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  1. An Ethical Enquiry That Questions Whether Psychiatrists Truly Are Mental Health/Disability Experts? Reasons to Doubt!Giuseppe Naimo - forthcoming - In Patricia Hanna (ed.), An Anthology of Philosophical Studies, vol. 14. Athens, Greece: Athens Institute for Education and Research. pp. Chapter 13 pp. 143-158.
    The observation that a crisis of confidence regarding Psychiatry exists is a notion shared even among psychiatrists themselves. Psychiatry has a checkered history and its alliance with the pharmaceutical industry, aka Big-Pharma, continues to reinforce a need for healthy skepticism. Why? Mainly, an over-reliance on the questionable expertise and authority afforded psychiatry as the specialists of mental health. I contend that the authority of psychiatry is misplaced and too often harmful. Since the criteria required to justify and satisfy psychiatric expertise (...)
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  2. An Expert System for Knee Problems Diagnosis.Lamis F. Samhan, Amjad H. Alfarra & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2021 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 5 (4):59-66.
    Abstract: In fact, people get knee problems due to something such as sports, or fall. They usually have difficulty moving to the doctor. In this paper an expert system was designed to help users to correctly diagnose knee problems (Fractured in knee, torn ligament, Bursitis, Chondromalacia patellae, Torn cartilage, Rheumatoid arthritis and Rheumatic fever, Osteoarthritis, Baker's cyst, Osgood-Schlatter disease) with some information about the disease and self-care. CLIPS expert system language was used to design and implement this expert system.
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  3. Ethical Implications of Alzheimer’s Disease Prediction in Asymptomatic Individuals Through Artificial Intelligence.Frank Ursin, Cristian Timmermann & Florian Steger - 2021 - Diagnostics 11 (3):440.
    Biomarker-based predictive tests for subjectively asymptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are utilized in research today. Novel applications of artificial intelligence (AI) promise to predict the onset of AD several years in advance without determining biomarker thresholds. Until now, little attention has been paid to the new ethical challenges that AI brings to the early diagnosis in asymptomatic individuals, beyond contributing to research purposes, when we still lack adequate treatment. The aim of this paper is to explore the ethical arguments put forward (...)
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  4. Developing an Expert System for Papaya Plant Disease Diagnosis.Mohammed M. Abu-Saqer & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 3 (4):14-21.
    The papaya is a plant that grows in tropical climates and also known as pawpaws or papaws, it has many health benefits like reducing risk of heart disease, diabetes, cancer, aiding in digestion, improving blood glucose control in people with diabetes, lowering blood pressure, and improving wound healing. With these big health benefits and with taken into consideration that it’s available at most times of the year. The farmers have to take care of this plant. Because of that we developed (...)
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  5. Knowledge Based System for Uveitis Disease Diagnosis.Mohammed M. Abu-Saqer & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 3 (5):18-25.
    : Our eyesight is one of your most important senses: 80% of what we perceive comes through our sense of sight. By protecting your eyes, you will reduce the odds of blindness and vision loss, one of things that may cause vision loss is Uveitis. Uveitis is a form of eye inflammation. It affects the middle layer of tissue in the eye wall (uvea). Uveitis (u-vee-I-tis) warning signs often come on suddenly and get worse quickly. They include eye redness, pain (...)
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  6. Anemia Expert System Diagnosis Using Sl5 Object.Aldaour F. Ahmed & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 3 (5):9-17.
    Background: Anemia is a condition that occurs due to a lower concentration of hemoglobin than the normal level (non-pregnant adult females less than 11 g / dL and males younger than 13 g / dL). Because of the low level of hemoglobin, the body's organs suffer from lack of enough oxygen, so patients complain of signs and symptoms such as fatigue, headaches, lack of concentration, lethargy and others. Objectives: The main goal of this expert system is to get the appropriate (...)
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  7. A Proposed Expert System for Diagnosing Skin Cancer Using SL5 Object.Mohammed O. Al-Shawwa & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 4 (3):1-9.
