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  1. GEOGRAPHY, ASSIMILATION, AND DIALOGUE: Universalism and Particularism in Central-European Thought.H. G. Callaway - manuscript
    There are many advantages and disadvantages to central locations. These have shown themselves in the long course of European history. In times of peace, there are important economic and cultural advantages (to illustrate: the present area of the Czech Republic was the richest country in Europe between the two World Wars). There are cross-currents of trade and culture in central Europe of great advantage. For, cultural cross-currents represent a potential benefit in comprehension and cultural growth. But under threat of large-scale (...)
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  2. تدريس القيم المجالية في مادة الجغرافيا بالتعليم الثانوي التأهيلي نموذج التربية المجالية.يونس عاميري - 2024 - Revue Brochures Educatives مجلة كراسات تربوية 1 (12):213-222.
    تعالج هذه الورقة البحثية مدى مساهمة تدريس القيم المجالية في مادة الجغرافيا بالسلك الثانوي التأهيلي في تنمية التربية المجالية لدى المتعلمين بالسنة الأولى باكالوريا آداب وعلوم إنسانية، حيث يتميز البرنامج الدراسي المقرر لهذا المستوى بحضور مؤشرات عن التربية المجالية، وأجرأته عبر مضمون الوحدات الدراسية نموذج درس "الموارد الطبيعية: التشخيص وأساليب التدبير"، بهدف تكوين مواطن مسؤول عن سلوكه تجاه المجال، وقادر على تحمل مسؤولية حمايته والحفاظ على مختلف موارده, من خلال حسن تدبير وترشيد استغلال هذه الموارد بهدف تحقيق التنمية المستدامة. ........ (...)
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  3. Mountains and Their Boundaries.Daniel Z. Korman - 2023 - In Miguel Garcia-Godinez (ed.), Thomasson on Ontology. Springer Verlag. pp. 243-264.
    I examine Amie Thomasson’s account of the metaphysics of mountains and their boundaries, from her “Geographic Objects and the Science of Geography.” I begin by laying out a puzzle about mountains that generates some pressure towards accepting that we are somehow responsible for their having the boundaries that they do. As a foil for Thomasson’s own account, I present two competing theories of geographic objects—one on which they are thoroughly mind-dependent, and one on which they are thoroughly mind-independent—neither of which (...)
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  4. Doth He Protest Too Much? Thoughts on Matthew’s Black Devaluation Thesis.Michael S. Merry - 2023 - Dialogue 62 (1):69-75.
    I am broadly sympathetic to Dale Matthew’s analysis concerning phenotypic devaluation and disadvantage. However, in what follows, I restrict my remarks to a few areas where I think he either lacks empirical precision, or overstates his case.
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  5. Ephemeral climates: Plato's geographic myths and the phenomenological nature of climate and its changes.Maximilian Gregor Hepach - 2022 - Journal of Historical Geography (X):1-10.
    Historical and cultural approaches to climate generally consider climate to be a stabilising concept between weather and culture. Different historical and cultural concepts of climate signify different ways of learning to live with the weather. However, anthropogenic climate change evidences the limit of this approach: instead of stabilising, climates ephemeralise together with the ways we have come to adapt to them. Changing climates require a concept of climate that captures how climates are experienced both as stable and ephemeral. To create (...)
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  6. The impact of paid employment on women's empowerment: A case study of female garment workers in Bangladesh.Md Abdullah Al Mamun & Md Mahmudul Hoque - 2022 - World Development Sustainability 1 (1):1-11.
    The role of the Ready-made Garment (RMG) sector in transforming the lives of working women in Bangladesh has been controversial. This study examines the impact of paid employment in the RMG sector on the empowerment of its female workers. The fieldwork includes semi-structured interviews with female garment workers to explore their lived experiences and views. The primary qualitative data analysis draws principally on Kabeer's (1999) three inter-related dimensions (resources, agency, and achievements) of empowerment. The main findings of the research are (...)
