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  1. Swyneshed, Paradox and the Rule of Contradictory Pairs.Stephen Read - manuscript
    Roger Swyneshed, in his treatise on insolubles (logical paradoxes), dating from the early 1330s, drew three notorious corollaries of his solution. The third states that there is a contradictory pair of propositions both of which are false. This appears to contradict the Rule of Contradictory Pairs, which requires that in every such pair, one must be true and the other false. Looking back at Aristotle's treatise De Interpretatione, we find that Aristotle himself, immediately after defining the notion of a contradictory (...)
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  2. Thomas Aquinas, Magister Ludi: The Relation of Medieval Logic and Theology.Joshua P. Hochschild - 2020 - Hungarian Philosophical Review 64 (4):43-62.
    This paper seeks to articulate the relationship between medieval logic and theology. Reviewing modern scholarship, we find that the purpose of medieval logic, when it is even inquired about, has proven difficult to articulate without reference to theology. This prompts reflection on the metaphors of logic as a “tool” and a “game”: a tool is not merely instrumental, insofar as it can have its own intrinsic goods and can shape and be shaped by that which it serves; likewise a game, (...)
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  3. Remark on Al-Fārābī's Missing Modal Logic and its Effect on Ibn Sīnā.Wilfrid Hodges - 2019 - Eshare: An Iranian Journal of Philosophy 1 (3):39-73.
    We reconstruct as much as we can the part of al-Fārābī's treatment of modal logic that is missing from the surviving pages of his Long Commentary on the Prior Analytics. We use as a basis the quotations from this work in Ibn Sīnā, Ibn Rushd and Maimonides, together with relevant material from al-Fārābī's other writings. We present a case that al-Fārābī's treatment of the dictum de omni had a decisive effect on the development and presentation of Ibn Sīnā's modal logic. (...)
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  4. The Question of the Plurality of Definitions in Two Medieval Commentaries on Aristotle’s Topics.Rodrigo Guerizoli - 2016 - In Valery V. Petroff (ed.), The Legacies of Aristotle as Constitutive Element of European Rationality (Proceedings of the Moscow International Conference on Aristotle). Moscow, Russia: RAS Institute of Philosophy. pp. 373-380.
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  5. William Ockham on the Scope and Limits of Consciousness.Susan Brower-Toland - 2014 - Vivarium 52 (3-4):197-219.
    Ockham holds what nowadays would be characterized as a “higher-order perception” theory of consciousness. Among the most common objections to such a theory is the charge that it gives rise to an infinite regress in higher-order states. In this paper, I examine Ockham’s various responses to the regress problem, focusing in particular on his attempts to restrict the scope of consciousness so as to avoid it. In his earlier writings, Ockham holds that we are conscious only of those states to (...)
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  6. The Art of Dialectic Between Dialogue and Rhetoric: The Aristotelian Tradition. [REVIEW]Mehmet Karabela - 2014 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 52 (4):841-42.
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  7. Et quoniam est quis tertius homo. Argument, exégèse, contresens dans la littérature latine apparentée aux Sophistici elenchi d’Aristote.Leone Gazziero - 2013 - Archives D’Histoire Doctrinale Et Littéraire du Moyen Âge 80 (1):7-48.
    Les commentateurs latins ont rencontré pour la première fois le « Troisième homme » d’Aristote dans le chapitre vingt-deux des Sophistici elenchi. Cette rencontre illustre bien à la fois leur respect de la lettre et la radicalité de certaines de leurs innovations. Influencée par la traduction de Boèce, leur exégèse de l’argument a tenu compte de l’ensemble des indications du texte tout en lui conférant une tournure inédite.
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  8. Proportionality and Divine Naming: Did St. Thomas Change His Mind About Analogy?Joshua Hochschild - 2013 - The Thomist 77 (4):531-558.
    The common view that Aquinas changed his mind about analogy (before and after De Veritate 2.11) is unwarranted. Dialectical context, and clarifications about the logic of analogy and the implications of proportionality, reveal consistency in Aquinas's teaching on the analogy of divine names.
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  9. Obligations, Sophisms and Insolubles.Stephen Read - 2013 - National Research University “Higher School of Economics” - (Series WP6 “Humanities”).
    The focus of the paper is a sophism based on the proposition ‘This is Socrates’ found in a short treatise on obligational casus attributed to William Heytesbury. First, the background to the puzzle in Walter Burley’s traditional account of obligations (the responsio antiqua), and the objections and revisions made by Richard Kilvington and Roger Swyneshed, are presented. All six types of obligations described by Burley are outlined, including sit verum, the type used in the sophism. Kilvington and Swyneshed disliked the (...)
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  10. The Latin “Third Man”. A Survey and Edition of Texts From the XIIIth Century.Leone Gazziero - 2012 - Cahiers de L’Institut du Moyen Age Grec Et Latin 81:11-93.