    Skin is considered the largest organ of the body, with a total area of about 20 square feet. The skin protects us from microbes and the elements, helps regulate body temperature, and permits the sensations of touch, heat, and cold. For a patient to recover from any illness or weakness that affects the skin, he/she requires an accurate diagnosis of his/her the situation. In this paper will present an expert system that quickly diagnosis patient’s condition and propose a suitable solution (...)
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  8. An Expert System for Depression Diagnosis.Izzeddin A. Alshawwa, Mohammed Elkahlout, Hosni Qasim El-Mashharawi & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research (IJAHMR) 3 (4):20-27.
    Background: Depression (major depressive disorder) is a common and serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act. Fortunately, it is also treatable. Depression causes feelings of sadness and/or a loss of interest in activities once enjoyed. It can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems and can decrease a person’s ability to function at work and at home. Depression affects an estimated one in 15 adults (6.7%) in any given (...)
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  9. An Expert System for Coconut Diseases Diagnosis.Izzeddin A. Alshawwa, Abeer A. Elsharif & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 3 (4):8-13.
    The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the palm tree family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus Cocos, can refer to the whole coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which botanically is a drupe, not a nut. The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco meaning "head" or "skull" after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features. Objectives: The main goal of this expert system is to (...)
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  10. Image-Based Tomato Leaves Diseases Detection Using Deep Learning.Belal A. M. Ashqar & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 2 (12):10-16.
    : Crop diseases are a key danger for food security, but their speedy identification still difficult in many portions of the world because of the lack of the essential infrastructure. The mixture of increasing worldwide smartphone dispersion and current advances in computer vision made conceivable by deep learning has cemented the way for smartphone-assisted disease identification. Using a public dataset of 9000 images of infected and healthy Tomato leaves collected under controlled conditions, we trained a deep convolutional neural network to (...)
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  11. Knowledge Based System for Diabetes Diagnosis Using SL5 Object.Ibtesam M. Dheir, Alaa Soliman Abu Mettleq, Abeer A. Elsharif, Mohammed N. Abu Al-Qumboz & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 3 (4):1-10.
    Diabetes is a major public health issue that affects the nations of our time to a large extent and is described as a non-communicable epidemic. Diabetes mellitus is a common disease where there is too much sugar (glucose) floating around in your blood. This occurs because either the pancreas can’t produce enough insulin or the cells in body have become resistant to insulin. The concentration in this paper is on diagnosis diabetes by designing a proposed expert system. The main goal (...)
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  12. An Expert System for Sesame Diseases Diagnosis Using CLIPS.Hosni Q. El-Mashharawi & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 3 (4):22-29.
    Background: Sesame is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum also called benne. Numerous wild relatives occur in Africa and a smaller number in India. It is widely naturalized in tropical regions around the world and is cultivated for its edible seeds, which grow in pods or "buns". World production in 2016 was 6.1 million tons, with Tanzania, Myanmar, India, and Sudan as the largest producers. Sesame seed is one of the oldest oil seed crops known, domesticated well over 3000 (...)
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  13. An Expert System for Arthritis Diseases Diagnosis Using SL5 Object.Hosni Qasim El-Mashharawi, Izzeddin A. Alshawwa, Mohammed Elkahlout & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research (IJAHMR) 3 (4):28-35.
    Background: Arthritis is very common but is not well understood. Actually, “arthritis” is not a single disease; it is an informal way of referring to joint pain or joint disease. There are more than 100 different types of arthritis and related conditions. People of all ages, sexes and races can and do have arthritis, and it is the leading cause of disability in America. More than 50 million adults and 300,000 children have some type of arthritis. It is most common (...)
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  14. An Expert System for Citrus Diseases Diagnosis.Mohammed Ibraheem El Kahlout & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 3 (4):1-7.
