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  1. Ignorance in Plato’s Protagoras.Wenjin Liu - 2022 - Phronesis 67 (3):309-337.
    Ignorance is commonly assumed to be a lack of knowledge in Plato’s Socratic dialogues. I challenge that assumption. In the Protagoras, ignorance is conceived to be a substantive, structural psychic flaw—the soul’s domination by inferior elements that are by nature fit to be ruled. Ignorant people are characterized by both false beliefs about evaluative matters in specific situations and an enduring deception about their own psychic conditions. On my interpretation, akrasia, moral vices, and epistemic vices are products or forms of (...)
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  2. Plato's The Allegory of the Cave.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    The main idea of this allegory is the difference between people who simply experience their sensory experiences, and call that knowledge, and those who understand real knowledge by seeing the truth. The allegory actually digs into some deep philosophy, which is not surprising since it comes from Plato. Its main idea is the discussion of how humans perceive reality and if human existence has a higher truth. It explores the theme of belief versus knowledge. The Perception Plato theorizes that the (...)
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  3. Platon’da Bilgi, Öğrenme ve Ruhun Ölümsüzlüğü.Soner Soysal - 2022 - İzmir, Turkey: Serüven Yayınevi.
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  4. The Epistemic Competence of the Philosopher-Rulers in Plato's Republic.S. O. Peprah - 2021 - Eirene: Studia Graeca Et Latina 57 (I-II):119-147.
    It is widely accepted that ruling is the sole prerogative of Plato’s philosopher-rulers because they alone possess knowledge (ἐπιστήμη). This knowledge is knowledge of the Good, taken to be the only knowledge there is in Kallipolis. Let us call this the sufficiency condition thesis (the SCT). In this paper, I challenge this consensus. I cast doubt on the adequacy of the SCT, arguing that part of the training and education of the philosopher-rulers involves their gaining practical wisdom (φρόνησις) and experience (...)
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  5. A Long Lost Relative in the Parmenides? Plato’s Family of Hypothetical Methods.Evan Rodriguez - 2022 - Apeiron 55 (1):141-166.
    The Parmenides has been unduly overlooked in discussions of hypothesis in Plato. It contains a unique method for testing first principles, a method I call ‘exploring both sides’. The dialogue recommends exploring the consequences of both a hypothesis and its contradictory and thematizes this structure throughout. I challenge the view of Plato’s so-called ‘method of hypothesis’ as an isolated stage in Plato’s development; instead, the evidence of the Parmenides suggests a family of distinct hypothetical methods, each with its own peculiar (...)
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  6. Plato and Aristotle on The Unhypothetical.Dominic Bailey - 2006 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 30:101-126.
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  7. Plato’s Theory of Perception.Abduljaleel Kadhim Alwali - 1987 - Aafaq Arabia 12 (12):94-101.
    Plato’s Theory of Perception This research deals with Plato's perceptual theory, as the perceptual theory in Plato's philosophy represents one of the steps of the Plato’s epistemology. Plato divided knowledge into four categories: Sensory knowledge, presumptive knowledge, mathematical knowledge, and rational knowledge. The theory of sensory perception is in the first place, so this research focuses on the statements, the meaning of perception, the senses, the difference between sensation and mind, the topics of sensory perception, and the nature of the (...)
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  8. Autoengaño, ambición y arrogancia en el Alcibíades de Platón.Daniel Vázquez - 2016 - In J. M. Roqueñi (ed.), Afectividad y confianza en el conocimiento personal. Mexico City, CDMX, Mexico: pp. 13-30.
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  9. Theory of Forms: The Construction of Plato and Aristotle’s Criticism.Abduljaleel Alwali - 2002 - Amman, Jordan: Dar Al-Warraq.
    The book "Theory of Forms: The Construction of Plato and Aristotle’s Criticism" focuses on two main aspects, construction and criticism. The constriction of Forms theory is the basis on which Plato built all of his philosophy and which influenced all forms of ideas philosophy that emerged after Plato. The research topic was completed by adding Aristotle's critique of the theory of Forms in order to put a clear picture in front of the reader, which was presented by Plato himself and (...)
