Plato

Edited by Hugh Benson (University of Oklahoma)
Assistant editor: Mark Hallap (University of Toronto, St. George Campus)
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  1. Say Goodbye to Plato.Yu Chen - manuscript
    "Sapiolatry," the excessive reverence and idolization of historical figures renowned for their wisdom, poses a significant challenge to critical thinking and innovation. In the article "Say Goodbye to Plato," we delve into the concept of sapiolatry and its implications for our engagement with the teachings of revered figures like Plato. By exploring the roots, consequences, and the case of Plato, we highlight the necessity of moving beyond uncritical adoration towards a more dynamic and contextual interpretation of ancient wisdom. The article (...)
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  2. The Origin, Essence and Attributes of consciousness.Cheng Gong - manuscript
    It has a long history for the exploration of the origin and essence of human consciousness with different definitions and explanations in various fields such as philosophy, medicine, sociology, biology, and psychology. However, all of them had not been recognized so far. The main reason is that the complexity of consciousness leads to the inability of various fields to understand its essence fully, reasonably, and comprehensively, and there are still significant differences for it, and which have become an eternal mystery. (...)
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  3. Re-Imagining Imagination: Revisiting Plato's Eikasia and Aristotle's Phantasia.M. A. Jalalum - 2023 - Lumina Journal 28 (1):3-21.
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  4. Feminizing the City: Plato on Women, Masculinity, and Thumos.Kirsty Ironside & Joshua Wilburn - 2024 - Hypatia:1-24.
    This paper responds to two trends in debates about Plato's view of women in the Republic. First, many scholars argue or assume that Plato seeks to minimize the influence of femininity in the ideal city, and to make guardian women themselves as “masculine” as possible. Second, scholars who address the relationship between Plato's views of women and his psychological theory tend to focus on the reasoning and appetitive parts of the tripartite soul. In response to the first point, we argue (...)
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  5. Doing History Philosophically and Philosophy Historically.Marcel van Ackeren & Matthieu Queloz - forthcoming - In Marcel van Ackeren & Matthieu Queloz (eds.), Bernard Williams on Philosophy and History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Bernard Williams argued that historical and philosophical inquiry were importantly linked in a number of ways. This introductory chapter distinguishes four different connections he identified between philosophy and history. (1) He believed that philosophy could not ignore its own history in the way that science can. (2) He thought that when engaging with philosophy’s history primarily to produce history, one still had to draw on philosophy. (3) Even doing history of philosophy philosophically, i.e. primarily to produce philosophy, required a keen (...)
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  6. Exiting From and Returning to the Cave: Plato's Specific Methodology of Enlightenment.Asher Zachman - manuscript
    This enquiry attempts to establish Walter Pahnke's categorization of the mystical experience as the specific phenomenological process Socrates refers to as dialectic in the Republic's allegory of the cave. Aside from a comparative analysis of the numerous connections between Plato's most prolific allegory and Pahnke's mystical experience, I define the symbol bearers as oppressive religious authority and tie the symbols of the cave to the post-industrial drug-war and for-profit organization of spirituality observable throughout a world so far removed from the (...)
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  7. Mocht Plato zien wat er van de universiteit geworden is, dan zou hij stomverbaasd en bezorgd zijn.Michael S. Merry & Bart Van Leeuwen - 2024 - Https://Www.Knack.Be/Nieuws/Belgie/Onderwijs/Mocht-Plato-Zien-Wat-Er-van-de-Universiteit-Geworden-is -Dan-Zou-Hij-Stomverbaasd-En-Bezorgd-Zijn/.
    Als Plato de hedendaagse academie zou aanschouwen, zou hij niet alleen stomverbaasd zijn over de massificatie en de byzantijnse bureaucratie, maar gezien het ethische doel van de universiteit zou hij ook reden hebben om bezorgd te zijn.
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  8. Two Portraits of Protagoras in Plato: Theaetetus vs. Protagoras.Mateo Duque - 2023 - Illinois Classical Studies 47 (2):359-382.
    This article will contrast two portrayals of Protagoras: one in the "Theaetetus," where Socrates discusses Protagorean theory and even comes to his defense by imitating the deceased sophist; and another in the "Protagoras," where Socrates recounts his encounter with the sophist. I suggest that Plato wants listeners and readers of the dialogues to hear the dissonance between the two portraits and to wonder why Socrates so distorts Protagoras in the "Theaetetus." Protagoras in the "Protagoras" behaves and speaks in ways that (...)