    Background: Citrus, genus of plants belonging to the rue family (Rutaceae), and yielding pulpy fruits covered with fairly thick skins. Economically important plants in this group include the lemon (C. × limon), lime (C. × aurantiifolia), sweet orange (C. × sinensis), sour orange (C. × aurantium), tangerine (C. reticulata), grapefruit (C. x paradisi), citron (C. medica), and shaddock (C. maxima)[1]. Objectives: The main goal of this expert system is to get the appropriate diagnosis of disease and the correct treatment by (...)
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  15. Silicosis Expert System Diagnosis and Treatment.Mohammed Ibraheem El Kahlout, Izzeddin A. Alshawwa, Hosni Qasim El-Mashharawi & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 3 (5):1-8.
    Background Silicosis (particularly the acute form) is characterized by shortness of breath, cough, fever, and cyanosis (bluish skin). It may often be misdiagnosed as pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs), pneumonia, or tuberculosis. Silicosis resulted in 46,000 deaths globally in 2013 down from 55,000 deaths in 1990. Objectives The main goal of this expert system is to get the appropriate diagnosis of disease and the correct treatment by presenting suggestions on Silicosis disease to the user by asking about symptoms. Methods (...)
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  16. Apple Trees Knowledge Based System.Ahmed J. Khalil, Alaa M. Barhoom, Musleh M. Musleh & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 3 (9):1-7.
    Plant production provides human and animal life with different requirements. The concern of workers in agriculture in general and those interested in plant diseases, in particular, has been focused on protection from all that is expected to have problems of production. As environmental conditions play a critical role in the treatment of diseases, the plant is prepared and rendered more susceptible to production, which is exposed and may result in the loss of the entire crop. Objectives: The main goal of (...)
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  17. Warranted Diagnosis.David Limbaugh, David Kasmier, Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2019 - In Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO), Buffalo, NY. Buffalo: pp. 1-10.
    A diagnostic process is an investigative process that takes a clinical picture as input and outputs a diagnosis. We propose a method for distinguishing diagnoses that are warranted from those that are not, based on the cognitive processes of which they are the outputs. Processes designed and vetted to reliably produce correct diagnoses will output what we shall call ‘warranted diagnoses’. The latter are diagnoses that should be trusted even if they later turn out to have been wrong. Our work (...)
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  18. Expert System for the Diagnosis of Wheat Diseases.Aysha I. Mansour & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 3 (4):19-26.
    Background: Wheat is a wild grass belongs to Poaceae (Gramineae), an enormously multipurpose grain. The proteins of the wheat, gliadins and glutenins together referred to as storage prolamines are responsible for viscoelasticity of the dough. Wheat proteins belonging to both the soluble and insoluble fractions can act as allergens and cause allergic symptoms in susceptible individuals. Celiac disease is an auto immune disease characterized by immune mediated enteropathy of proximal small intestine triggered by the ingestion of gluten containing cereals (wheat, (...)
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  19. Knowledge Based System for the Diagnosis of Dengue Disease.Aysha I. Mansour & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research (IJAHMR) 3 (4):12-19.
    Background: Dengue Disease is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus, symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days after infection. This may include a high fever, headache, vomiting, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash. Dengue serology is applied in different settings, such as for surveillance, in health care facilities in endemic areas and in travel clinics in non-endemic areas. The applicability and quality of serological tests in dengue endemic regions has to be judged against a (...)
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  20. Expert System for the Diagnosis of Seventh Nerve Inflammation (Bell’s Palsy) Disease.Alaa Soliman Abu Mettleq, Ibtesam M. Dheir, Abeer A. Elsharif & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 3 (4):27-35.
    Background: The occurrence of any disturbance in the seventh facial nerve in the nerves of the brain called inflammation of the seventh nerve or paralysis in the face of half (Bell's paralysis), where paralysis affects one side of the face, and occurs when the seventh nerve, which controls the muscles of the face loses the patient control of the facial muscles on The side of inflammation is the seventh nerve because it controls the muscles on both sides of the face (...)