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  10. El concepto de Sophrosyne en los diálogos platónicos y su ejemplificación en la figura de Sócrates.Sofía Carreño - 2019 - Synthesis (la Plata) 26 (2):1-10.
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  11. Plato‘s Quincunxes.Alexandre Losev - 2020 - Philosophia: E-Journal for Philosophy and Culture 26:200-209.
    The Five Greatest Kinds discussed in Plato‘s Sophist are taken to be just one instance of a fivefold structure found in various related texts. Contemporary linguistic theories are a source for ideas about its functioning.
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  12. Submitting a Case for Plato's Rejection of Mimetic Poetry as a Rejection of the Mimetic Vocabulary.Marius Hirstad - manuscript
    In book X, Plato's rejection of mimetic poetry can be read as a parallel to rejecting the conventions of the poetic style contemporary to his time. This rejection can, owing to the premises derived and the analyses made in this paper, further be read as to suggest that Plato presses for a reformation of the poetic vocabulary. That is, as to suggest that Plato proposes that the non-rational imagistic tradition, embodied in mimetic poetry, get replaced by a rational and noetic-aspiring (...)
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  13. Suggestions On How To Combine The Platonic Forms To Overcome The Interpretative Difficulties Of The Parmenides Dialogue.Gerardo Óscar Matía Cubillo - 2021 - Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad de Costa Rica 60 (156):157-171.
    This paper provides an original approach to research on the logical processes that determine how certain forms participate in others. By introducing the concept of relational participation, the problems of self-referentiality of the Platonic forms can be dealt with more effectively. Applying this to the forms of likeness and unlikeness in Parmenides 132d-133a reveals a possible way to resolve different versions of the Third Man Argument. The method of generating numbers from oddness and evenness may also be of interest; relational (...)
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  14. Ἀλήθεια como desvelamento: Heidegger sobre o conceito de verdade em Platão e consequente crítica.Gabriel Debatin - 2018 - Synesis 10 (1):59-74.
    O presente artigo aduz a interpretação de Martin Heidegger do conceito de ἀλήθεια – tradicionalmente traduzido por verdade – na filosofia de Platão, a partir da célebre alegoria da caverna presente na República. Segundo o posicionamento inicial de Heidegger, ἀλήθεια era originalmente pensada pelos gregos como desvelamento até Platão, com quem o sentido do termo se transforma e passa a expressar a retitude da percepção. Contudo, as críticas filológicas proferidas contra Heidegger por Paul Friedländer fizeram com que seu posicionamento histórico-filológico (...)
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  15. What are Collections and Divisions Good for?Jens Kristian Larsen - 2020 - Ancient Philosophy 40 (1):107-133.
    This article defends three claims. First, that collection and division in the Phaedrus are described as procedures that underlie human speaking and thinking in general, as well as philosophical inquiry, and are not identified with either. Second, that what sets the dialectical use of these procedures apart from their ordinary use are philosophical suppositions independent of the procedures of collection and division themselves; for that reason, collection and division cannot be identified with dialectic as such. Third, that the second part (...)
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  16. Graph of Socratic Elenchos.John Bova - manuscript
    From my ongoing "Metalogical Plato" project. The aim of the diagram is to make reasonably intuitive how the Socratic elenchos (the logic of refutation applied to candidate formulations of virtues or ruling knowledges) looks and works as a whole structure. This is my starting point in the project, in part because of its great familiarity and arguable claim to being the inauguration of western philosophy; getting this point less wrong would have broad and deep consequences, including for philosophy’s self-understanding. -/- (...)
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  17. Plato and Heidegger on Sophistry and Philosophy.Jens Kristian Larsen - 2016 - In Diego De Brasi & Marko Fuchs (eds.), Sophistes : Plato’s Dialogue and Heidegger’s Lectures in Marburg (1924-25). pp. 27-60.
    The present chapter investigates Heidegger's early understanding of Platonic dialectic in its contrast to sophistry as this comes to expression in his lectures on Plato's Sophist.
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  18. Dialectic of eros and myth of the soul in Plato's Phaedrus.Jens Kristian Larsen - 2010 - Symbolae Osloenses 84 (84):73-90.