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  7. Internationale vergelijkingen kunnen op verschillende manieren ook problematisch zijn.Michael Merry & Anders Schinkel - 2022 - Knack.
    Internationale vergelijkingen vormen een waardvolle bron van inzicht bij het analyseren van maatschappelijke problemen en het beoordelen van beleidsmatige antwoorden op die problemen. Vergelijkend onderzoek levert vaak interessante of nuttige informatie op doordat er verschillen én overeenkomsten worden geconstrueerd, bijvoorbeeld: hoe ‘leefbaar’ is Toronto vergeleken met Berlijn? Zelfs wanneer de definities verschillen en de gebruikte meeteenheden enigszins onnauwkeurig kunnen zijn – bijvoorbeeld “leefbaar voor wie en ten opzichte van wat?” – zijn vergelijkingen leerrijk en aanleiding voor verdere reflectie. Maar internationale (...)
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  8. Fare l'Europa attraverso l'Europa: Geosofia dei popoli europei per una geopolitica multipolare.Lorenzo Maria Pacini - 2022 - Rivista EVROPA 1 (1):22.
    Questa pubblicazione intende fornire uno sguardo sulla situazione dell’Europa, intesa come continente fatto di diverse entità politiche, etniche e culturali, in relazione alla geopolitica mondiale che sta cambiando la propria impostazione, diventando sempre più multipolare. L’approccio offerto dalla geosofia, affiancata alla noologia, permette di comprendere con quale fondamento etnosociologico ed identitario i diversi popoli possano prendere parte alla nuova configurazione del mondo multipolare, superando l’ideologia globalista e riconquistando il valore delle proprie identità.
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  9. The Spandrels of San Marcos: On the Very Notion of 'Landscape Ferment' as a Research Paradigm.Vaughn Bryan Baltzly - 2020 - In Colleen C. Myles (ed.), Fermented Landscapes: Lively Processes of Socio-environmental Transformation. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 319-336.
    The central claim of the volume in which this chapter appears (*Fermented Landscapes*, ed. Colleen C. Myles, Univ. of Nebraska Press 2020) is that the chemical process of fermentation supplies an apt metaphor for understanding certain kinds of landscape change. The kinds of landscape change in question are, fortuitously, those often occasioned by commercial processes centered around fermentation itself: the commercial production of beer, wine, spirits, cider, cheese, and related fermented products. But what makes this metaphor apt? Which kinds of (...)
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  10. Te situa: desorientações geográficas em lugares pandêmicos/situate yourself: geographical disorientations in pandemic places.Wallace Pantoja - 2020 - Belém do Pará: Itacaiúnas.
    GEOGRAPHICAL REFLECTIONS IN PANDEMIC TIMES -/- Held amid the impacts and mobilizations caused by the spatialization of the phenomenon of COVID-19, the book of an essayistic nature tries to make the moment feel, opening up issues geographically engaged by different geographers and from different philosophical perspectives. An invitation to experience longings, desires, defeats, hopes and mobilizations together in a pandemic world.
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  11. مجلة كراسات تربوية. العدد 05.مارس 2020.الصديق الصادقي العماري وآخرون & Seddik Sadiki Amari - 2020 - maroc المغرب ،salé سلا: CHAM'S PRINT مطبعة شمس برنت. Edited by الصديق الصادقي العماري وآخرون.
    تقديم منذ القدم اعتنت الحضارات بالتربية، وأنشأت لذلك مؤسسات تفي بغرض تعليم المهارات والكفايات، وإعادة إنتاج المجتمع. وقد كان ذلك تحت ضغط حاجة الاجتماع، وإقامة المدن والدول، وتجويد الصناعات والمهن. لقد كانت المجتمعات البسيطة، المبنية على العيش وفق ما تهبه الطبيعة مباشرة، بغير حاجة إلى مؤسسات تعلم كيفية اصطياد حيوان أو جني فاكهة أو حفر جذور نبات، حيث كان القدماء والراشدون يمررون المهارات بالقدوة والتقليد، والصغار يتعلمون بالمحاولة والخطأ. وما أن بنيت القرى الأولى وبدأ الإنسان يدجن النبات والحيوان، حتى بدأ (...)