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  9. Performing Philosophy: The Pedagogy of Plato’s Academy Reimagined.Mateo Duque - 2023 - In Henry C. Curcio, Mark Ralkowski & Heather L. Reid (eds.), Paideia and Performance. Parnassos Press. pp. 87-106.
    In this paper, drawing on evidence internal to the Platonic dialogues (supplemented with some ancient testimonia), I answer the question, “How did Plato teach in the Academy?” My reconstruction of Plato’s pedagogy in the Academy is that there was a single person who read the dialogue aloud like a rhapsode (this is in contrast to the dramatic theatrical hypothesis, in which several speakers function as actors in the performance of a dialogue). After the rhapsodic reading, students were allowed to ask (...)
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  10. Entry on "Metatheatre" in Section 4 "Concepts, Themes and Topics Treated in the Dialogues" in The Bloomsbury Handbook of Plato (2nd edition).Mateo Duque - 2022 - In Gerald Press & Mateo Duque (eds.), The Bloomsbury Handbook of Plato. London: Bloomsbury. pp. 287-289.
    This is a short entry on "Metatheatre" in Section 4, "Concepts, Themes and Topics Treated in the Dialogues," in The Bloomsbury Handbook of Plato, edited by Gerald Press and Mateo Duque.
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  11. Entry on "Comedy" in Section 3 "Important Features of the Dialogues" in The Bloomsbury Handbook of Plato (2nd edition).Mateo Duque - 2022 - In Gerald Press & Mateo Duque (eds.), The Bloomsbury Handbook of Plato. London: Bloomsbury. pp. 140-143.
    This is a short entry on "Comedy" in Section 3, "Important Features of the Dialogues," in The Bloomsbury Handbook of Plato, edited by Gerald Press and Mateo Duque.
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  12. The Bloomsbury Handbook of Plato (2nd edition).Gerald Press & Mateo Duque (eds.) - 2022 - London: Bloomsbury.
    This essential reference text on the life, thought and writings of Plato uses over 160 short, accessible articles to cover a complete range of topics for both the first-time student and seasoned scholar of Plato and ancient philosophy. It is organized into five parts illuminating Plato’s life, the whole of the Dialogues attributed to him, the Dialogues’ literary features, the concepts and themes explored within them and Plato’s reception via his influence on subsequent philosophers and the various interpretations of his (...)
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  13. In and Out of Character: Socratic Mimēsis.Mateo Duque - 2020 - Dissertation, Cuny Graduate Center
    In the "Republic," Plato has Socrates attack poetry’s use of mimēsis, often translated as ‘imitation’ or ‘representation.’ Various scholars (e.g. Blondell 2002; Frank 2018; Halliwell 2009; K. Morgan 2004) have noticed the tension between Socrates’ theory critical of mimēsis and Plato’s literary practice of speaking through various characters in his dialogues. However, none of these scholars have addressed that it is not only Plato the writer who uses mimēsis but also his own character, Socrates. At crucial moments in several dialogues, (...)
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  14. Numbers, Ontologically Speaking: Plato on Numerosity.Calian Florin George - 2021 - In Numbers and Numeracy in the Greek Polis. Brill.
    The conceptualisation of numbers is culturally bound. This may seem like a counterintuitive claim, but one illustration thereof is the limitations of the resemblance of the ancient Greek concept of number to that in modern mathematics.
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  15. Die Kontingenz der Ewigkeit? Paradoxe der Sprache der Beschreibung der Dauer in antiken Modellen der Zeitlichkeit.Tatiana Litvin - 2020 - Platonic Investigations 12.
    The article undertakes a phenomenological interpretation of the description of contingency in two late-antique models of the relationship of time and eternity — in the theory of Plotinus, and in the eschatology of Paul on the basis of the First Epistle to the Thessalonians. Contingency as a possible property not of time, but of eternity, the presence of the supertemporal in the physical world — this hypothesis promotes a new view of the relationship between time and eternity and a new (...)
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  16. Iz Platonove filozofije.Irina Deretić - 2010 - Beograd: Plato.