    Latin commentators came across the « Third Man » in Aristotle’s Sophistici elenchi. The way they dealt with the argument is a fair illustration of how they were both faithful to the text and innovative in their understanding of its most challenging issues. Besides providing a detailed survey of all manuscript sources, the introductory essay shows that Latin interpretation originates from a mistake in Boethius’ translation which radically transformed the argument. The edition makes available for the first time a considerable (...)
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  11. Truth and Paradox in Late XIVth Century Logic : Peter of Mantua’s Treatise on Insoluble Propositions.Riccardo Strobino - 2012 - Documenti E Studi Sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale 23:475-519.
    This paper offers an analysis of a hitherto neglected text on insoluble propositions dating from the late XiVth century and puts it into perspective within the context of the contemporary debate concerning semantic paradoxes. The author of the text is the italian logician Peter of Mantua (d. 1399/1400). The treatise is relevant both from a theoretical and from a historical standpoint. By appealing to a distinction between two senses in which propositions are said to be true, it offers an unusual (...)
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  12. De Re and De Dicto Modality in Islamic Traditional Logic.Zia Movahed - 2010 - Sophia Perennis 2:5-14.
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  13. Suhrawardi on Syllogisms.Zia Movahed - 2010 - Sophia Perennis 2:5-18.
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  14. A Critical Examination of Ibn-Sina’s Theory of the Conditional Syllogism.Zia Movahed - 2009 - Sophia Perennis 1:5-22.
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  15. Review Of: Bernard Montagnes, The Doctrine of the Analogy of Being According to Thomas Aquinas, Trans. By E.M. Macierowski (Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 2004). [REVIEW]Joshua Hochschild - 2008 - The Thomist 72:336-339.
    Review of the English translation of Bernard Montagnes' influential 1963 monograph on analogy in Aquinas. (Pre-publication copy -- please cite final version.).
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  16. Thomas Aquinas on Establishing the Identity of Aristotle’s Categories.Paul Symington - 2008 - In Lloyd Newton (ed.), Medieval Commentaries on Aristotle’s Categories. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 119-144.
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  17. Cajetan on Scotus on Univocity.Joshua Hochschild - 2007 - Proceedings of the Society for Medieval Logic and Metaphysics 7:32-42.
    What role does Scotus‘s understanding of univocity play in Cajetan‘s development of a theory of analogy? In this paper I examine three relevant texts from Cajetan (question 3 of his commentary on Aquinas‘s De Ente et Essentia, his treatise De Nominum Analogia, and his commentary on question 13, article 5 of Aquinas‘s Summa Theologiae) in which Cajetan articulates his understanding of analogy at least in part through dialectical engagement with Scotus‘s arguments about univocity.
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  18. The Nature of Naming and the Analogy of Being: McInerny and the Denial of a Proper Analogy of Being.Paul Symington - 2007 - International Philosophical Quarterly 47 (1):91-102.
    This paper addresses the question of whether there is a proper analogy of being according to both meaning and being. I disagree with Ralph McInerny’s understanding of how things are named through concepts and argue that McInerny’s account does not allow for the thing represented by the name to be known in itself. In his understanding of analogy, only ideas of things may be known. This results in a wholesale inability to name things at all and thereby forces McInerny to (...)
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  19. The Rest of Cajetan’s Analogy Theory: De Nominum Analogia, Chapters 4–11.Joshua P. Hochschild - 2005 - International Philosophical Quarterly 45 (3):341-356.
    The influence of Cajetan’s De Nominum Analogia is due largely to its first three chapters, which introduce Cajetan’s three modes of analogy: analogy of inequality, analogy of attribution, and analogy of proportionality. Interpreters typically ignore the final eight chapters, which describe further features of analogy of proportionality. This article explains this neglect as a symptom of a failure to appreciate Cajetan’s particular semantic concerns, taken independently from the question of systematizing the thought of Aquinas. After an exegesis of the neglected (...)
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  20. Analogy, Semantics, and Hermeneutics: The “Concept Versus Judgment” Critique of Cajetan’s De Nominum Analogia.Joshua Hochschild - 2003 - Medieval Philosophy and Theology 11 (2):241-260.
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  21. A EXPLICAÇÃO OCKHAMIANA DE PROPOSIÇÕES PASSADAS, OU INSTRUÇÕES PARA UM APRENDIZ.Ernesto Perini-Santos - 2003 - Analytica. Revista de Filosofia 7 (1):49-63.