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  12. Descritividade como um princípio da Geografia Amazônica: o chamado de Eidorfe Moreira/Descripitivity as a principle of amazon geography: the call of Eidorfe Moreira.Wallace Pantoja - 2019 - Geoamazônia 7 (13):54-67.
    In the essay I intend to revalue the descriptive principle in the contemporaryAmazonian geography, as presented to us by the geographer from Pará EidorfeMoreira (1960). Laterally, I call the attention of Amazonian geographers to thesensitivity of his work, which is not present in the bibliography of the training coursesin Geography in Pará. The methodological strategy is descriptive-interpretative with aphenomenological tone. I conclude: the refusal of the description is installed by aprejudiced effect of our current formation in relation to the procedures (...)
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  13. Drawing Boundaries.Barry Smith - 2019 - In Timothy Tambassi (ed.), The Philosophy of GIS. Springer. pp. 137-158.
    In “On Drawing Lines on a Map” (1995), I suggested that the different ways we have of drawing lines on maps open up a new perspective on ontology, resting on a distinction between two sorts of boundaries: fiat and bona fide. “Fiat” means, roughly: human-demarcation-induced. “Bona fide” means, again roughly: a boundary constituted by some real physical discontinuity. I presented a general typology of boundaries based on this opposition and showed how it generates a corresponding typology of the different sorts (...)
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  14. Significance and Brewing Challenges of Civil Society in Affiliating Sustainable Groundwater Resource Governance: Experiences and Perceptions of Bangladesh.Mohammad Rubaiyat Rahman - 2018 - International Journal of Legal Studies and Research (Special Issue):63-82.
    Water is regarded as indefeasible necessity of human civilization. In the South Asia region, the groundwater resource is poised as essence of life, security and development. Bangladesh is not an exception from that. Due to scarcity as well as disproportionate availability of surface water supply, the groundwater resource is veered into vital source to undergird heavy demand of water supply for livelihoods, industrial and agricultural purposes. Considering these, the groundwater resource governance is crucial since it is the mainstay of upholding (...)
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  15. Os Filhos de Adão vicinal transamazônica como entrelugares/The Sons of Adam - Vicinal transamazonian, between-places.Wallace Pantoja - 2017 - Revista da Anpege 13 (20):157-176.
    In Transamazônica Paraense places do not exist in the geographical representations that shows the road, a regional and territorial domination project. The goal is to consider the emergency between -places to the road made of migrants from different geohitories that “ whether vicinam” and the implications of this context to the world of readings of/ on transamazônica geographicity. The experienced research focus is on the Vicinal of Adam, between Pacajá and New Repartimento (PA). Settlement Rio Cururuí. Methodologically, we start from (...)
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  16. Крим як Храмова гора.Ruslana Demchuk - 2016 - NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture 179:10-17.
    «Крим як Храмова гора» – новітній дискурс, артикульований російським президентом Путіним як ідеологічне прикриття анексії Криму 2014 р., що виступає пролонгацією «кримського міфу». Зазначений міф представлений дискурсами «Легендарний Севастополь» у радянський та «Крим наш» у пострадянський періоди. Компенсаторні дискурси започатковано трагічними подіями Кримської війни (1853–1856 рр.) як сублімація посттравматичної ментальності, обумовлена низкою військових та політичних поразок Росії на території Кримського півострова. Експресивні репрезентації образу Севастополя через пісенний інтертекст, передусім, стосуються російської «сакральної географії». Таким чином, тривалий «севастопольський» дискурс структурувався як антиукраїнський, (...)
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  17. The Curious Case of the Complicated Border: The Story of Baarle.Barry Smith - 2016 - Dutch International Society Magazine 47 (4):11-17.
