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  1. Reasonable Inferences From Quantum Mechanics: A Response to “Quantum Misuse in Psychic Literature”.Bernardo Kastrup - 2019 - Journal of Near-Death Studies 37 (3):185-200.
    This invited article is a response to the paper “Quantum Misuse in Psychic Literature,” by Jack A. Mroczkowski and Alexis P. Malozemoff, published in this issue of the Journal of Near-Death Studies. Whereas I sympathize with Mroczkowski’s and Malozemoff’s cause and goals, and I recognize the problem they attempted to tackle, I argue that their criticisms often overshot the mark and end up adding to the confusion. I address nine specific technical points that Mroczkowski and Malozemoff accused popular writers in (...)
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  2. Quantum Mechanics Versus Special Relativity: A Forgotten Conflict.Rafael Andrés Alemañ Berenguer - 2008 - Dissertation, University of Alicante
    Despite the widespread assumptions on the compatibility between non-relativistic quantum mechanics and special relativity, there still remains a considerable amount of unresolved problems to which few authors explicitly pay attention. Most of them involve the aim of coherently achieving a relativistic description of quantum collapses and quantum entanglements. These processes seem to challenge our present picture of the physical world in terms of space-time structures.
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  3. A New Theory of Time.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    This article proposes an interpretation of time that incorporates both McTaggart's A-series and his B-series, and tries to cast it in a role that could be useful to physicists. This AB-series allows one, to reconcile special relativity with temporal becoming if the latter is understood as 'ontologically private', which is given a mathematical definition. This allows one to define a unit of becoming, as well as the rates of becoming. This article gives a picture of this interpretation.
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  4. (April 2019) Gabriel Vacariu “Why so Many People (From so Many Countries/Domains/on so Many Topics) Have Already Plagiarized My Ideas?”.Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    Since 2015, incredible many have published UNBELIEVABLE similar ideas to my ideas published between 2002-2008!!! There were others who published UNBELIEVABLE similar ideas to my ideas even earlier (since 2008, in general), but the number has an incredible jump after 2014. Why? In 2014, I have sent emails to thousands of people (many countries, many domains (Physics, Philosophy, and Cognitive Science)) regarding the UNBELIEVABLE similarities between my ideas (2002-2008) and Markus Gabriel’s ideas (his book from 2013). Is it this a (...)
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  5. UNBELIEVABLE Similarities Between Boge’s Ideas (2019) and My Ideas (2002-2008) on Quantu Mechanics.Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    In this paper I investigate the UNBELIEVABLE similarities between Boge’s ideas (2019) and my ideas on quantum mechanics… The author wrote his paper in an UNBELIEVABLE similar framework to my EDWs perspective! Many of his ideas are UNBELIEVABLE similar to my ideas from 2002-2007!!! -/- .
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  6. (2019 + 2017) Strong Similarity Between Carlo Rovelli’s Ideas in Two Books (2015, 2017) to My Ideas (2002-2008) + Commentary February 2018.Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    After 2015, carlo rovelli continues to publish more and more UNBELIEVABLE similar ideas to my ideas!!! His arguments are UNBELIEVABLE similar to my arguments… Until 2015, carlo rovelli had been working within the unicorn world; then he realized a sudden change! I let the reader to understand carlo rovelli’s step after 2015 since I mentioned that my book at Springer has been published in November 2015!! Anyway, I have published FIVE books (2008-2014) with my EDWs, and in 2007, my entire (...)
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  7. (2019) The UNBELIEVABLE Similarities Between Oreshkov Et Al.'s Ideas/Framework (2013) and My EDWs.Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    I investigate the UNBELIEVABLE similarities between the ideas of Oreshkov et al. and my ideas. In fact, their framework (the ontological background) is UNBELIEVABLE similar to my EDWs perspective!
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  8. (March 2019) UNBELEVABLE Similarities Between Chiribella Et Al. (2008, 2013)’s Ideas/Framework and My Ideas/Framework (I.E., the EDWs).Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    In this paper, I investigate the UNBELIEVABLE similarities between Chiribella et al.’ ideas and my ideas. My main question is: “How was it possible these authors to elaborate their thought experiments without having an ontological background? The answer would be: there are geniuses, of course….
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  9. (March 2019) Gabriel Vacariu: UNBELIEVABLE Similar Ideas of Brukner (2015) on Quantum Mechanics and My Ideas (2002-2006).Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    In this article, I investigate the UNBELIEVABLE similar ideas of Brukner’s article (2015) and my ideas (2002-2008) In this article, I investigate the UNBELIEVABLE similar ideas of Brukner’s article (2015) and my ideas (2002-2008) I emphasize that this paragraph is not from my works!! Instead of “objectivity of the ‘facts of the world’, I used EDWs! All the ideas from this paragraph (and the philosophical ideas referring to QM from this article, can be found in my works 2002-2008!