    Kako je moguće baviti se Platonom danas, ukoliko je filozofija „svoje vreme obuhvaćeno mislima“? Autor Platonovom delu ne pristupa kao dogmatskom štivu, već kao tekstu prožetom paradoksima, koje izmiče svakom unapred pripremljenom, šematizovanom modelu čitanja. Obratiti se Platonu kao filozofskoj paradigmi isplativo je ukoliko filozofi koji progovaraju iz dubine vremena mogu nešto važno da nam saopšte i ukoliko smo kadri da im postavimo autentično pitanje. Zato filozofi moraju imati dah delfskog ronioca, jer biser se ne nalazi u svakoj školjci. Knjiga (...)
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  17. U odbranu Sokrata: Sokratovi argumenti protiv Trasimahovog shvatanja pravednosti.Irina Deretić - 2015 - Theoria: Beograd 58 (3):41-68.
    Nemali broj interpretatora Platonove Države smatra kako Sokratova argumentacija protiv Trasimaha u prvoj knjizi Države nije zadovoljavajuća, valjana i uverljiva. U ovom radu autorka nastoji da pokaže u čemu leže smisao, snaga i validnost Sokratovih argumenata protiv imoralističkog stanovišta o prirodi pravednosti. Njegovi argumenti nemaju samo elenktičku, pobijajuću vrednost, nego nam daju i uvid u neka načelna pitanja, poput prirode umeća, pleoneksije, funkcije, vrline, eudajmonije, te pružaju putokaz u kojem pravcu će se kretati dalja rasprava u Državi.
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  18. “Sparta in Greek political thought: Xenophon, Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch,”.Thornton C. Lockwood - unknown - In Carol Atack (ed.), Oxford Handbook on Ancient Greek Political Thought. Oxford University Press.
    In his account of the Persian Wars, the 5th century historian Herodotus reports an exchange between the Persian monarch Xerxes and a deposed Spartan king, Demaratus, who became what Lattimore later classified as a “tragic warner” to Xerxes. On the eve of the battle of Thermopylae, Xerxes asks how a small number of free Spartiates can stand up against the massive ranks of soldiers that Xerxes has assembled. Herodotus has Demaratus reply: So is it with the Lacedaemonians; fighting singly they (...)
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  19. Ancient Philosophical Resources For Understanding and Dealing With Anger.Gregory Sadler - 2023 - Philosophical Practice 18 (3):3182-3192.
    Ancient philosophical schools developed and discussed perspectives and practices on the emotion of anger useful in contemporary philosophical practice with clients, groups, and organizations. This paper argues the case for incorporating these insights from four main philosophical schools (Platonist, Aristotelian, Epicurean, and Stoic) sets out eight practices drawn from these schools, and discusses how these insights can be used by philosophical practitioners with clients.
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  20. Platonic Corruption in The Handmaid's Tale.Andy Lamey - 2024 - In Garry L. Hagberg (ed.), Fictional Worlds and the Political Imagination. Palgrave-Macmillan.
    The Handmaid’s Tale depicts a United States taken over by a fundamentalist dictatorship called Gilead that also resembles Plato’s ideal city. Attempts to explain Gilead’s debt to Plato face two challenges. First, aspects of Gilead that recall Plato also contain features that differ, at times dramatically, from the Platonic original. Second, Gilead invokes distorted versions of ideas from philosophies other than Plato’s. I explore two ways of making sense of Gilead’s distorted philosophical appropriations. The explanations differ over whether such distortions (...)
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  21. The Roots of Feminist Theory in the Philosophy of Plato.Davar Mohamad Mahdi & Taslimi Saeideh - 2023 - International Journal of Social Science Research and Review 6 (10):595-603.
    Plato is among the most influential philosophers in the course of history, and the range of his ideas about different issues makes other scholars impressed. Considering his various views on varied subjects, one can argue that many ideas of the thinkers originated from Plato’s ideas in the contemporary world. Plato, in different positions, discussed women and their equality with men, especially in Republic Book V. The study of the ideas makes one suppose that the book explores the roots of feminist (...)
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  22. À quel logos correspond la συμπλοκὴ τῶν εἰδῶν du Sophiste ?Nicolas Zaks - 2016 - Revue de Philosophie Ancienne 1 (34):37-59.
    Cet article est consacré au problème du rapport entre l’entrelacement des genres (συμπλοκὴ τῶν εἰδῶν) et le logos dans le Sophiste. Après avoir brièvement présenté le problème, je discute, dans la première partie, différentes solutions proposées par les commentateurs. Je cherche à montrer qu’aucune de ces solutions n’est pleinement satisfaisante. Dans la deuxième partie, je propose une nouvelle solution au problème de la συμπλοκὴ τῶν εἰδῶν fondée sur une distinction entre deux types de logos, le logos dialectique et le logos (...)