    History has left a territory composed of two municipalitics, whose shape is unique, belonging partly to the Netherlands and partly to Belgium. Earlier both parts belonged to the former Duchy of Brabant, a tenitory that is now split up into the Dutch province of Noord-Brabant (including Baarle-Nassau) and thc Belgian provinces of Antwerp (which includes Baarle-Hertog), Vlaams Brabant, Brussels, and Brabant-Wallon. People are quite comfortable with this situation, even though it raises many complicated and difficult problems that even the most (...)
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  18. مجلة كراسات تربوية. العدد 02. فبراير 2016.الصديق الصادقي العماري وآخرون & Seddik Sadiki Amari - 2016 - maroc المغرب .Casablanca الدار البيضاء: Afrique Orient أفريقيا الشرق. Edited by الصديق الصادقي العماري وآخرون.
    لا يمكن الحديث عن مدرسة النجاح في المستقبل٬ ما لم يتم استحضار التطور الحاصل في أدوار ووظائف وآليات اشتغال المدرسة٬ من خلال التعرف على سيرورات التحولات التي عرفتها وظائف وأدوار هذه المؤسسة في الماضي والحاضر. ففي الوقت الراهن تحولت هذه الوظائف من التلقين والحشو بالمعارف٬ إلى وظائف أكثر حيوية وتنوعا ودينامية٬ تتجه صوب إيجاد حلول لتحديات اكساب التلميذ مناهج وتقنيات تحصيل المعرفة والبحث٬ وتعزيز قدراته ومهاراته الحياتية٬ وتوسيع خبراته٬ إضافة إلى سعيها لتطوير جاهزيته للشغل وتحقيق الذات والعيش المشترك مع الأفراد (...)
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  19. Qu'est-ce que le nationalisme methodologique? Essai de typologie.Speranta Dumitru - 2014 - Raisons Politiques 54 (2):9-22.
    This article argues that there are at least three different versions of methodological nationalism: state-centrism (unjustified supremacy granted to the nation-state), territorialism (understanding space as divided in territories), and groupism (equating society with the nation-state’s society). If these three versions are logically distinct, as it will be shown, the typology can serve as a tool to weight the influence of methodological nationalism in the social sciences. The paper has three sections arguing that 1) the three versions are all present in (...)
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  20. Metaphysics.Barry Smith - 2010 - In Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen (ed.), Metaphysics: 5 Questions. Automatic Press. pp. 143-158.
    Attempts to trace a unifying thread of ontological realism extending through 1. my early writings on Frege, Brentano, Husserl, Wittgenstein, Ingarden and (with Kevin Mulligan and Peter Simons) on truthmakers; 2. work on formal theories of the common-sense world, and on mereotopology, fiat objects, geographical categories, and environments (with David Mark, Roberto Casati, Achille Varzi), to 3. current work on applied ontology in biology and medicine, and on the theory of document acts and on the ontology of information artifacts.
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  21. The Ebb and Flow of Primary and Secondary Experience: Kayak Touring and John Dewey's Metaphysics of Experience.Shane J. Ralston - 2009 - Environment, Space, Place 1 (1):189-204.
    John Dewey's metaphysics of experience has been criticized by a number of philosophers-most notably, George Santayana and Richard Rorty. While mainstream Dewey scholars agree that these critical treatments fail to treat the American Pragmatist theory of what exists on its own terms, there has still been some difficulty reaching consensus on what the casual reader should take away from the pages of Experience and Nature, Deweys seminal work on naturalistic metaphysics. So, how do we unearth the significance of Dewey's misunderstood (...)
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  22. Initial Conditions as Exogenous Factors in Spatial Explanation.Clint Ballinger - 2008 - Dissertation, University of Cambridge
    This dissertation shows how initial conditions play a special role in the explanation of contingent and irregular outcomes, including, in the form of geographic context, the special case of uneven development in the social sciences. The dissertation develops a general theory of this role, recognizes its empirical limitations in the social sciences, and considers how it might be applied to the question of uneven development. The primary purpose of the dissertation is to identify and correct theoretical problems in the study (...)