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  10. (March 2019) UNBELIEVALBE Similar Ideas, UNBELIEVABLE Similar Framework of the Article on “Quantum Mechanics” Written by Proietti Et Al (2019) with My EDWs (2002-2008).Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    (March 2019) UNBELIEVALBE similar ideas, UNBELIEVABLE similar framework of the article on “quantum mechanics” written by Proietti et al (2019) with my EDWs (2002-2008) -/- Gabriel Vacariu -/- The article that I investigate in this section is -/- (2019) Experimental rejection of observer-independence in the quantum world -/- Massimiliano Proietti,1 Alexander Pickston,1 Francesco Graffitti,1 Peter Barrow,1 Dmytro Kundys,1 Cyril Branciard,2 Martin Ringbauer,1, 3 and Alessandro Fedrizzi1 at arXiv:1902.05080v1 [quant-ph] 13 Feb 2019 -/- In the article written by Proietti et al. (...)
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  11. A Study of Time in Modern Physics.Peter W. Evans - 2011 - Dissertation,
    This thesis is a study of the notion of time in modern physics, consisting of two parts. Part I takes seriously the doctrine that modern physics should be treated as the primary guide to the nature of time. To this end, it offers an analysis of the various conceptions of time that emerge in the context of various physical theories and, furthermore, an analysis of the relation between these conceptions of time and the more orthodox philosophical views on the nature (...)
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  12. The Peer-to-Peer Simulation Hypothesis and a New Theory of Free Will.Marcus Arvan - 2015 - Scientia Salon.
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  13. Re-Thinking Local Causality.Simon Friederich - 2015 - Synthese 192 (1):221-240.
    There is widespread belief in a tension between quantum theory and special relativity, motivated by the idea that quantum theory violates J. S. Bell’s criterion of local causality, which is meant to implement the causal structure of relativistic space-time. This paper argues that if one takes the essential intuitive idea behind local causality to be that probabilities in a locally causal theory depend only on what occurs in the backward light cone and if one regards objective probability as what imposes (...)
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  14. The Metaphysics of Laws: Dispositionalism Vs. Primitivism.Mauro Dorato & Michael Esfeld - 2014 - In T. Bigaj & C. Wutrich (eds.), Metaphysics and Science. Poznan Studies.
    The paper compares dispositionalism about laws of nature with primitivism. It argues that while the distinction between these two positions can be drawn in a clear-cut manner in classical mechanics, it is less clear in quantum mechanics, due to quantum non-locality. Nonetheless, the paper points out advantages for dispositionalism in comparison to primitivism also in the area of quantum mechanics, and of contemporary physics in general.
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  15. PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF MIND-BODY INTERACTION: BREAKING THE 1ST PERSON 3RD PERSON BARRIER.Richard L. Amoroso - 2012 - Journal of Nonlocality 1 (01).
    This physics note entails a summary of an extended form of Eccles-Cartesian Interactive Dualism mind-body-multiverse paradigm called Noetic Field Theory: The Quantization of Mind (NFT), distinguished as a paradigm because it is comprehensive and empirically testable. NFT posits not only that the brain is not the seat of awareness but also that neither classical nor quantum mechanics are sufficient to describe mind as the required regime entails the new physics associated with Unified Field, UF Mechanics. This means that the brain (...)
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  16. Bell Inequalities: Many Questions, a Few Answers.Nicolas Gisin - 2009 - In Wayne C. Myrvold & Joy Christian (eds.), Quantum Reality, Relativistic Causality, and Closing the Epistemic Circle. Springer. pp. 125--138.
    What can be more fascinating than experimental metaphysics, to quote one of Abner Shimony’s enlightening expressions? Bell inequalities are at the heart of the study of nonlocality. I present a list of open questions, organised in three categories: fundamental; linked to experiments; and exploring nonlocality as a resource. New families of inequalities for binary outcomes are presented.
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  17. La Symétrie de Jauge Comme Sonde Philosophique.Alexandre Guay - 2013 - In Soazig Le Bihan (ed.), Précis de philosophie de la physique. Vuibert. pp. 295-308.
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  18. Quantum Mechanics Reality and Separability.Franco Selleri & G. Tarozzi - 1981 - la Rivista Del Nuovo Cimento 4 (2):1-53.
    TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction; de Broglie's paradox.; Quantum theory of distant particles; The EPR paradox; Einstein locality and Bell's inequality; Recent research on Bell's inequality; General consequences of Einstein locality; Nonloeality and relativity; Time-symmetric theories; The Bohm-Aharonov hypothesis; Experiments on Einstein locality; Reduction of the wave packet; Measurements, reality and consciousness; Conclusions.
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Action at a Distance
  1. Bell's Theorem Versus Local Realism in a Quaternionic Model of Physical Space.Joy Christian - 2019 - IEEE Access 7:133388-133409.
    In the context of EPR-Bohm type experiments and spin detections confined to spacelike hypersurfaces, a local, deterministic and realistic model within a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime with a constant spatial curvature (S^3 ) is presented that describes simultaneous measurements of the spins of two fermions emerging in a singlet state from the decay of a spinless boson. Exact agreement with the probabilistic predictions of quantum theory is achieved in the model without data rejection, remote contextuality, superdeterminism or backward causation. A singularity-free Clifford-algebraic (...)
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  2. Oversights in the Respective Theorems of von Neumann and Bell Are Homologous.Joy Christian - manuscript
    We show that the respective oversights in the von Neumann's general theorem against all hidden variable theories and Bell's theorem against their local-realistic counterparts are homologous. When latter oversight is rectified, the bounds on the CHSH correlator work out to be ±2√2 instead of ±2.
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  3. On a Surprising Oversight by John S. Bell in the Proof of His Famous Theorem.Joy Christian - unknown
    Bell inequalities are usually derived by assuming locality and realism, and therefore violations of the Bell-CHSH inequality are usually taken to imply violations of either locality or realism, or both. But, after reviewing an oversight by Bell, in the Corollary below we derive the Bell-CHSH inequality by assuming only that Bob can measure along vectors b and b' simultaneously while Alice measures along either a or a', and likewise Alice can measure along vectors a and a' simultaneously while Bob measures (...)
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  4. Can We Close the Bohr-Einstein Quantum Debate.Marian Kupczynski - 2017 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 375:20160392..
    Recent experiments allowed concluding that Bell-type inequalities are indeed violated thus it is important to understand what it means and how can we explain the existence of strong correlations between outcomes of distant measurements. Do we have to announce that: Einstein was wrong, Nature is nonlocal and nonlocal correlations are produced due to the quantum magic and emerge, somehow, from outside space-time? Fortunately such conclusions are unfounded because if supplementary parameters describing measuring instruments are correctly incorporated in a theoretical model (...)
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  5. Locality and Wave Function Realism.Alyssa Ney - manuscript
    Wave function realism is an interpretational framework for quantum theories that has been defended for its ability to provide a clear and natural metaphysics for quantum theories, one that is fundamentally both separable and local. This is in contrast to competitor primitive ontology frameworks that while they could be separable, are not local, and holist or structuralist approaches that while they could be local, are not separable. The claim that wave function realist metaphysics is local, however, is not as straightforward (...)
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  6. Separability, Locality, and Higher Dimensions in Quantum Mechanics.Alyssa Ney - manuscript
    *A shortened version of this paper will appear in Current Controversies in Philosophy of Science, Dasgupta and Weslake, eds. Routledge.* This paper describes the case that can be made for a high-dimensional ontology in quantum mechanics based on the virtues of avoiding both nonseparability and non locality.
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  7. Is There a Problem of Action at a Temporal Distance?Rögnvaldur Ingthorsson - 2007 - SATS 8 (1):138-154.
    It has been claimed that the only way to avoid action at a temporal distance in a temporal continuum is if effects occur simultaneously with their causes, and that in fact Newton’s second law of motion illustrates that they truly are simultaneous. Firstly, I point out that this interpretation of Newton’s second law is problematic because in classical mechanics ‘acceleration’ denotes a vector quantity. It is controversial whether vectors themselves are changes as opposed to properties of a change, and therefore (...)
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  8. Causal Decision Theory and EPR Correlations.Arif Ahmed & Adam Caulton - 2014 - Synthese 191 (18):4315-4352.
    The paper argues that on three out of eight possible hypotheses about the EPR experiment we can construct novel and realistic decision problems on which (a) Causal Decision Theory and Evidential Decision Theory conflict (b) Causal Decision Theory and the EPR statistics conflict. We infer that anyone who fully accepts any of these three hypotheses has strong reasons to reject Causal Decision Theory. Finally, we extend the original construction to show that anyone who gives any of the three hypotheses any (...)