    Na semântica ockhamiana, o predicado ‘verdadeiro’ deriva de uma outra relação semântica mais fundamental, a relação de suposição. O autor mostra como esta relação de dependência entre dois predicados semânticos figura na análise das condições de verdade de proposições passadas, um modelo que pode ser estendido a proposições futuras e possíveis. O texto procura indicar como a explicação das condições de verdade de proposições possíveis situa a semântica das modalidades aléticas em continuidade com a semântica de proposições não presentes. Este (...)
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  22. A Conscientious Resolution of the Action Paradox on Buridan's Bridge'.Joseph W. Ulatowski - 2003 - Southwest Philosophical Studies 25:85-93.
    The aim of this paper is to offer a critical assessment of Buridan's proposed solution to the bridge-keeper paradox. First, I will outline his proposed solution to the paradox, and, second, carefully analyse each issue mentioned in the proposed solution. Finally, I will attempt to conclude that Burden has implicitly accepted a three-valued logic that does not allow him to conclude that Plato ought not do anything.
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  23. Peter de Rivo, Boethius and the Problem of Future Contingents.Jonathan Evans - 2001 - Carmina Philosophiae 10:39-55.
    Peter de Rivo (b. ca. 1420), argues for the existence of human freedom despite its alleged incompatibility with the truth of future contingent propositions. Rivo’s solution doesn’t follow the common medieval attempt to dissolve the alleged incompatibility, but claims that future contingent propositions aren’t determinately true. This approach troubled Rivo’s contemporaries, who thought it was incompatible with biblical infallibility, particularly the veracity of prophetic statements. Rivo tries to reconcile his solution with orthodox Christianity by grounding authentic prophetic statements in God’s (...)
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  24. The Science of Conjecture: Evidence and Probability Before Pascal.James Franklin - 2001 - Baltimore, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    How were reliable predictions made before Pascal and Fermat's discovery of the mathematics of probability in 1654? What methods in law, science, commerce, philosophy, and logic helped us to get at the truth in cases where certainty was not attainable? The book examines how judges, witch inquisitors, and juries evaluated evidence; how scientists weighed reasons for and against scientific theories; and how merchants counted shipwrecks to determine insurance rates. Also included are the problem of induction before Hume, design arguments for (...)
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  25. Analisi - sintesi.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 1996 - In Virgilio Melchiorre (ed.), Enciclopedia della Filosofia e delle Scienze Umane. Novara: De Agostini. pp. 41-42.
    A short reconstruction of the analytic-synthetic method, a key idea in Medieval and Early Modern Logic.
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  26. Review of Alexander Broadie, Notion and Object (Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1989). [REVIEW]John Longeway - 1994 - International Studies in Philosophy 26 (1):102-103.
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  27. Introduction to Medieval Logic. [REVIEW]John Longeway - 1990 - International Studies in Philosophy 22 (3):90-91.
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  28. Llull and Leibniz: The Logic of Discovery.John R. Welch - 1990 - Catalan Review 4:75-83.
    Llull and Leibniz both subscribed to conceptual atomism: the belief that the majority of concepts are compounds constructed from a relatively small number of primitive concepts. Llull worked out techniques for finding the logically possible combinations of his primitives, but Leibniz criticized Llull’s execution of these techniques. This article argues that Leibniz was right about things being more complicated than Llull thought but that he was wrong about the details. The paper attempts to correct these details.
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  29. On Ockham's Supposition Theory and Karger's Rule of Inference.Ned Markosian - 1988 - Franciscan Studies 48 (1):40-52.
    Elizabeth Karger has suggested an interpretation of Ockham's theory of the modes of common personal supposition ("TM") according to which the purpose of TM is to provide certain distinctions that Ockham will use in formulating a unified theory of immediate inference among certain kinds of sentences. Karger presents a single, powerful rule of inference that incorporates TM distinctions and that is meant to codify Ockham's theory of immediate inference. I raise an objection to Karger's rule, thereby calling into doubt the (...)
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  30. Three Rules of Distribution: One Counterexample.John Corcoran - 1987 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 52:886-887.
    This self-contained one page paper produces one valid two-premise premise-conclusion argument that is a counterexample to the entire three traditional rules of distribution. These three rules were previously thought to be generally applicable criteria for invalidity of premise-conclusion arguments. No longer can a three-term argument be dismissed as invalid simply on the ground that its middle is undistributed, for example. The following question seems never to have been raised: how does having an undistributed middle show that an argument's conclusion does (...)
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  31. Merely Confused Supposition.Graham Priest & Stephen Read - 1980 - Franciscan Studies 40 (1):265-97.
    In this article, we discuss the notion of merely confused supposition as it arose in the medieval theory of suppositio personalis. The context of our analysis is our formalization of William of Ockham's theory of supposition sketched in Mind 86 (1977), 109-13. The present paper is, however, self-contained, although we assume a basic acquaintance with supposition theory. The detailed aims of the paper are: to look at the tasks that supposition theory took on itself and to use our formalization to (...)
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