Classical Confucianism

Edited by Hagop Sarkissian (CUNY Graduate Center, Baruch College (CUNY))
Assistant editor: Andrew Lambert (College of Staten Island (CUNY))
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  1. Friendship in the Confucian Tradition.Andrew Lambert - 2022 - In Diane Jeske (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Friendship. New York, NY, USA: Routledge. pp. 11-23.
    An overview of how friendship has been represented and assessed in the Confucian tradition, and particularly in classical Confucian texts such as the Analects and the Mencius. Themes covered include the relationship between the family and friendship, the ambivalence towards friendship in imperial China, and the connection between friendship and the Confucian ideal of personal cultivation. The chapter finishes by exploring novel conceptions of friendship and human relatedness suggested by the Confucian tradition.
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  2. #MeToo avant la lettre.Paul van Els - 2018 - Filosofie-Tijdschrift 28 (3):35–39.
    van Els, Paul. "#MeToo avant la lettre." Filosofie-Tijdschrift 28, no. 3 (May 2018): 35–39.
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  3. A Non-Existent Doctrine. [REVIEW]Paul van Els - 2006 - China Nu 31:46–47.
    van Els, Paul. "Een niet-bestaande leer" (A Non-Existent Doctrine). Review of Confucianisme, by Burchard J. Mansvelt Beck. China Nu 31, no. 1 (2006): 46–47.
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  4. Tilting Vessels and Collapsing Walls: On the Rhetorical Function of Anecdotes in Early Chinese Texts.Paul van Els - 2012 - Extrême-Orient Extrême-Occident 34:141–66.
    Early Chinese argumentative texts are full of historical anecdotes. These short accounts of events in Chinese history enhance the appeal of the text, but they also have an important rhetorical function in helping the reader understand, accept, and remember the arguments propounded in the text. In this paper I examine the rhetorical function of historical anecdotes in two argumentative texts of the Western Han dynasty (202 BCE-9 CE): Han’s Illustrations of the Odes for Outsiders and The Master of Huainan. These (...)
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  5. The Challenge of Teaching Chinese Philosophy: Thoughts on Method.Andrew Lambert - 2016 - ASIANetwork Exchange 23 (2):107-23.
    In this essay I offer an alternative perspective on how to organize class material for courses in Chinese philosophy for predominately American students. Instead of selecting topics taken from common themes in Western discourses, I suggest a variety of organizational strategies based on themes from the Chinese texts themselves, such as tradition, ritual, family, and guanxi (關係), which are rooted in the Chinese tradition but flexible enough to organize a broad range of philosophical material.
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  6. Gardens and the Good Life in Confucianism and Daoism.Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - In Laura D’Olimpio, Panos Paris & Aidan Thompson (eds.), Educating Character Through the Arts. London: Routledge.
    Creating and caring for a garden is a long-term project whose success requires commitment and devotion and love and proper performance of a range of activities that involve virtues and sensibilities like attentiveness, carefulness, humility, imaginativeness, and sensitivity to the natures and needs of plants and animals. In this chapter, I elaborate this conception of gardens and explore its relationship to artistic activities, like composing poetry or performing music. My focus are Confucianism and Daosim and their accounts of the relationships (...)
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  7. Can Confucianism Come to Terms with Feminism?Chenyang Li - 2000 - In The Sage and the Second Sex: Confucianism, Ethics, and Gender. Chicago: pp. 1-21.
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  8. Coping with Incommensurable Pursuits: Rorty, Berlin, and the Confucian-Daoist Complementarity.Chenyang Li - 2009 - In Yong Huang (ed.), Rorty, Pragmatism, and Confucianism—with Responses by Richard Rorty. pp. 195-209.
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  9. Harmony as a Guiding Principle for Governance.Chenyang Li - 2010 - In Julia Tao, A. Cheung, M. Painter & C. Li (eds.), Governance for Harmony in Asia and Beyond. pp. 37-57.
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  10. 儒家与民主:探索二者之间的中庸之道.Chenyang Li - 2012 - In 儒家文化研究:中国哲学三十年的回顾与展望. pp. 198-221.
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  11. Confucian Harmony: A Philosophical Analysis.Chenyang Li - 2013 - In Vincent Shen & Dordrecht (eds.), Dao Companion to Classical Confucian Philosophy. pp. 379-394.