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  9. Epistemic Vs Ontic Classification of Quantum Entangled States?Michele Caponigro & Enrico Giannetto - 2012 - Discusiones Filosóficas 13 (20):137 - 145.
    In this brief paper, starting from recent works, we analyze from conceptual point of view this basic question: can be the nature of quantum entangled states interpreted ontologically or epistemologically? According some works, the degrees of freedom of quantum systems permit us to establish a possible classification between factorizables and entangled states. We suggest, that the "choice" of degree of freedom, even if mathematically justified introduces epistemic element, not only in the systems but also in their classification. We retain, instead, (...)
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Bell's Theorem
  1. Bell's Theorem Versus Local Realism in a Quaternionic Model of Physical Space.Joy Christian - 2019 - IEEE Access 7:133388-133409.
    In the context of EPR-Bohm type experiments and spin detections confined to spacelike hypersurfaces, a local, deterministic and realistic model within a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime with a constant spatial curvature (S^3 ) is presented that describes simultaneous measurements of the spins of two fermions emerging in a singlet state from the decay of a spinless boson. Exact agreement with the probabilistic predictions of quantum theory is achieved in the model without data rejection, remote contextuality, superdeterminism or backward causation. A singularity-free Clifford-algebraic (...)
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  2. Oversights in the Respective Theorems of von Neumann and Bell Are Homologous.Joy Christian - manuscript
    We show that the respective oversights in the von Neumann's general theorem against all hidden variable theories and Bell's theorem against their local-realistic counterparts are homologous. When latter oversight is rectified, the bounds on the CHSH correlator work out to be ±2√2 instead of ±2.
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  3. On a Surprising Oversight by John S. Bell in the Proof of His Famous Theorem.Joy Christian - unknown
    Bell inequalities are usually derived by assuming locality and realism, and therefore violations of the Bell-CHSH inequality are usually taken to imply violations of either locality or realism, or both. But, after reviewing an oversight by Bell, in the Corollary below we derive the Bell-CHSH inequality by assuming only that Bob can measure along vectors b and b' simultaneously while Alice measures along either a or a', and likewise Alice can measure along vectors a and a' simultaneously while Bob measures (...)
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  4. Can We Close the Bohr-Einstein Quantum Debate.Marian Kupczynski - 2017 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 375:20160392..
    Recent experiments allowed concluding that Bell-type inequalities are indeed violated thus it is important to understand what it means and how can we explain the existence of strong correlations between outcomes of distant measurements. Do we have to announce that: Einstein was wrong, Nature is nonlocal and nonlocal correlations are produced due to the quantum magic and emerge, somehow, from outside space-time? Fortunately such conclusions are unfounded because if supplementary parameters describing measuring instruments are correctly incorporated in a theoretical model (...)
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  5. Comment on "Resolution of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen and Bell Paradoxes".Alan Macdonald - 1982 - Physical Review Letters 49.
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  6. Spooky Action at a Distance: The Puzzle of Entanglement in Quantum Theory.Alan Macdonald - manuscript
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  7. Separability, Locality, and Higher Dimensions in Quantum Mechanics.Alyssa Ney - manuscript
    *A shortened version of this paper will appear in Current Controversies in Philosophy of Science, Dasgupta and Weslake, eds. Routledge.* This paper describes the case that can be made for a high-dimensional ontology in quantum mechanics based on the virtues of avoiding both nonseparability and non locality.
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  8. The Philosophical Implications of the Loophole-Free Violation of Bell’s Inequality: Quantum Entanglement, Timelessness, Triple-Aspect Monism, Mathematical Platonism and Scientific Morality.Gilbert B. Côté - manuscript
    The demonstration of a loophole-free violation of Bell's inequality by Hensen et al. (2015) leads to the inescapable conclusion that timelessness and abstractness exist alongside space-time. This finding is in full agreement with the triple-aspect monism of reality, with mathematical Platonism, free will and the eventual emergence of a scientific morality.
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  9. Re-Thinking Local Causality.Simon Friederich - 2015 - Synthese 192 (1):221-240.
    There is widespread belief in a tension between quantum theory and special relativity, motivated by the idea that quantum theory violates J. S. Bell’s criterion of local causality, which is meant to implement the causal structure of relativistic space-time. This paper argues that if one takes the essential intuitive idea behind local causality to be that probabilities in a locally causal theory depend only on what occurs in the backward light cone and if one regards objective probability as what imposes (...)