    In this paper, I question a widespread reading of a passage in the last part of the Phaedrus dealing with the science of dialectic. According to this reading, the passage announces a new method peculiar to the later Plato aiming at defining natural kinds. I show that the Phaedrus itself does not support such a reading. As an alternative reading, I suggest that the science of dialectic, as discussed in the passage, must be seen as dealing primarily with philosophical rhetoric (...)
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  19. The Virtue of Power – The Gigantomachia in Plato’s Sophist 245e6-249d5 Revisited.Jens Kristian Larsen - 2014 - New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy 13:306-317.
    The “battle” between corporealists and idealists described in Plato’s Sophist 245e6–249d5 is of significance for understanding the philosophical function of the dramatic exchange between the Eleatic guest and Theaetetus, the dialogue's main interlocutors. Various features of this exchange indicate that the Eleatic guest introduces and discusses the dispute between corporealists and idealists in order to educate Theaetetus in ontological matters. By reading the discussion between Theaetetus and the Eleatic guest in the light of these features, one comes to see that (...)
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  20. By what is the soul nourished? - On the art of the physician of souls in Plato’s Protagoras.Jens Kristian Larsen - 2017 - In Olof Pettersson & Vigdis Songe-Møller (eds.), Plato’s Protagoras: Essays on the Confrontation of Philosophy and Sophistry. Springer. pp. 79-97.
    This article explores the motif of psychic nourishment in Plato’s Protagoras. It does so by analyzing what consequences Socrates’ claim that only a physician of souls will be able adequately to assess the quality of such nourishment has for the argument of the dialogue. To this purpose, the first section of the article offers a detailed analysis of Socrates’ initial conversation with Hippocrates, highlighting and interpreting the various uses of medical metaphors. Building on this, this section argues that the warning (...)
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  21. Identity and Explanation in the Euthyphro.David Ebrey - 2017 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 52:77-111.
    According to many interpreters, Socrates in the Euthyphro thinks that an answer to ‘what is the holy?’ should pick out some feature that is prior to being holy. While this is a powerful way to think of answers to the ‘what is it?’ question, one that Aristotle develops, I argue that the Euthyphro provides an important alternative to this Aristotelian account. Instead, an answer to ‘what is the holy?’ should pick out precisely being holy, not some feature prior to it. (...)
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  22. Hegel Und Die Grenzen Der Dialektik.Marie-Elise Zovko - 2001 - Hegel-Jahrbuch 3 (1):54-61.
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  23. The Lure of the Advertising Image: A Platonic Analysis.Richard Oxenberg - manuscript
    Sut Jhally begins his essay “Advertising at the Edge of the Apocalypse” with the following provocative claim: “Advertising is the most powerful and sustained system of propaganda in human history and its cumulative effects, unless quickly checked, will be responsible for destroying the world as we know it.” Jhally argues that the advertising industry, in fostering an association between human aspiration and desire for consumable goods, creates an artificial demand for such goods that is, at once, far in excess of (...)
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  24. Unity and Logos: A Reading of Theaetetus 201c-210a.Mitchell Miller - 1992 - Ancient Philosophy 12 (1):87 - 111.
    A close reading of Socrates' refutation of the final proposed definition of knowledge, "true opinion with an account." I examine the provocations to further thinking Socrates poses with his dilemma of simplicity and complexity and then by his rejections of the three senses of "account," and I argue that these provocations guide the responsive reader to that rich and determinate understanding of the sort of 'object' which knowledge requires that the Parmenides and the Eleatic dialogues will go on to explicate.
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  25. Rockmore, Tom. Kant and Phenomenology. [REVIEW]Paul Symington - 2012 - Review of Metaphysics 66 (2):380-382.
    Book review of Tom Rockmore's "Kant & Phenomenology," which appeared in "Review of Metaphysics" in 2011.
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  26. Plato's Forgotten Four Pages of the Seventh Epistle.Robert E. Allinson - 1998 - Philosophical Inquiry 20 (1-2):49-61.
    This essay sheds light on Plato’s Seventh Epistle. The five elements of Plato’s epistemological structure in the Epistle are the name, the definition, the image, the resultant knowledge itself (the Fourth) and the proper object of knowledge (the Form, or the Fifth). Much of contemporary Western philosophy has obsessed over Plato’s Fifth, relegating its existence to Plato’s faulty imagination after skillful linguistic analyses of the First (name) and the Second (definition). However, this essay argues against this reduction of knowledge to (...)