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  21. Predicting Liver Patients Using Artificial Neural Network.Musleh M. Musleh, Eman Alajrami, Ahmed J. Khalil, Bassem S. Abu-Nasser, Alaa M. Barhoom & S. S. Abu Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 3 (10):1-11.
    Liver diagnosis at an early stage is essential for enhanced handling. Precise classification is required for automatic recognition of disease from data samples (utilizing data mining for classification of liver patients from healthy ones). In this study, an artificial neural network model was designed and developed using JustNN Tool for predicting weather a person is a liver patient or not based on a dataset for liver patients. The main factors for input variables are: Age, Gender, Total Bilirubin, Direct Bilirubin, Alkphos (...)
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  22. Lung Cancer Detection Using Artificial Neural Network.Ibrahim M. Nasser & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 3 (3):17-23.
    In this paper, we developed an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for detect the absence or presence of lung cancer in human body. Symptoms were used to diagnose the lung cancer, these symptoms such as Yellow fingers, Anxiety, Chronic Disease, Fatigue, Allergy, Wheezing, Coughing, Shortness of Breath, Swallowing Difficulty and Chest pain. They were used and other information about the person as input variables for our ANN. Our ANN established, trained, and validated using data set, which its title is “survey lung (...)
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  23. Expert System for Castor Diseases and Diagnosis.Fatima M. Salman & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 3 (3):1-10.
    Background: The castor bean is a large grassy or semi-wooden shrub or small tree. Any part of the castor plant parts can suffering from a disease that weakens the ability to grow and eliminates its production. Therefore, in this paper will identify the pests and diseases present in castor culture and detect the symptoms in each disease. Also images is showing the symptom form in this disease. Objectives: The main objective of this expert system is to obtain appropriate diagnosis of (...)
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  24. Thyroid Knowledge Based System.Fatima M. Salman & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 3 (5):11-20.
    Background: Thyroid disease is a group of disorders that affects the thyroid gland. The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland in the front of your neck that makes thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones control how your body uses energy, so they affect the way nearly every organ in your body works—even the way your heart beats. Therefore, in this paper will identify what is the thyroid and diseases present in thyroid and detect the symptoms in each disease. Objectives: The main objective (...)
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  25. Rule Based System for Safflower Disease Diagnosis and Treatment.Fatima Salman & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 3 (8):1-10.
    Background: Safflower is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual plant. Any section of the safflower plant sections can suffering from a disease that weakens the ability to grow and eliminates its production. Therefore, in this paper will identify the pests and diseases present in safflower culture and detect the symptoms in each disease. Also images are showing the symptom form in this disease. Objectives: The main objective of this expert system is to obtain appropriate diagnosis of the disease. Methods: In (...)
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  26. Diagnosing Breast Cancer Using Expert System.Suheir H. Almurshidi - 2018 - Dissertation, Al-Azhar University, Gaza
    The “Expert System for Diagnosing Breast Cancer" is used to assist medical students to improve their education on diagnosis and counseling the process of analyzing the biopsy image of the microscope, determining the type of tumor and the treatment method for each case and identifying the disease related questions. According to the Ministry of Health in its annual report in Gaza, between 2009 and 2014 there are 7069 cases of breast cancer, and in 2014 there are 1502 cases of breast (...)
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  27. Breast Cancer Knowledge Based System.Suheir H. Almurshidi & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2018 - International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research (IJAHMR) 2 (12):7-22.
    The Knowledge Based System for Diagnosing Breast Cancer is used to assist medical students to improve their education on diagnosis and counseling the process of analyzing the biopsy image of the microscope, determining the type of tumor and the treatment method for each case and identifying the disease related questions. According to the Ministry of Health in its annual report in Gaza, between 2009 and 2014 there are 7069 cases of breast cancer, and in 2014 there are 1502 cases of (...)