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  12. Confucian Perspectives on Science and Technology.Chenyang Li - 2013 - In Ethics, Science, Technology, and Engineering: An International Resource.
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  13. 论儒家的平等与不平等观念.Chenyang Li - 2016 - In Ngoi Guat Peng & Park So Jeung (eds.), 东南亚与东北亚儒学的建构与实践. pp. 205-226.
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  14. Toward a Mega-Humanism: Confucian Triadic Harmony for the Anthropocene.Chenyang Li - 2018 - In Ruth Abbey (ed.), Cosmopolitan Civility: Global-Local Reflections with Fred Dallmayr. pp. 57-68.
    The idea of the Anthropocene is not only about environmental issues; it is for a new geologic epoch. Moreover, it is a new worldview, a new philosophy. It provides a new context and perspective for us to re-think some traditional philosophical ideas, including the ancient Confucian philosophy of harmony among heaven, earth, and humanity.
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  15. Chinese Metaphysics as a Fruitful Subject of Study.Chenyang Li & Franklin Perkins - 2014 - Journal of East-West Thought 4 (4):71-86.
    The study of Chinese philosophy in the English-speaking world has largely focused on ethical and political theories. In comparison, Chinese metaphysics—here understood primarily as theories regarding the nature, components, and operating principles of reality—has been far less researched and recognized. In this essay, we examine various meanings of “metaphysics” as it has been used in denoting a branch of philosophy and make the case that metaphysics is an important part of Chinese philosophy. We argue for the need to study Chinese (...)
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  16. 比较视域下的不可通约价值抉择:罗蒂模式、伯林模式与儒道互补.Qingjuan Sun & Chenyang Li - 2020 - 东南大学学报 22 (4):31-40.
    针对价值抉择难题存在不同的解决模式,以比较的视野检视几种有代表性 的模式,可以更加直观地展示它们的优缺点,从相对意义上凸显出当下存在的更为有效的 解决方案。 首先是罗蒂的自我实现与公民同胞等量齐观模式,此模式过于依赖个人与社 会两个领域的简单区分,同时也低估了不同诉求之间的张力;其次是伯林的不同价值体系 非此即彼模式,此模式夸大了不同价值体系的截然对立,错误地认为互有张力的价值不能 在同一价值体系里共存;最后是更具可行性的儒道互补模式,此模式重新解读儒道互补, 通过价值配置的方式解决了不可通约价值之间的张力问题,它允许多元价值体系的共存 和互补,从而有助于相辅相成地达成个人生活与社会的和谐。.
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  17. 儒家傳統面臨的五個挑戰.Chenyang Li - 2003 - 中国社会科学文摘 27 (5):57-62.
    本文討論儒家思想傳統在近代和現代所面臨的五個主要的挑戰:科學,民 主,女性主義,環境主義,以及儒家自身如何生存下去的挑戰。.
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  18. Contemporary Challenges for Confucianism.Chenyang Li - 2012 - Journal of East-West Thought 1 (2):53-68.
    Abstract: In this essay I will discuss five major challenges faced by Confucianism in recent times. Two of these challenges have been widely acknowledged, namely those of science and democracy. I believe that Confucianism's problem with science has been largely solved, even though more constructive work would further strengthen Confucianism in this regard. The problem of democracy is still being dealt with. I will examine three more major challenges. The third major challenge for Confucianism comes from environmentalism. Confucianism has taken (...)
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  19. “儒家思想传统中的平等与不平等观念” (Equality and Inequality in Confucian Thought).Chenyang Li - 2013 - 原道 Yuan Dao 22:43-60.
    平等是现代社会的主要理想价值之一。我们必须认识到,平等有不同的形式。而且任何形式的平等都有随之而来的其他形式的不平等。本文考察儒家思想传统在经济、伦理和政治维度的平等和不平等观念。认为儒家平等观念的主 要特征是比例平等以及随之而来的相关方方面的不平等。儒家的平等思想是其理想社会的重要部分,并试图探究这一观念的当代意涵。.
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  20. “儒家的哲学理念与当今国际政治秩序” (Confucian Ideals for Today’s World Order).Chenyang Li - 2014 - 黑龙江社会 1:8-13.