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  23. Lawrence J. Hatab's Proto-Phenomenology, Language Acquisition, Orality, and Literacy: Dwelling in Speech, Vol. II[REVIEW]Carolyn Culbertson - 2021 - Gatherings: The Heidegger Circle Annual 11:280-289.
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  24. Heidegger's Philosophical Endeavor: A Journey through Plato, Comparative Thought, and Indic Contemplation.Wesley De Sena - manuscript
    In his essay, “The End of Philosophy and the Task of Thinking,” Heidegger proposes the existence of uncharted avenues for intellectual exploration that transcend the confines of metaphysical philosophy. He articulates a more contemplative form of thinking, distinct from the incessant rationalization that permeates traditional discourse, transcending the dichotomy of rational and irrational thought. 2 In typical Heideggerian fashion, this paper lacks a central thesis but embarks on a journey to delve into Heidegger's relentless pursuit of novel modes of thought. (...)
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  25. Heraclitean Flux Metaphysics.Andrew Dennis Bassford - 2023 - Metaphysica: International Journal for Ontology and Metaphysics 24 (2):299-322.
    This essay offers an original interpretation and defense of the doctrine of flux, as it is presented in Plato’s Theaetetus. The methodology of the paper’s analysis is in the style of rational reconstruction, and it is highly analytic in scope, in the sense that I will focus on the text itself, and only on certain parts of it too, while ignoring the rest of Plato’s extensive corpus, and without worrying about whether, how, and to what extent the interpretation of the (...)
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  26. Eudaimonia socratica e cura dell’altro | Socratic Eudaimonia and Care for Others.Santiago Chame, Donald Morrison & Linda Napolitano Valditara (eds.) - 2021
    Special volume of "Thaumàzein - Rivista di Filosofia" dedicated to the theme of Socratic Eudaimonia and care for others. It is a multilingual volume comprising twenty papers divided into six sections with an introduction by Linda Napolitano. Edited by Santiago Chame, Donald Morrison, and Linda Napolitano. -/- Despite the appearances given by certain texts, the moral psychology of Socrates needs not imply selfishness. On the contrary, a close look at passages in Plato and Xenophon (see Plato, Meno 77-78; Protagoras 358; (...)
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  27. Dialettica, Virtù e Felicità nei Socratici.Santiago Chame - 2021 - Thaumàzein 9 (1):396-415.
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  28. Fra dèi e bestie: il mito del Politico e i limiti della condizione umana.Santiago Chame - 2021 - In Alessandro Stavru & Francesco Benoni (eds.), Platone e il governo delle passioni. Aguaplano. pp. 325-350.
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  29. The dialectical method in Xenophon and Antisthenes.Santiago Chame - 2023 - In Claudia Mársico & Daniel Rossi Nunes Lopes (eds.), Xenophon, the Philosopher. Argumentation and Ethics. Peter Lang. pp. 231-248.
    Xenophon’s conception of the dialectical method shares many similarities with Antisthenes’ point of view regarding the relation between language and reality. The key element supporting this reading is the parallel between Xenophon’s method of dialegein kata genē and Antisthenes’ method of episkepsis tōn onomatōn. In this paper, I claim that a correct understanding of both methods yields a clear structural proximity between the two Socratics on the issue of dialectics. Although they present some significant differences, which I will also explore, (...)
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  30. Is the Achievement of Moral Character the Ultimate Goal of Higher Education?Lee Jeong-Kyu - 2022 - Eric.
    This article is to explore whether the achievement of moral character is the ultimate goal of higher education from a cross cultural approach. To discuss this study logically, three major research questions are addressed. First, what are the concepts of moral, ethics, and character? Second, what is the achievement of moral character from the Eastern and the Western perspectives? Third, what is the role of higher education for the achievement of moral character? To defend these research questions, the author uses (...)
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  31. Listening to Reason in Plato and Aristotle, by Dominic Scott. [REVIEW]Carlo DaVia - forthcoming - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis.
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  32. Eternity and Time in Plato’s Timaeus.Viktor Ilievski - 2015 - Antiquite Vivante 65:5-22.