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  27. ἀληθῆ λέγεις: Speaking the Truth in Plato’s Republic.Mark Anderson - 2010 - Ancient Philosophy 30 (2):247-260.
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Plato: Meno's Paradox
  1. Platon: Meisterdenker der Antike by Thomas Alexander Szlezåk (review). [REVIEW]Rafael Ferber - 2022 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 60 (4):687-688.
    This is a review of: Platon: Meisterdenker der Antike by Thomas Alexander Szlezåk (review).
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  2. Recollecting the Religious: Augustine in Answer to Meno’s Paradox.Ryan Haecker & Daniel Moulin-Stożek - 2021 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 40 (6):567-578.
    Philosophers of education often view the role of religion in education with suspicion, claiming it to be impossible, indoctrinatory or controversial unless reduced to secular premises and aims. The ‘post-secular’ and ‘decolonial’ turns of the new millennium have, however, afforded opportunities to revaluate this predilection. In a social and intellectual context where the arguments of previous generations of philosophers may be challenged on account of positivist assumptions, there may be an opening for the reconsideration of alternative but traditional religious epistemologies. (...)
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  3. Conhecimento e Definição no Mênon de Platão.Davi Heckert César Bastos - 2020 - Kinesis 12 (31):172-185.
    Through detailed analysis of Plato’s Meno, I identify and set general argumentative rules (useful both to scientists and philosophers) concerning how to use definitions. I show how the character Socrates establishes strong requirements for knowledge in general, i.e., that the knowledge of the definition of a thing must be prior to the knowledge of properties or instances of that thing. Socrate’s requirements and the way he characterizes a definition (as coextensive to the definiendum, not circular, true and explanatorily relevant) lead (...)
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  4. Resilient Understanding: The Value of Seeing for Oneself.Matthew Slater & Jason Leddington - manuscript
    The primary aim of this paper is to argue that the value of understanding derives in part from a kind of subjective stability of belief that we call epistemic resilience. We think that this feature of understanding has been overlooked by recent work, and we think it’s especially important to the value of understanding for social cognitive agents such as us. We approach the concept of epistemic resilience via the idea of the experience of epistemic ownership and argue that the (...)
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  5. Meno’s Paradox is an Epistemic Regress Problem.Andrew Cling - 2019 - Logos and Episteme 10 (1):107-120.
    I give an interpretation according to which Meno’s paradox is an epistemic regress problem. The paradox is an argument for skepticism assuming that acquired knowledge about an object X requires prior knowledge about what X is and any knowledge must be acquired. is a principle about having reasons for knowledge and about the epistemic priority of knowledge about what X is. and jointly imply a regress-generating principle which implies that knowledge always requires an infinite sequence of known reasons. Plato’s response (...)
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  6. La objeción de Aristóteles a la teoría platónica de la reminiscencia.Alejandro Farieta - 2015 - Pensamiento y Cultura 18 (2):6-28.
    This paper provides an interpretation of Aristotle’s criticism to the solution to Meno’s Paradox suggested by Plato. According to Aristotle, when Plato says that reminiscence (anámnēsis) is achieved, what is actually achieved is induction (epagōgê). Our interpretation is based on two aspects: (1) semantic criticism, since Plato’s use of the term anámnēsis is unusual; and (2) the theory is not able to give an adequate explanation of the effective discovery.
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  7. The Possibility of Inquiry. Meno's Paradox from Socrates to Sextus. [REVIEW]Justin Joseph Vlasits - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (3):580-583.
    Review of Gail Fine, The Possibility of Inquiry (OUP 2014).
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  8. Meno's Paradox in Context.David Ebrey - 2014 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 22 (1):4-24.
    I argue that Meno’s Paradox targets the type of knowledge that Socrates has been looking for earlier in the dialogue: knowledge grounded in explanatory definitions. Socrates places strict requirements on definitions and thinks we need these definitions to acquire knowledge. Meno’s challenge uses Socrates’ constraints to argue that we can neither propose definitions nor recognize them. To understand Socrates’ response to the challenge, we need to view Meno’s challenge and Socrates’ response as part of a larger disagreement about the value (...)