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  23. O pensamento geográfico brasileiro.Ruy Moreira - 2008 - São Paulo: Editora Contexto.
    v. 1. As matrizes clássicas originárias -- v. 2. As matrizes da renovação -- v. 3. As matrizes brasileiras.
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  24. On Place and Space: The Ontology of the Eruv.Barry Smith - 2007 - In Christian Kanzian (ed.), Cultures. Conflict - Analysis - Dialogue: Proceedings of the 29th International Ludwig Wittgenstein-Symposium in Kirchberg, Austria. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 403-416.
    ‘Eruv’ is a Hebrew word meaning literally ‘mixture’ or ‘mingling’. An eruv is an urban region demarcated within a larger urban region by means of a boundary made up of telephone wires or similar markers. Through the creation of the eruv, the smaller region is turned symbolically (halachically = according to Jewish law) into a private domain. So long as they remain within the boundaries of the eruv, Orthodox Jews may engage in activities that would otherwise be prohibited on the (...)
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  25. Confini. Dove finisce una cosa e inizia un’altra.Achille C. Varzi - 2007 - In Andrea Bottani & Richard Davies (eds.), Ontologie regionali. Mimesis. pp. 209–222.
    Ci imbattiamo in un confine ogni volta che pensiamo a un’entità demarcata rispetto a ciò che la circonda. C’è un confine (una superficie) che delimita l’interno di una sfera dal suo esterno; c’è un confine (una frontiera) che separa il Maryland dalla Pennsylvania. Talvolta la collocazione esatta di un confine non è chiara o è in qualche modo controversa (come quando si cerchi di tracciare i limiti del monte Everest, o il confine del nostro corpo). Talaltra il confine non corrisponde (...)
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  26. The place of American empire: Amerasian territories and late American Modernity.David Haekwon Kim - 2004 - Philosophy and Geography 7 (1):95-121.
    Imperialism rarely receives discussion in mainstream philosophy. In radical philosophy, where imperialism is analyzed with some frequency, European expansion is the paradigm. This essay considers the nature and specificity of American imperialism, especially its racialization structures, diplomatic history, and geographic trajectory, from pre‐twentieth century “Amerasia” to present‐day Eurasia. The essay begins with an account of imperialism generally, one which is couched in language consistent with left‐liberalism but compatible with a more radical discourse. This account is then used throughout the rest (...)
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  27. A science of topography: Bridging the qualitative-quantitative divide.David M. Mark & Barry Smith - 2004 - In David M. Mark & Barry Smith (eds.), Geographic Information Science and Mountain Geomorphology. Chichester, England: Springer-Praxis. pp. 75--100.
    The shape of the Earth's surface, its topography, is a fundamental dimension of the environment, shaping or mediating many other environmental flows or functions. But there is a major divergence in the way that topography is conceptualized in different domains. Topographic cartographers, information scientists, geomorphologists and environmental modelers typically conceptualize topographic variability as a continuous field of elevations or as some discrete approximation to such a field. Pilots, explorers, anthropologists, ecologists, hikers, and archeologists, on the other hand, typically conceptualize this (...)
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  28. Ontology, natural language, and information systems: Implications of cross-linguistic studies of geographic terms.David M. Mark, Werner Kuhn, Barry Smith & A. G. Turk - 2003 - In Mark David M., Werner Kuhn, Smith Barry & Turk A. G. (eds.), 6th Annual Conference of the Association of Geographic Information Laboratories for Europe (AGILE),. pp. 45-50.
    Ontology has been proposed as a solution to the 'Tower of Babel' problem that threatens the semantic interoperability of information systems constructed independently for the same domain. In information systems research and applications, ontologies are often implemented by formalizing the meanings of words from natural languages. However, words in different natural languages sometimes subdivide the same domain of reality in terms of different conceptual categories. If the words and their associated concepts in two natural languages, or even in two terminological (...)