    当代儒家研究的一个特点,是不仅把儒家哲学看做伦理道德哲学,而且也看做社会政治哲学。结合当今世界语境,尝试提出一个儒家关于世界和谐理念的构想,应从研究儒家思想中的道义领先原则、恕道以及“和而不同”等方面 着手,重点研究这些问题,对于现实当今世界的政治秩序和谐,有着重要价值。.
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  21. “从‘天人合一’回归‘天-地-人’三才思想:兼论儒家环境哲学的基本框架” (From ‘Heaven-humanity Unity’ Back to ‘Heaven-Earth-Humanity’—on the Fundamentals of a Confucian Environmental Philosophy).Chenyang Li - 2014 - 周易研究 5:5-10.
    长期以来,中国学术界流行把儒家的基本思想乃至整个中国文化归结为“天人合一”,并常常把“天人合一” 的源头归结于《易经》。其实考诸中国思想史,把儒家的基本思想总结为“天人合一”,特别是把“天人合一” 的来源归结于《易经》的说法并不准确,是一种误导。《易经》的“天、地、人”三才思想较之于“天人合一”更为符合儒家思想的本旨。在儒家三才和谐的理念中,天、地、人三者各自都有自身的功能与价值。身为三才和谐结 构中的积极参与者,人类拥有促进与维持宇宙和谐的重要责任。就环境哲学而言,儒家的“三才”说既不是“环境保护主义”,也不是“自然保护主义”,而且相对于大地伦理学与深层生态学等西方的整体性环境哲学而言,儒家 整体性的环境哲学赋予人类在宇宙间以一个更崇高的地位和责任。 .
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  22. Confucian Harmony in Dialogue with African Harmony.Chenyang Li - 2016 - African and Asian Studies 1 (2):1-10.
    Engaging in dialogue with African philosophy, I respond to questions raised by Thaddeus Metz on characteristics of Confucian philosophy in comparison with African philosophy. First, in both Confucian philosophy and African philosophy, harmony/harmonization and self-realization coincide in the process of person-making. Second, Confucians accept that sometimes it is inevitable to sacrifice individual components in order to achieve or maintain harmony at large scales; the point is how to minimize such costs. Third, Confucians give family love a central place in the (...)
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  23. “疫情與倫理價值——兼評范瑞平教授的‘大疫當前:訴諸儒家文明的倫理資源’ (The Role of Ethical Values in Fighting the COVID: A Reply to Ruiping Fan).Chenyang Li - 2020 - International Journal of Chinese and Comparative Philosophy of Medicine 《中外醫學哲學》 18 (2):109-113.
    While largely agreeing with Ruiping Fan, Chenyang Li makes three points regarding the handling of COVID-19. First, in addition to state capacity, social trust, and leadership, as identified by Francis Fukuyama, factors responsible for successful pandemic responses include the value of individual freedom upheld by citizens. A high level of individual freedom can make it difficult to implement strict measures even when they are objectively necessary. Second, a strong state can be effective in handling a pandemic, but without checks and (...)
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  24. “再論比較的時代之儒學: 答李明書、李健君、張麗麗三位學者” (Revisiting Confucian Studies in a Comparative Age: A Reply to Li Mingshu, Li Jianjun, and Zhang Lili).Chenyang Li - 2021 - 鹅湖月刊 47 (4):51-56.
    感謝《鵝湖月刊》給我機會討論拙作《比較的時代 ——中西視野中的儒家哲學前沿問題》(以下簡稱《比較的時代》),也很感謝李明書、李健君、張麗麗三位年輕有為的學者認真討論我在書中提出的一些問題。 三位學者都認識到這裏討論的「比較哲學」是通過比較來研究哲學,而不僅僅是比較已經存在的相同和不同的哲學思想。 在我看來, 單純地比較不同的哲學思想基本上是哲學史的工作。 而通過運用比較的方法做哲學則是哲學本身的工作,是建構性的原創性的工作。 說我們的時代是一個比較的時代,是說我們處於一個以比較為特徵來研究和建構哲學思想的時代。 通過比較來做哲學,就是要通過研究不同的哲學流派和不同的哲學思想,來進而建構新的哲學思想,以回答時代向我們提出的問題。在這個方面,我個人的看法是,今天的儒家哲學研究已經進入了一個不可迴避、不可逆轉的比較 的時代。 這是一件大好事。 這樣的研究使我們有更廣闊的視野,使我們有更多、更豐富的思想資源,也使我們更可能有效地回答時代提出的問題。 這裡我分別對三位學者提出的問題做出回應。.