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  28. Black Pepper Expert System.Alaa M. Barhoom & S. S. Abu Naser - 2018 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 2 (8):9-16.
    Background: Plant production provides human and animal life with different requirements. The concern of workers in agriculture in general and those interested in plant diseases, in particular, has been focused on protection from all that is expected to have problems of production. As environmental conditions play a critical role in the treatment of diseases, the plant is prepared and rendered more susceptible to production, which is exposed and may result in the loss of the entire crop. Objectives: The main goal (...)
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  29. On Defining Bruxism.W. Ceusters & B. Smith - 2018 - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 247:551-555.
    In a series of recent publications, orofacial researchers have debated the question of how ‘bruxism’ should be defined for the purposes of accurate diagnosis and reliable clinical research. Following the principles of realism-based ontology, we performed an analysis of the arguments involved. This revealed that the disagreements rested primarily on inconsistent use of terms, so that issues of ontology were thus obfuscated by shortfalls in terminology. In this paper, we demonstrate how bruxism terminology can be improved by paying attention to (...)
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  30. An Expert System for Diagnosing Shortness of Breath in Infants and Children.Jihan Y. AbuEl-Reesh & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2018 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 1 (4):89-101.
    Background: With the coming of the Industrial Revolution, the levels of pollution grow significantly. This Technological development contributed to the worsening of shortness breath problems in great shape. especially in infants and children. There are many shortness breath diseases that infants and children face in their lives. Shortness of breath is one of a very serious symptom in children and infants and should never be ignored. Objectives: Along these lines, the main goal of this expert system is to help physician (...)
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  31. Expert System for Polymyalgia Rheumatic.Massoud Agha & Abdallah Jarghoon - 2017 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems 1 (4):125-137.
    Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR) presents with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and almost exclusively occurs in the population aged over 50 years. After rheumatoid arthritis, PMR is the second most common autoimmune rheumatic disorder. Visual loss is the most feared complication in temporal arteritis, and extracranial arteries. No specific laboratory parameter exists for diagnosis of PMR. Imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, MRI or F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET may be helpful in the diagnosis and evaluation of the extent of vascular involvement in these (...)
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  32. Diagnosing Shortness of Breath in Infants and Children Expert System.Jihan El-Reesh & Bastami Bashhar - 2017 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 1 (4):102-115.
    Background: With the coming of the Industrial Revolution, the levels of pollution grow significantly. This Technological development contributed to the worsening of shortness breath problems in great shape. especially in infants and children. There are many shortness breath diseases that infants and children face in their lives. Shortness of breath is one of a very serious symptom in children and infants and should never be ignored. Objectives: Along these lines, the main goal of this expert system is to help physician (...)
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  33. KBS for Diagnosing Pineapple Diseases.Nassr Mohammad & Bastami Bashhar - 2017 - International Journal of Academic Pedagogical Research (IJAPR) 7 (2):12-17.
    Abstract: Background: The pineapple (A nanas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the Bromeliaceae family. Pineapples may be cultivated from a crown cutting of the fruit, possibly flowering in five to ten months and fruiting in the following six months.[5][6] Pineapples do not ripen significantly after harvest. In 2016, Costa Rica, Brazil, and the Philippines accounted for nearly one-third of the world's production (...)
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  34. Rickets Diagnoses and Treatment Expert System.Hazzemi Rekhawi, Abdulah Ayad & Massoud Agha - 2017 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems 1 (4):149-159.
    Background: The epidemic scourge of rickets in the 19th century was caused by vitamin D deficiency due to inadequate sun exposure and resulted in growth retardation, muscle weakness, skeletal deformities, hypocalcemia, tetany, and seizures. The encouragement of sensible sun exposure and the fortification of milk with vitamin D resulted in almost complete eradication of the disease. Objectives: this paper is going to resolve the exiting problems of rickets by correctly diagnosing and offering the proper treatment. Methods: In this paper, we (...)