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  29. Do mountains exist? Towards an ontology of landforms.Barry Smith & David Mark - 2003 - Environment and Planning B (Planning and Design) 30 (3):411–427.
    Do mountains exist? The answer to this question is surely: yes. In fact, ‘mountain’ is the example of a kind of geographic feature or thing most commonly cited by English speakers (Mark, et al., 1999; Smith and Mark 2001), and this result may hold across many languages and cultures. But whether they are considered as individuals (tokens) or as kinds (types), mountains do not exist in quite the same unequivocal sense as do such prototypical everyday objects as chairs or people.
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  30. Oggetti fiat.Barry Smith - 2002 - Rivista di Estetica 42 (2):58–87.
    Extended entities have boundaries of two different sorts: those that do, and those that do not correspond to physical discontinuities. Call the first sort (coastlines, the surface of your nose) bona fide boundaries; and the second (the boundary of Montana, the boundary separating your upper from your lower torso) fiat boundaries. Fiat boundaries are found especially in the geographic realm, but are involved wherever language carves out portions of reality in ways which do not reflect physical discontinuities. These ideas are (...)
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  31. Ontological tools for geographic representation.Roberto Casati, Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi - 2001 - In Barry Smith & Christopher Welty (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems (FOIS). ACM Press. pp. 77--85.
    This paper is concerned with certain ontological issues in the foundations of geographic representation. It sets out what these basic issues are, describes the tools needed to deal with them, and draws some implications for a general theory of spatial representation. Our approach has ramifications in the domains of mereology, topology, and the theory of location, and the question of the interaction of these three domains within a unified spatial representation theory is addressed. In the final part we also consider (...)
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  32. Features, Objects, and other Things: Ontological Distinctions in the Geographic Domain.David M. Mark, Andre Skupin & Barry Smith - 2001 - In Daniel R. Montello (ed.), Spatial Information Theory: Foundations of Geographic Information Science. New York: Springer. pp. 489-502.
    Two hundred and sixty-three subjects each gave examples for one of five geographic categories: geographic features, geographic objects, geographic concepts, something geographic, and something that could be portrayed on a map. The frequencies of various responses were significantly different, indicating that the basic ontological terms feature, object, etc., are not interchangeable but carry different meanings when combined with adjectives indicating geographic or mappable. For all of the test phrases involving geographic, responses were predominantly natural features such as mountain, river, lake, (...)
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  33. Fiat objects.Barry Smith - 2001 - Topoi 20 (2):131-148.
    Human cognitive acts are directed towards entities of a wide range of different types. What follows is a new proposal for bringing order into this typological clutter. A categorial scheme for the objects of human cognition should be (1) critical and realistic. Cognitive subjects are liable to error, even to systematic error of the sort that is manifested by believers in the Pantheon of Olympian gods. Thus not all putative object-directed acts should be recognized as having objects of their own. (...)
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  34. Geographical Categories: An Ontological Retrospective.Barry Smith & David M. Mark - 2001 - International Journal of Geographical Information Science 15 (7):507–512.
    Since it is only five years since the publication of our paper, "Geographical categories: An ontological investigation" (Smith and Mark 2001), it seems somewhat strange to be making retrospective comments on the piece. Nevertheless, the field is moving quickly, and much has happened since the article appeared. A large number of papers have already cited the work, which suggests that there is a seam here that people find worthy of being mined. In this short essay, we first review the paper (...)
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  35. Vagueness in Geography.Achille C. Varzi - 2001 - Philosophy and Geography 4 (1):49–65.
    Some have argued that the vagueness exhibited by geographic names and descriptions such as ‘Albuquerque’, ‘the Outback’, or ‘Mount Everest’ is ultimately ontological: these terms are vague because they refer to vague objects, objects with fuzzy boundaries. I take the opposite stand and hold the view that geographic vagueness is exclusively semantic, or conceptual at large. There is no such thing as a vague mountain. Rather, there are many things where we conceive a mountain to be, each with its precise (...)