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  9. Recollection and the Problem of the Elenchus.Jyl Gentzler - 1994 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 10 (1):257-295.
    We simply cannot make sense of Socrates' procedure for cross-examining his interlocutors in the early dialogues if we insist that Socrates uses cross-examination only for the purpose of testing his interlocutor's claim to knowledge. This view of Socratic cross-examination cannot explain the fact that Socrates examines theses that he himself proposes and that neither he nor his interlocutor explicitly endorses. In contrast,the supposition that Socrates is inquiring on these occasions provides a good explanation for his procedure. When one is attempting (...)
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  10. Conocimiento, descubrimiento Y reminiscencia en el menón de platón.Alejandro Farieta - 2013 - Universitas Philosophica 30 (60):205-234.
    This work articulates two thesis: one Socratic and one Platonic; and displays how the first one is heir of the second. The Socratic one is called the principle of priority of definition; the Platonic one is the Recollection theory. The articulation between both theses is possible due to the Meno’s paradox, which makes a criticism on the first thesis, but it is solved with the second one. The consequence of this articulation is a new interpretation of the Recollection theory, as (...)
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  11. Knowledge, discovery and reminiscence in Plato's meno.Alejandro Farieta - 2013 - Universitas Philosophica 30 (60):205-234.
    This work articulates two thesis: one Socratic and one Platonic; and displays how the first one is heir of the second. The Socratic one is called the principle of priority of definition; the Platonic one is the Recollection theory. The articulation between both theses is possible due to the Meno’s paradox, which makes a criticism on the first thesis, but it is solved with the second one. The consequence of this articulation is a new interpretation of the Recollection theory, as (...)
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  12. Can you seek the answer to this question? (Meno in India).Amber Carpenter & Jonardon Ganeri - 2010 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (4):571-594.
    Plato articulates a deep perplexity about inquiry in ?Meno's Paradox??the claim that one can inquire neither into what one knows, nor into what one does not know. Although some commentators have wrestled with the paradox itself, many suppose that the paradox of inquiry is special to Plato, arising from peculiarities of the Socratic elenchus or of Platonic epistemology. But there is nothing peculiarly Platonic in this puzzle. For it arises, too, in classical Indian philosophical discussions, where it is formulated with (...)
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Plato: Theory of Recollection
  1. Platon: Meisterdenker der Antike by Thomas Alexander Szlezåk (review). [REVIEW]Rafael Ferber - 2022 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 60 (4):687-688.
    This is a review of: Platon: Meisterdenker der Antike by Thomas Alexander Szlezåk (review).
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  2. Conhecimento e Definição no Mênon de Platão.Davi Heckert César Bastos - 2020 - Kinesis 12 (31):172-185.
    Through detailed analysis of Plato’s Meno, I identify and set general argumentative rules (useful both to scientists and philosophers) concerning how to use definitions. I show how the character Socrates establishes strong requirements for knowledge in general, i.e., that the knowledge of the definition of a thing must be prior to the knowledge of properties or instances of that thing. Socrate’s requirements and the way he characterizes a definition (as coextensive to the definiendum, not circular, true and explanatorily relevant) lead (...)
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  3. Plato’s Recollection Argument in the Philebus.Naoya Iwata - 2018 - Rhizomata 6 (2):189-212.
    Many scholars have denied that Plato’s argument about desire at Philebus 34c10–35d7 is related to his recollection arguments in the Meno and Phaedo, because it is concerned only with postnatal experiences of pleasure. This paper argues against their denial by showing that the desire argument in question is intended to prove the soul’s possession of innate memory of pleasure. This innateness interpretation will be supported by a close analysis of the Timaeus, where Plato suggests that our inborn desires for food (...)
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  4. La objeción de Aristóteles a la teoría platónica de la reminiscencia.Alejandro Farieta - 2015 - Pensamiento y Cultura 18 (2):6-28.
    This paper provides an interpretation of Aristotle’s criticism to the solution to Meno’s Paradox suggested by Plato. According to Aristotle, when Plato says that reminiscence (anámnēsis) is achieved, what is actually achieved is induction (epagōgê). Our interpretation is based on two aspects: (1) semantic criticism, since Plato’s use of the term anámnēsis is unusual; and (2) the theory is not able to give an adequate explanation of the effective discovery.