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  33. The Demiurge and His Place in Plato’s Metaphysics and Cosmology.Viktor Ilievski - 2022 - In Time and Cosmology in Plato and the Platonic Tradition.
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  34. Believing for Practical Reasons in Plato’s _Gorgias_ .Thomas A. Blackson - 2023 - Rhizomata 11 (1):105-125.
    In Plato’s Gorgias, Socrates says to Callicles that “your love of the people, existing in your soul, stands against me, but if we closely examine these same matters often and in a better way, you will be persuaded” (513c7–d1). I argue for an interpretation that explains how Socrates understands Callicles’s love of the people to stand against him and why he believes examination often and in a better way will persuade Callicles.
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  35. Intelectualismo ético de Platón. La relación de gnoseología y ética desde República VII.Estiven Valencia Marín - 2021 - Análisis 53 (98):307-325.
    El conocimiento ha incursionado como tema de gran alcance dadas las múltiples disciplinas que lo evocan y cuyos intereses investigativos incurren en una definición para este. Primeras cavilaciones acerca del conocimiento se adelantaron bajo una óptica dualista de materialismo e idealismo, ambas posturas de carácter filosófico que determinaron el pensar de Occidente. Dicho así, desde la Grecia clásica pensadores como Platón, entre otros clásicos, entronizaron esta cuestión, pero dicho trato dualista en el ámbito del saber estuvo fuertemente vinculado con una (...)
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  36. Soul and Incorporeality in Plato.Karel Thein - 2018 - Studia Graeca Et Latina 54:53-95.
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  37. The Purpose of Rhetorical Form in Plato.Tushar Irani - forthcoming - In Proceedings of the Twelfth Symposium Platonicum Pragense on Plato’s Gorgias.
    This paper explores Plato’s views on the purpose of rhetorical form by surveying the way in which Socrates engages in speechmaking at several points in the Gorgias. I argue that Socrates has nothing in principle against the use of a long speech as part of the practice of philosophical inquiry and argument, provided that the speech is geared toward understanding. This reflects a key and relatively unremarked distinction that Socrates makes in the Gorgias between persuasion that comes from being convinced (...)
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  38. O Elenchus no Teeteto.Gabriel Zaccaro - 2023 - Revista de Estudos Filosóficos e Históricos da Antiguidade 40:01-26.
    O elenchus é o método pelo qual Sócrates evidencia as incoerências entre a tese de seu interlocutor e seu sistema de crenças. Na visão de Gregory Vlastos, o método utilizado por Sócrates no Teeteto não é elêntico porque ele não visa a refutação direta da tese inicial de Teeteto. Argumentando contra a visão de Vlastos defendo que Sócrates constrói ao final da primeira parte do diálogo objeções fundamentadas em premissas aceitas por Teeteto que culminam no objetivo clássico do elenchus. Além (...)
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  39. Diez estudios de filosofía helenística y romana. La escuela italiana contemporánea.Maso Stefano (ed.) - 2022 - Madrid: UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE EDUCACIÓN A DISTANCIA.
    En la obra que ahora presentamos al público hispanoparlante, reunimos diez trabajos previamente publicados en lengua italiana que abordan importantes cuestiones que ocupan en este momento a los estudiosos de la filosofía helenística y romana. Sus autores son diez de los más importantes especialistas italianos actuales en el estudio de este periodo histórico.
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  40. The Instant between Time and Eternity: Plato’s Revision of the Parmenidean Now in the Parmenides.Huaiyuan Zhang - 2023 - Review of Metaphysics 76 (3):425-446.
    Plato's view on time, a key aspect of his doctrine of forms, is influenced by his reception of Parmenides, but the way in which Plato takes up and modifies Parmenides' view is a matter of ongoing scholarly debate. In this article, the author analyzes Plato's revision of Parmenidean time by exploring four temporalities: the eternal present, timeless eternity, the enduring present, and the instant between time and eternity. Through this examination, she uncovers the common origin of both the eternal present (...)
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  41. Plato`s fractal production machine, Neuroscience and Social Theory.Heitor Matallo Junior -
    The objective of this article is to offer an interpretation of the utopian society described in Plato's Republic from a simplified theory of fractals. Plato conceptualizes his Republic as a static society in terms of structure and its components, the people, as having a behavior that can be programmed as linear and not dynamic (LNDS). Based on this analogy, real social functioning (NLDS) is conceptualized, applying the concept of fractal and its corresponding fracton, as the force of attraction that acts (...)