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  36. Introduction: Philosophical Issues in Geography.Achille C. Varzi - 2001 - Topoi 20 (2):119-130.
    An outline of the wealth of philosophical material that hides behind the flat world of geographic maps, with special reference to (i) the centrality of the boundary concept, (ii) the problem of vagueness, and (iii) the metaphysical question (if such there be) of the identity and persistence conditions of geographic entities. Serves as an introduction to the special issue of "Topoi" (20:2, 2001) on the Philosophy of Geography.
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  37. Philosophical Issues in Geography—An Introduction.Achille C. Varzi - 2001 - Topoi 20 (2):119–130.
    An outline of the wealth of philosophical material that hides behind the flat world of geographic maps, with special reference to (i) the centrality of the boundary concept, (ii) the problem of vagueness, and (iii) the metaphysical question (if such there be) of the identity and persistence conditions of geographic entities.
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  38. Some Pictures Are Worth 2Aleph0 Sentences.Philip Kitcher & Achille Varzi - 2000 - Philosophy 75 (3):377-381.
    According to the cliché a picture is worth a thousand words. But this is a canard, for it vastly underestimates the expressive power of many pictures and diagrams. In this note we show that even a simple map such as the outline of Manhattan Island, accompanied by a pointer marking North, implies a vast infinity of statements—including a vast infinity of true statements.
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  39. Fiat and Bona Fide Boundaries.Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi - 2000 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 60 (2):401-420.
    There is a basic distinction, in the realm of spatial boundaries, between bona fide boundaries on the one hand, and fiat boundaries on the other. The former are just the physical boundaries of old. The latter are exemplified especially by boundaries induced through human demarcation, for example in the geographic domain. The classical problems connected with the notions of adjacency, contact, separation and division can be resolved in an intuitive way by recognizing this two-sorted ontology of boundaries. Bona fide boundaries (...)
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  40. Ontology and geographic objects: An empirical study of cognitive categorization.David M. Mark, Barry Smith & Barbara Tversky - 1999 - In Freksa C. & Mark David M. (eds.), Spatial Information Theory. Cognitive and Computational Foundations of Geographic Information Science (Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1661). pp. 283-298.
    Cognitive categories in the geographic realm appear to manifest certain special features as contrasted with categories for objects at surveyable scales. We have argued that these features reflect specific ontological characteristics of geographic objects. This paper presents hypotheses as to the nature of the features mentioned, reviews previous empirical work on geographic categories, and presents the results of pilot experiments that used English-speaking subjects to test our hypotheses. Our experiments show geographic categories to be similar to their non-geographic counterparts in (...)
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  41. Ontology and Geographic Kinds.Barry Smith & David M. Mark - 1999 - In T. Poiker & N. Chrisman (eds.), Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling. pp. 308-320.
    Cognitive categories in the geographic realm appear to manifest certain special features as contrasted with categories for objects at surveyable scales. We have argued that these features reflect specific ontological characteristics of geographic objects. This paper presents hypotheses as to the nature of the features mentioned, reviews previous empirical work on geographic categories, and presents the results of pilot experiments that used English-speaking subjects to test our hypotheses. Our experiments show geographic categories to be similar to their non-geographic counterparts in (...)
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  42. Ontological Tools for Geographic Representation.Roberto Casati, Barry Smith & Achille Varzi - 1998 - In Nicola Guarino (ed.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems. IOS Press. pp. 77-85.
    This paper is concerned with certain ontological issues in the foundations of geographic representation. It sets out what these basic issues are, describes the tools needed to deal with them, and draws some implications for a general theory of spatial representation. Our approach has ramifications in the domains of mereology, topology, and the theory of location, and the question of the interaction of these three domains within a unified spatial representation theory is addressed. In the final part we also consider (...)