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  25. The Wrong of Rudeness. [REVIEW]Andrew Lambert - 2020 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2020.
    Amy Olberding, The Wrong of Rudeness: Learning Modern Civility from Ancient Chinese Philosophy, Oxford University Press, 2019, 183pp., $29.95 (hbk), ISBN 9780190880965. Reviewed byAndrew Lambert, City University of New York, College of Staten Island.
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  26. 공자 직 개념의 자연주의적 함축에 관하여 (On the Naturalistic Implication of Confucian Zhi).Juyong Kim - 2020 - 동서철학연구(Dong Seo Cheol Hak Yeon Gu; Studies in Philosophy East-West) 95:5-26.
    Confucius aimed to overcome the Spring and Autumn period and achieve order by restoring the humanist tradition and putting it right. At the same time, Confucius distanced himself from discovering the order of natural things, which caused him to be regarded as a representative humanist philosopher. This interpretation could be misleading in that it overlooks the natural aspect of Confucian philosophy. To that aspect, this article asserts that a moral practice in Confucianism has a natural character. The point emphasizing the (...)
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  27. Xin: Being Trustworthy.Winnie Sung - 2020 - International Philosophical Quarterly 60 (3):271-286.
    This essay analyses the Confucian conception of xin, an attribute that broadly resembles what we would ordinarily call trustworthiness. More specifically, it provides an analysis of the psychology of someone who is xin and highlights a feature of the Confucian conception of trustworthiness: the trustworthy person has to ensure that there is a match between her self-presentation and the way she is. My goal is not to argue against any of the existing accounts of trustworthiness but to draw on Confucian (...)
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  28. Do Filial Values Corrupt? How Can We Know? Clarifying and Assessing the Recent Confucian Debate.Hagop Sarkissian - 2020 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 19 (2):193-207.
    In a number of papers, Liu Qingping has critiqued Confucianism’s commitment to “consanguineous affection” or filial values, claiming it to be excessive and indefensible. Many have taken issue with his textual readings and interpretive claims, but these responses do little to undermine the force of his central claim that filial values cause widespread corruption in Chinese society. This is not an interpretive claim but an empirical one. If true, it merits serious consideration. But is it true? How can we know? (...)
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  29. The Suberogation Problem for Lei Zhong's Confucian Virtue Theory of Supererogation.Tsung-Hsing Ho - 2019 - Philosophy East and West 69 (3):779-784.
    A virtue-based theory of right action aims to explain deontic moral principles in terms of virtue and vice. For example, it may maintain the following account of moral obligation: It is morally obligatory for an agent A to ϕ in circumstances C if and only if a fully virtuous and relevantly informed person V would characteristically ϕ in C. However, this account faces the so-called supererogation problem. A supererogatory action is an action that is morally praiseworthy but not morally obligatory. (...)
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  30. When You Think It's Bad It's Worse Than You Think: Psychological Bias and the Ethics of Negative Character Assessments.Hagop Sarkissian - 2015 - In Brian Bruya (ed.), The Philosophical Challenge from China. Cambridge, MA, USA: pp. 3-21.
    We often find ourselves thinking of others as boring, nauseating, dim, dodgy, clumsy, or otherwise irritating or unpleasant. What’s the right thing to do when we have such thoughts? Some philosophers argue we ought to be civil and conceal them, lest others pick up on them and feel disrespected. Drawing on experimental psychology and classical Confucianism, I argue otherwise, suggesting that we ought to (literally) doubt such appraisals and be wary of their veracity.
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  31. Is Self-Regulation a Burden or a Virtue? A Comparative Perspective.Hagop Sarkissian - 2014 - In Nancy Snow & Franco V. Trivigno (eds.), The Philosophy and Psychology of Character and Happiness: An Empirical Approach to Character and Happiness. New York, NY, USA: pp. 181-196.