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  5. The Possibility of Inquiry. Meno's Paradox from Socrates to Sextus. [REVIEW]Justin Joseph Vlasits - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (3):580-583.
    Review of Gail Fine, The Possibility of Inquiry (OUP 2014).
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  6. “ἐὰν ὡσαύτως τῇ ψυχῇ ἐπὶ πάντα ἴδῃς” (Platonis Parmenides, 132a 1 - 132b 2). Voir les Idées avec son âme et le “Troisième homme” de Platon.Leone Gazziero - 2014 - Revue de Philosophie Ancienne 32 (1):35-85.
    Few arguments from the past have stirred up as much interest as Aristotle’s “Third man” and not so many texts have received as much attention as its account in chapter 22 of the Sophistici elenchi. And yet, several issues about both remain highly controversial, starting from the very nature of the argument at stake and the exact signification of some of its features. The essay provides a close commentary of the text, dealing with its main difficulties and suggesting an overall (...)
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  7. Recollection and the Problem of the Elenchus.Jyl Gentzler - 1994 - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy 10 (1):257-295.
    We simply cannot make sense of Socrates' procedure for cross-examining his interlocutors in the early dialogues if we insist that Socrates uses cross-examination only for the purpose of testing his interlocutor's claim to knowledge. This view of Socratic cross-examination cannot explain the fact that Socrates examines theses that he himself proposes and that neither he nor his interlocutor explicitly endorses. In contrast,the supposition that Socrates is inquiring on these occasions provides a good explanation for his procedure. When one is attempting (...)
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  8. La riscoperta della via regia. Freud lettore di Platone.Marco Solinas - 2012 - Psicoterapia E Scienze Umane (4):539-568.
    Starting with the reference to “Plato’s dictum” that Freud added in the second last page of the first edition of The Interpretation of Dreams, the author explains the convergences between the conception of dreams expounded by Plato in the Republic and Freud’s fundamental insights. The analysis of bibliographic sources used by Freud, and of his interests, allow than to suppose not only that Freud omitted to acknowledge the Plato’s theoretical genealogy of “the Via Regia to the unconscious”, but also the (...)
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  9. Via Platonica zum Unbewussten. Platon und Freud (pdf: Inhaltszerzeichnis, Vegetti Vorwort, Einleitung).Marco Solinas - 2012 - Turia + Kant.
    Solinas’ Studie untersucht den Einfluss von Platons Anschauungen von Traum, Wunsch und Wahn auf den jungen Freud. Anhand der Untersuchung einiger zeitgenössischer kulturwissenschaftlicher Arbeiten, die bereits in die ersten Ausgabe der Traumdeutung Eingang fanden, wird Freuds nachhaltige Vertrautheit mit den platonischen Lehren erläutert und seine damit einhergehende direkte Textkenntnis der thematisch relevanten Stellen aus Platons Staat aufgezeigt. Die strukturelle Analogie von Freud’schem und platonischem Seelenbegriff wird inhaltlich am Traum als »Königsweg zum Unbewussten«, in dem von Freud selbst angesprochenen Verhältnis von (...)
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  10. Conocimiento, descubrimiento Y reminiscencia en el menón de platón.Alejandro Farieta - 2013 - Universitas Philosophica 30 (60):205-234.
    This work articulates two thesis: one Socratic and one Platonic; and displays how the first one is heir of the second. The Socratic one is called the principle of priority of definition; the Platonic one is the Recollection theory. The articulation between both theses is possible due to the Meno’s paradox, which makes a criticism on the first thesis, but it is solved with the second one. The consequence of this articulation is a new interpretation of the Recollection theory, as (...)
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  11. Knowledge, discovery and reminiscence in Plato's meno.Alejandro Farieta - 2013 - Universitas Philosophica 30 (60):205-234.
    This work articulates two thesis: one Socratic and one Platonic; and displays how the first one is heir of the second. The Socratic one is called the principle of priority of definition; the Platonic one is the Recollection theory. The articulation between both theses is possible due to the Meno’s paradox, which makes a criticism on the first thesis, but it is solved with the second one. The consequence of this articulation is a new interpretation of the Recollection theory, as (...)
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