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  35. An Expert System for Nausea and Vomiting Problems in Infants and Children.Samy S. Abu Naser & Abed ELhaleem A. El-Najjar - 2016 - International Journal of Medicine Research 1 (2):114--117.
    Infants and children are suffering from a lots of nausea and vomiting problems. Doctors, usually face various difficulties dealing with these problems because of their similarities. In this paper, we present an expert system to help users in getting the correct diagnosis of problems of nausea and vomiting in infants and children (Gastro-esophageal reflux, Gastroenteritis, Systemic Infection, Bowel obstruction, Tumors, A bleeding disease, tonsillitis, and Hepatitis pharynx). Furthermore, this expert system provide information about the disease and how to deal with (...)
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  36. A Rational System for Diagnosing Banana Disorders.Zamily Jawad & Qassas Randa - 2016 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 8 (2):1-8.
    Background: Plant production provides human and animal life with different requirements. The concern of workers in agriculture in general and those interested in plant diseases, in particular, has been focused on protection from all that is expected to have problems of production. As environmental conditions play a critical role in the treatment of diseases, the plant is prepared and rendered more susceptible to production, which is exposed and may result in the loss of the entire crop. Objectives: The main goal (...)
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  37. A Rational System for Diagnosing Banana Disorders.Zamily Jawad & Qassas Randa - 2016 - International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) 8 (2):1-8.
    Abstract: Background: Plant production provides human and animal life with different requirements. The concern of workers in agriculture in general and those interested in plant diseases, in particular, has been focused on protection from all that is expected to have problems of production. As environmental conditions play a critical role in the treatment of diseases, the plant is prepared and rendered more susceptible to production, which is exposed and may result in the loss of the entire crop. Objectives: The main (...)
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  38. Saving the DSM-5? Descriptive Conceptions and Theoretical Concepts of Mental Disorders.Elisabetta Lalumera - 2016 - Medicina E Storia 9.
    At present, psychiatric disorders are characterized descriptively, as the standard within the scientific community for communication and, to a certain extent, for diagnosis, is the DSM, now at its fifth edition. The main reasons for descriptivism are the aim of achieving reliability of diagnosis and improving communication in a situation of theoretical disagreement, and the Ignorance argument, which starts with acknowledgment of the relative failure of the project of finding biomarkers for most mental disorders. Descriptivism has also the advantage of (...)
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  39. RBS for Diagnosing and Treating Potatoes Problems.Mesleh N. Mesleh & Qassas Randa - 2016 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 1 (8):1-8.
    Abstract: Background: Plant production provides human and animal life with different requirements. The concern of workers in agriculture in general and those interested in plant diseases, in particular, has been focused on protection from all that is expected to have problems of production. As environmental conditions play a critical role in the treatment of diseases, the plant is prepared and rendered more susceptible to production, which is exposed and may result in the loss of the entire crop. Objectives: The main (...)
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  40. Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) for Clinical and Research Applications.Eric Schiffman, Richard Ohrbach, E. Truelove, Edmond Truelove, John Look, Gary Anderson, Werner Ceusters, Barry Smith & Others - 2014 - Journal of Oral and Facial Pain and Headache 28 (1):6-27.
    Aims: The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandi¬bular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms were demonstrated to be reliable but below target sensitivity and specificity. Empirical data supported Axis I algorithm revisions that were valid. Axis II instruments were shown to be both reliable and valid. An international consensus workshop was convened to obtain recommendations and finalization of new Axis I diagnostic algorithms and new Axis II instruments. Methods: A comprehensive search of published TMD diagnostic literature was followed by review and (...)
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  41. Toward A Concept of Instrumental Validity: Implications for Psychiatric Diagnosis.Ronald Pies - 2011 - Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences 4 (1):18-19.
    Let’s begin by imagining a hypothetical psychotic illness called “Schneider’s Disease”, recognized for over 100 years. Let’s assume there has been great controversy as regards the “most valid” set of diagnostic criteria for SD.