    Confucianism demands that individuals comport themselves according to the strictures of ritual propriety—specific forms of speech, clothing, and demeanor attached to a vast array of life circumstances. This requires self-regulation, a cognitive resource of limited supply. When this resource is depleted, a person can experience undesirable consequences such as social isolation and alienation. However, one’s cultural background may be an important mediator of such costs; East Asians, in particular, seem to have comparatively greater self-regulatory strength. I offer some considerations as (...)
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  32. 因小得大: 情境论于道德哲学的困难与可能 (Minor Tweaks, Major Payoffs: The Problems and Promise of Situationism in Moral Philosophy).Hagop Sarkissian - 2012 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy and Culture 9.
    This is a translation of "Minor Tweaks, Major Payoffs" (2010) prepared by 黃玉娥 for the Journal of Chinese Philosophy and Culture for a special issue edited by Brian Bruya on cognitive science and early Chinese philosophy.
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  33. 고전 유교에서의 감정: 내면과 외면" ("Emotions in Classical Confucianism: Inside and Out").Hagop Sarkissian - 2012 - In 유교 도교 불교의 감성이론 (Theories of Emotion in Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism). Seoul:
    Classical Confucian thought is full of discussion of human emotions, reflecting a preoccupation with the inner life-how one ought to feel 'on the inside', as it were. Yet alongside these passages are others that seem, by contrast, to be concerned with matters external to one's emotions and psychology: how one ought to dress, speak, walk, and talk. Yet passages such as these, which draw attention to details of individual expression and comportment, are not at all tangential when it comes to (...)
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  34. Mencius and Augustine on Evil.Bryan Van Norden - 2001 - In Bo Mou (ed.), Two Roads to Wisdom? La Salle, IL, USA: Open Court. pp. 313-36.
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  35. Situationism, Manipulation, and Objective Self-Awareness.Hagop Sarkissian - 2017 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 20 (3):489-503.
    Among those taking the implications of situationism seriously, some have suggested exploiting our tendency to be shaped by our environments toward desirable ends. The key insight here is that if experimental studies produce reliable, probabilistic predictions about the effects of situational variables on behavior—for example, how people react to the presence or absence of various sounds, objects, and their placement—then we should deploy those variables that promote prosocial behavior, while avoiding or limiting those that tend toward antisocial behavior. Put another (...)
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  36. Review of Boston Confucianism: Portable Tradition in the Late-Modern World by Robert Cummings Neville. [REVIEW]Bryan William van Norden - 2003 - Philosophy East and West 53 (3):413-417.
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  37. Confucianism and African Conceptions of Value, Reality and Knowledge (儒家思想与非洲的价值观、现实 观与知识观).Thaddeus Metz - 2016 - International Social Science Journal (Chinese Edition 国际社会科学杂志) 33 (4):159-170.
    This article, translated into Chinese by Tian Kaifang, summarizes and critically reflects on the current state of the literature that has recently begun to put Chinese Confucianism into dialogue with characteristically African conceptions of what is good, what fundamentally exists, and how to obtain knowledge. As most of this literature has addressed value theory, this article focuses largely on it, too. It first illustrates how similar the foundational values are between the two cultural traditions; central to both traditional China and (...)
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  38. Olberding, Amy, Ed., Dao Companion to the Analects: New York: Springer, 2014, Vi + 369 Pages. [REVIEW]Bryan Van Norden - 2014 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13 (4):605-608.
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  39. Seek and You Will Find It; Let Go and You Will Lose It: Exploring a Confucian Approach to Human Dignity.Peimin Ni - 2014 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13 (2):173-198.
    While the concept of Menschenwürde (universal human dignity) has served as the foundation for human rights, it is absent in the Confucian tradition. However, this does not mean that Confucianism has no resources for a broadly construed notion of human dignity. Beginning with two underlying dilemmas in the notion of Menschenwürde and explaining how Confucianism is able to avoid them, this essay articulates numerous unique features of a Confucian account of human dignity, and shows that the Confucian account goes beyond (...)
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  40. Confucian Rights as a "Fallback Apparatus” 作为“备用机制”的儒家权利.Justin Tiwald - 2013 - Academic Monthly 学术月刊 45 (11):41-49.
