the fruits of it -- theology and doctrine. The second part of the article is devoted to a wide field of Christian texts as a representative example of the same experience of the crystallization of mystical (...)
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  14.  55
    Personal and Common Good – Personal and Common Evil. Liberation Theology Perspectives.Tim Noble & Petr Jandejsek - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (4):45-62.
    Whatever its grammatical status, the verb “to discern” has an implicit transitive element. That is to say, we always discern about something or between two options. What is the right course of action in this situation and in these circumstances? In our paper, we want to look at responses to this question from the perspective of the theology of liberation. As the name implies, this is first and foremost a theology, a way of seeking to understand and articulate the faith (...)
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  15. Co je člověk? Petr Auriol a role kognitivní psychologie ve středověké definici člověka.Lukáš Lička - 2015 - In Jan Herůfek (ed.), Pojetí důstojnosti člověka od antiky po současnost. Ostravská univerzita. pp. 55-78.
    [What is the Human Being? Peter Auriol and the Role of Cognitive Psychology in the Medieval Definition of the Human Being: ] This paper explores how medieval philosophers used cognitive psychology in defining what the human being is, paying special attention to the Franciscan thinker Peter Auriol (c. 1280 – 1322). First, I examine the motivations of Auriol’s claim that the property of being alive is bound to the property of being cognitive (i. e. being capable of cognition). Then, the (...)
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  16.  81
    Objectivity in the Natural Sciences From the X-Phi Point of View.Petr Jedlička & Jitka Paitlová - 2019 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 41 (2):229-258.
    Objectivity, as one of the key attributes of science, has become an indispensable part of its ethos and a central theme of the philosophy of science. As such, it has been a subject of philosophical reflection by a number of authors. In our project – in which both philosophers of science and scientists participate – we examine the concept of objectivity in the natural sciences with the tools of experimental philosophy. We aim to identify specific operational dimensions of objectivity, those (...)
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  17. Underdetermination and Models in Biology.Petr Jedlička - 2017 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 39 (2):167-186.
    Since the early 20th century underdetermination has been one of the most contentious problems in the philosophy of science. In this article I relate the underdetermination problem to models in biology and defend two main lines of argument: First, the use of models in this discipline lends strong support to the underdetermination thesis. Second, models and theories in biology are not determined strictly by the logic of representation of the studied phenomena, but also by other constraints such as research traditions, (...)
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  18.  56
    On the Nature of Models: The Unfinished Debate. [REVIEW]Petr Jedlička - 2017 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 39 (1):109-119.
    Review: Ippoliti, Emiliano, Sterpetti, Fabio, Nickles Thomas : Models and Inferences in Science.
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  19.  44
    Půlstoletí Kontroverzí o Kuhnově Struktuře. [REVIEW]Petr Jedlička - 2016 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 38 (2):250-260.
    Recenze: William J. DEVLIN - Alisa BOKULICH, Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions - 50 Years On. Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science. Boston: Springer 2015, 199 s.
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  20.  35
    Struktura filosofie v pojetí Zdeňka Vašíčka. [REVIEW]Petr Krása - 2013 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 35 (2):335-340.
    Recenze: Zdeněk VAŠÍČEK, Jak se dělají filosofie. Praha: Triáda 2012, 240 s.
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  21. The Systemic Mind and a Conceptual Framework for the Psychosocial Environment of Business Enterprises: Practical Implications for Systemic Leadership Training.Radek Trnka & Petr Parma - 2015 - In Martin Kuška & M. J. Jandl (eds.), Current Research in Psychosocial Arena: Thinking about Health, Society and Culture. Wien: Sigmund Freud PrivatUniversitäts Verlag. pp. 68-79.
    This chapter introduces a research-based conceptual framework for the study of the inner psychosocial reality of business enterprises. It is called the Inner Organizational Ecosystem Approach (IOEA). This model is systemic in nature, and it defines the basic features of small and medium-size enterprises, such as elements, structures, borders, social actors, organizational climate, processes and resources. Further, it also covers the dynamics of psychosocial reality, processes, emergent qualities and the higher-order subsystems of the overall organizational ecosystem, including the global business (...)
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  22. Vnímání, kauzalita a pozornost Roger Bacon a Petr Olivi.Lička Lukáš - 2016 - Studia Neoaristotelica 13 (3):1-38.
    [Sensation, Causality, and Attention: Roger Bacon and Peter Olivi] This paper investigates what conditions are to be met for sensory perception to occur. It introduces two diff erent theories of perception that were held by two medieval Franciscan thinkers — namely, Roger Bacon (1214/1220–1292) and Peter Olivi (ca. 1248–1298). Bacon analyses especially the causal relation between the object and the sensory organ in his doctrine of the multiplication of species. In his view, a necessary condition of perception is the reception (...)
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  23. Centrum a periferie v historiografii filosofie: Petr Olivi a středověká nauka o duši.Lukáš Lička - 2016 - In Marek Otisk & Adam Olech (eds.), Filosofie v provincii / Filozofia na prowincji. Ostravská univerzita. pp. 104-119.
    Centre and Periphery in the Historiography of Philosophy: Peter Olivi and Medieval Psychology The paper inquiries into the (historiographical) question what does it mean to be a “marginal thinker” in the context of the medieval philosophy. The question is investigated on the example of Franciscan philosopher and theologian Peter Olivi (1248/49–1298) and his philosophical psychology. First, a preliminary option is introduced: for a thinker, being “marginal” depends on his relation to who is considered to be canonical. Since the most famous (...)
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  24. In Labirintul Rasfrangerilor Nae Ionescu Prin Discipolii Sai Petre TuTea, Emil Cioran, C-Tin Noica, Mircea Eliade, Mircea Vulcanescu, Vasile Bancila.Isabela Vasiliu-Scraba - 2000
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  25. Ivan Illich’s Medical Nemesis and the ‘Age of the Show’: On the Expropriation of Death.Babette Babich - 2018 - Nursing Philosophy 19 (1):e12187.
    What Ivan Illich regarded in his Medical Nemesis as the ‘expropriation of health’ takes place on the surfaces and in the spaces of the screens all around us, including our cell phones but also the patient monitors and (increasingly) the iPads that intervene between nurse and patient. To explore what Illich called the ‘age of the show’, this essay uses film examples, like Creed and the controversial documentary Vaxxed, and the television series Nurse Jackie. Rocky’s cancer in his last film (...)
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