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  42. Self-Concept Through the Diagnostic Looking Glass: Narratives and Mental Disorder.Şerife Tekin - 2011 - Philosophical Psychology 24 (3):357-380.
    This paper explores how the diagnosis of mental disorder may affect the diagnosed subject’s self-concept by supplying an account that emphasizes the influence of autobiographical and social narratives on self-understanding. It focuses primarily on the diagnoses made according to the criteria provided by the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), and suggests that the DSM diagnosis may function as a source of narrative that affects the subject’s self-concept. Engaging in this analysis by appealing to autobiographies and memoirs written by (...)
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  43. Malaria Diagnosis and the Plasmodium Life Cycle: The BFO Perspective.Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2010 - In Interdisciplinary Ontology. Proceedings of the Third Interdisciplinary Ontology Meeting. Tokyo: Keio University Press. pp. 25-34.
    Definitive diagnosis of malaria requires the demonstration through laboratory tests of the presence within the patient of malaria parasites or their components. Since malaria parasites can be present even in the absence of malaria manifestations, and since symptoms of malaria can be manifested even in the absence of malaria parasites, malaria diagnosis raises important issues for the adequate understanding of disease, etiology and diagnosis. One approach to the resolution of these issues adopts a realist view, according to which the needed (...)
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  44. The Diagnosis of Mental Disorders: The Problem of Reification.Steven Edward Hyman - 2010 - Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 6:155-179.
    A pressing need for interrater reliability in the diagnosis of mental disorders emerged during the mid-twentieth century, prompted in part by the development of diverse new treatments. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), third edition answered this need by introducing operationalized diagnostic criteria that were field-tested for interrater reliability. Unfortunately, the focus on reliability came at a time when the scientific understanding of mental disorders was embryonic and could not yield valid disease definitions. Based on accreting problems (...)
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  45. Patient Complains of …: How Medicalization Mediates Power and Justice.Alison Reiheld - 2010 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 3 (1):72-98.
    The process of medicalization has been analyzed in the medical humanities with disapprobation, with much emphasis placed on its ability to reinforce existing social power structures to ill effect. While true, this is an incomplete picture of medicalization. I argue that medicalization can both reinforce and disrupt existing social hierarchies within the clinic and outside of it, to ill or good effect. We must attend to how this takes place locally and globally lest we misunderstand how medicalization mediates power and (...)
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  46. Toward an Ontological Treatment of Disease and Diagnosis.Richard H. Scheuermann, Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2009 - In Proceedings of the 2009 AMIA Summit on Translational Bioinformatics. American Medical Informatics Association.
    Many existing biomedical vocabulary standards rest on incomplete, inconsistent or confused accounts of basic terms pertaining to diseases, diagnoses, and clinical phenotypes. Here we outline what we believe to be a logically and biologically coherent framework for the representation of such entities and of the relations between them. We defend a view of disease as involving in every case some physical basis within the organism that bears a disposition toward the execution of pathological processes. We present our view in the (...)
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  47. An Expert System For Diagnosing Eye Diseases Using Clips.S. S. Abu Naser & O. A. Abu Zaiter - 2008 - Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology 4 (10):923-930.
    This work presents the design of an expert system that aims to provide the patient with background for suitable diagnosis of some of the eye diseases. The eye has always been viewed as a tunnel to the inner workings of the body. There are many disease states that may produce symptoms from the eye. CLIPS language is used as a tool for designing our expert system. An initial evaluation of the expert system was carried out and a positive feedback was (...)
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  48. Paying for the Possibility of Disease: How Medicalization of Risk Conditions Affects Health Policy and Why We Must Bear It In Mind.Alison Reiheld - 2008 - Medical Humanities Report:3, 4, 6.
    In this paper, I sound a warning note about the medicalization of risk conditions such as high cholesterol, especially in a health care climate of resource scarcity.
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