    Liang Tao and Kuang Zhao, trans. Confucian rights can be characterized as a kind of “fallback apparatus,” necessary only when preferred mechanisms—for example, familial and neighborly care or traditional courtesies—would otherwise fail to protect basic human interests. In this paper, I argue that the very existence of such rights is contingent on their ability to function as remedies for dysfunctional social relationships or failures to develop the virtues that sustain harmonious Confucian relationships. Moreover, these remedies are not, strictly speaking, rights-based, (...)
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  41. Robert E. Carter., Becoming Bamboo: Western and Eastern Explorations of the Meaning of Life. [REVIEW]James D. Sellmann - 1994 - International Studies in Philosophy 26 (4):115-116.
    This is a book review of Becoming Bamboo....
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  42. Confucianism's Political Implications for the Modern World.Ranjoo Seodu Herr - 2010 - In Miguel Vatter (ed.), Crediting God: The Fate of Religion and Politics in the Age of Global Capitalism.
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  43. Moral Reason, Moral Sentiments and the Realization of Altruism: A Motivational Theory of Altruism.JeeLoo Liu - 2012 - Asian Philosophy 22 (2):93-119.
    This paper begins with Thomas Nagel's (1970) investigation of the possibility of altruism to further examine how to motivate altruism. When the pursuit of the gratification of one's own desires generally has an immediate causal efficacy, how can one also be motivated to care for others and to act towards the well-being of others? A successful motivational theory of altruism must explain how altruism is possible under all these motivational interferences. The paper will begin with an exposition of Nagel's proposal, (...)
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  44. Inference in the Mengzi 1a: 7.Koji Tanaka - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (3):444-454.
    In 1A:7 of the Mengzi, Mengzi tries to convince King Xuan of Qi that he is a “true” king. As a reading of Mengzi’s reasoning involved in his attempt at persuasion, David Nivison advances an inferential view, according to which Mengzi’s persuasion involves inferences. In this paper, I consider the assumptions underlying the objections raised against Nivison’s inferential view. I argue that these objections assume a contemporary Western view about the nature of logic and inferences. I propose an alternative characterisation (...)
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  45. Remastering Morals with Aristotle and Confucius. [REVIEW]Ben Mulvey - 2009 - Teaching Philosophy 32 (2):209-213.
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  46. Confucian Democracy and Equality.Ranjoo Seodu Herr - 2010 - Asian Philosophy 20 (3):261-282.
    “Confucian democracy” is considered oxymoronic because Confucianism is viewed as lacking an idea of equality among persons necessary for democracy. Against this widespread opinion, this article argues that Confucianism presupposes a uniquely Confucian idea of equality and that therefore a Confucian conception of democracy distinct from liberal democracy is not only conceptually possible but also morally justifiable. This article engages philosophical traditions of East and West by, first, reconstructing the prevailing position based on Joshua Cohen’s political liberalism; second, articulating a (...)
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  47. Is Confucianism Compatible with Care Ethics? A Critique.Ranjoo Seodu Herr - 2003 - Philosophy East and West 53 (4):471-489.
    This essay critically examines a suggestion proposed by some Confucianists that Confucianism and Care Ethics share striking similarities and that feminism in Confucian societies might take “a new form of Confucianism.” Aspects of Confucianism and Care Ethics that allegedly converge are examined, including the emphasis on human relationships, and it is argued that while these two perspectives share certain surface similarities, moral injunctions entailed by their respective ideals of ren and caring are not merely distinctive but in fact incompatible.
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  48. Review of Ivanhoe, Confucian Moral Self Cultivation. [REVIEW]Bryan van Norden - 1996 - Journal of Asian Studies 55 (4):983-84.
    Self-cultivation is a topic that has been largely ignored by Western moral philosophers. In contrast, it is a central concern of philosophers in the Confucian tradition. In this brief and highly readable book, Ivanhoe introduces the theories of self-cultivation of some of the most important figures in the Confucian tradition. (See the table of contents, below.) Although Confucianism is sometimes presented as a monolithic movement, Ivanhoe stresses the diversity within the Confucian tradition over more than 2,000 years. In addition to (...)
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  49. On “Humane Love” and “Kinship Love”.Bryan W. Van Norden - 2008 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 7 (2):125-129.
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  50. Sim, May, Remastering Morals with Aristotle and Confucius. [REVIEW]Bryan Van Norden - 2009 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (1):109-111.
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