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  43. The Ontology of Fields.Donna Peuquet, Barry Smith & Berit O. Brogaard (eds.) - 1998 - National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis.
    In the specific case of geography, the real world consists on the one hand of physical geographic features (bona fide objects) and on the other hand of various fiat objects, for example legal and administrative objects, including parcels of real estate, areas of given soil types, census tracts, and so on. It contains in addition the beliefs and actions of human beings directed towards these objects (for example, the actions of those who work in land registries or in census bureaux), (...)
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  44. Ontology with Human Subjects Testing: An Empirical Investigation of Geographic Categories.Barry Smith & David M. Mark - 1998 - American Journal of Economics and Sociology 58 (2):245–272.
    Ontology, since Aristotle, has been conceived as a sort of highly general physics, a science of the types of entities in reality, of the objects, properties, categories and relations which make up the world. At the same time ontology has been for some two thousand years a speculative enterprise. It has rested methodologically on introspection and on the construction and analysis of elaborate world-models and of abstract formal-ontological theories. In the work of Quine and others this ontological theorizing in abstract (...)
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  45. The formal ontology of boundaries.Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi - 1997 - Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy 5 (5).
    Revised version published as Barry Smith and Achille Varzi, “Fiat and Bona Fide Boundaries”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 60: 2 (March 2000), 401–420.
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  46. Fiat and Bona Fide Boundaries: Towards an Ontology of Spatially Extended Objects.Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi - 1997 - In Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi (eds.), Fiat and Bona Fide Boundaries: Towards an Ontology of Spatially Extended Objects. Springer. pp. 103–119.
    Human cognitive acts are directed towards objects extended in space of a wide range of different types. What follows is a new proposal for bringing order into this typological clutter. The theory of spatially extended objects should make room not only for the objects of physics but also for objects at higher levels, including the objects of geography and of related disciplines. It should leave room for different types of boundaries, including both the bona fide boundaries which we find in (...)
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  47. On drawing lines on a map.Barry Smith - 1995 - In Frank A. U., Kuhn W. & Mark D. M. (eds.), Spatial Information Theory: Proceedings of COSIT '95. Springer. pp. 475-484.
    The paper is an exercise in descriptive ontology, with specific applications to problems in the geographical sphere. It presents a general typology of spatial boundaries, based in particular on an opposition between bona fide or physical boundaries on the one hand, and fiat or human-demarcation-induced boundaries on the other. Cross-cutting this opposition are further oppositions in the realm of boundaries, for example between: crisp and indeterminate, complete and incomplete, enduring and transient, symmetrical and asymmetrical. The resulting typology generates a corresponding (...)
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  48. Fiat objects.Barry Smith - 1994 - In Nicola Guarino, Laure Vieu & Simone Pribbenow (eds.), Parts and Wholes: Conceptual Part-Whole Relations and Formal Mereology, 11th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Amsterdam, 8 August 1994, Amsterdam:. European Coordinating Committee for Artificial Intelligence. pp. 14-22.
    Human cognitive acts are directed towards entities of a wide range of different types. What follows is a new proposal for bringing order into this typological clutter. A categorial scheme for the objects of human cognition should be (1) critical and realistic. Cognitive subjects are liable to error, even to systematic error of the sort that is manifested by believers in the Pantheon of Olympian gods. Thus not all putative object-directed acts should be recognized as having objects of their own. (...)
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  49. Geografia e lugar social.Armando Corrêa da Silva - 1991 - S. Paulo, SP: Editora Contexto.
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  50. The Production of Space.Henri Lefebvre - 1991 - Cambridge, Mass., USA: Wiley-Blackwell.
    Henri Lefebvre has considerable claims to be the greatest living philosopher. His work spans some sixty years and includes original work on a diverse range of subjects, from dialectical materialism to architecture, urbanism and the experience of everyday life. The Production of Space is his major philosophical work and its translation has been long awaited by scholars in many different fields. The book is a search for a reconciliation between mental space and real space. In the course of his exploration, (...)
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