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  42. Heraclides On the Soul (?) and its ancient readers.Inna Kupreeva - 2009 - In E. E. Pender (ed.), Heraclides of Pontus: Discussion, New Brunswick/London, Transaction (Rutgers University Studies in Classical Humanities, vol. 15). Transaction. pp. 93-138.
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  43. Il concetto di provvidenza nella filosofia ellenistica e la sua ricezione in ambito biblico-cristiano.Aldo Magris - 2022 - Segni E Comprensione 36 (103):32-57.
    The notion of Providence is born with the Greek word prόnoia which, however, originally meant "premeditation" (of a crime) or "design" of an artefact, and had nothing to do with religion. It was Plato in the Timaeus who adopted the word from the common language to indicate the rational and benevolent principle that inspired the anonymous God, which he defined as dēmiourgόs (also this word originally meant a professional technician, for example, a doctor or an architect) in his work of (...)
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  44. Plato’s Aesthetic Adventure: The Symposium in the Broad Light of Comedy.Lantz Fleming Miller - 2022 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 45 (Number 2):15-26.
    Two Socratic dialogues often considered “comic”—Ion and Hippias Major—have also been contested as to their Platonic authenticity. Plato’s dialogues; while certainly engaging, can also seem grim in their philosophical intensity: At least one author has contended that the dialogue more firmly established as genuinely by Plato, Symposium; has some comic elements: This article goes a step further in suggesting that this dialogue does not merely have comic elements but is in fact a comedy. It draws on several texts in the (...)
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  45. A influência de Platão na composição dos romances antigos.Beatriz Saar - 2022 - Codex 10 (2):1-18.
    É relativamente recente a perspectiva revisionista dos intentos filosóficos de Platão. Apesar disso, a ideia de um filósofo preocupado apenas em construir um edifício sistemático e hermético tem se mostrado cada vez menos sustentável, principalmente quando se observam as diversas fontes que apontam para interesses que não se restringem à filosofia, bem como para o desenvolvimento dos aspectos dramáticos presentes no corpus platônico como um todo. A ideia de que a literatura tem uma influência na obra platônica parece clara e (...)
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  46. Moving and Looking.Jacob Stump - 2022 - American Association of Philosophy Teachers Studies in Pedagogy 6:74-79.
    There is a way of teaching philosophy as a way of life that is focused on delivering content. In this paper, I consider a different way. It is focused on giving students the experience of philosophy as a way of life—in particular, the experience of being in love with wisdom. The main question of my paper is what it might be to teach philosophy in a way that prioritizes giving students the chance to fall in love with wisdom. I do (...)
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  47. The Art of Division and the Unity of the Idea: Leibniz as Scholar of Plato.Lucia Oliveri - 2022 - In Einhei und Vielheit metaphysischen Denkens. Festschrift für Thomas Leinkauf (65. Geburtstag). Hamburg: pp. 143-160.
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  48. On the Relation of City and Soul in Plato and Alfarabi.Ishraq Ali & Qin Mingli - 2019 - Journal of Arts and Humanities 8 (2):27-34.
    Abu Nasr Muhammad Alfarabi, the medieval Muslim philosopher and the founder of Islamic Neoplatonism, is best known for his political treatise, Mabadi ara ahl al-madina al- fadhila (Principles of the Opinions of the Inhabitants of the Virtuous City), in which he proposes a theory of utopian virtuous city. Prominent scholars argue for the Platonic nature of Alfarabi’s political philosophy and relate the political treatise to Plato’s Republic. One of the most striking similarities between Alfarabi’s Mabadi ara ahl al-madina al- fadhila (...)
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  49. Donald R. Morrison (Hg.), The Cambridge Companion to Socrates.Rafael Ferber & Matthias Vonarburg - 2013 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 120 (1):211-213.
    Book review of: Donald R. Morrison (Hg.), The Cambridge Companion to Socrates, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2010.
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  50. Plato: The Republic.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    The Republic was written approximately between 380 and 370 BC. The title Republic is derived from Latin, being attributed to Cicero, who called the book De re publica (About public affairs), or even as De republica, thus creating confusion as to its true meaning. The Republic is considered an integral part of the utopian literary genre. The second title, Peri dikaiou (περὶ δικαίου, On Justice), may have been included later. The central theme of the book is justice, argued with the (...)
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