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  10. Causal Decision Theory and EPR Correlations.Arif Ahmed & Adam Caulton - 2014 - Synthese 191 (18):4315-4352.
    The paper argues that on three out of eight possible hypotheses about the EPR experiment we can construct novel and realistic decision problems on which (a) Causal Decision Theory and Evidential Decision Theory conflict (b) Causal Decision Theory and the EPR statistics conflict. We infer that anyone who fully accepts any of these three hypotheses has strong reasons to reject Causal Decision Theory. Finally, we extend the original construction to show that anyone who gives any of the three hypotheses any (...)
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  11. Measurement Independence, Parameter Independence and Non-Locality.Iñaki San Pedro - 2014 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 4 (3):369-374.
    In a recent paper in this Journal San Pedro I formulated a conjecture relating Measurement Independence and Parameter Independence, in the context of common cause explanations of EPR correlations. My conjecture suggested that a violation of Measurement Independence would entail a violation of Parameter Independence as well. Leszek Wroński has shown that conjecture to be false. In this note, I review Wroński’s arguments and agree with him on the fate of the conjecture. I argue that what is interesting about the (...)
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  12. Strong Constraints on Models That Explain the Violation of Bell Inequalities with Hidden Superluminal Influences.Valerio Scarani, Jean-Daniel Bancal, Antoine Suarez & Nicolas Gisin - 2014 - Foundations of Physics 44 (5):523-531.
    We discuss models that attempt to provide an explanation for the violation of Bell inequalities at a distance in terms of hidden influences. These models reproduce the quantum correlations in most situations, but are restricted to produce local correlations in some configurations. The argument presented in (Bancal et al. Nat Phys 8:867, 2012) applies to all of these models, which can thus be proved to allow for faster-than-light communication. In other words, the signalling character of these models cannot remain hidden.
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  13. Bell Inequalities: Many Questions, a Few Answers.Nicolas Gisin - 2009 - In Wayne C. Myrvold & Joy Christian (eds.), Quantum Reality, Relativistic Causality, and Closing the Epistemic Circle. Springer. pp. 125--138.
    What can be more fascinating than experimental metaphysics, to quote one of Abner Shimony’s enlightening expressions? Bell inequalities are at the heart of the study of nonlocality. I present a list of open questions, organised in three categories: fundamental; linked to experiments; and exploring nonlocality as a resource. New families of inequalities for binary outcomes are presented.
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  14. On Free Will and No-Conspiracy.Iñaki San Pedro - 2013 - In Tilman Sauer & Adrian Wüthrich (eds.), New Vistas on Old Problems: Recent Approaches to the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge. pp. 87-102.
    In this paper, I challenge the widespread view that Measurement Independence adequately represents the requirement that EPR experimenters have free will. Measurement Independence is most commonly taken as a necessary condition for free will. A number of implicit assumptions can be identified in this regard, all of which can be challenged on their own grounds. As a result, I conclude that Measurement Independence-type conditions are not to be justified by appealing to the preservation of the EPR experimenters’ free will.
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  15. Biological Utilization of Quantum Nonlocality.Brian D. Josephson & Fotini Pallikari-Viras - 1991 - Foundations of Physics 21 (2):197-207.
    The perception of reality by biosystems is based on different, and in certain respects more effective, principles than those utilized by the more formal procedures of science. As a result, what appears as random pattern to the scientific method can be meaningful pattern to a living organism. The existence of this complementary perception of reality makes possible in principle effective use by organisms of the direct interconnections between spatially separated objects shown to exist in the work of J. S. Bell.
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  16. Non-Realism: Deep Thought or a Soft Option?Nicolas Gisin - 2012 - Foundations of Physics 42 (1):80-85.
    The claim that the observation of a violation of a Bell inequality leads to an alleged alternative between nonlocality and non-realism is annoying because of the vagueness of the second term.
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  17. Philosophising Consciousness From String Theory.Ningombam Bupenda Meitei - manuscript
    The notion of consciousness has been studied in many ways out of which, there could be a scientific approach of studying it using string theory which enjoys the mathematical coherence. The paper aims to study consciousness using string theory in which the role of graviton will be discussed. The notion of parallel universes given by string theory would be tackled to understand consciousness and make an attempt to clarify the notion of other world or universe and parallel universes, the problems (...)
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  18. Epistemic Vs Ontic Classification of Quantum Entangled States?Michele Caponigro & Enrico Giannetto - 2012 - Discusiones Filosóficas 13 (20):137 - 145.
    In this brief paper, starting from recent works, we analyze from conceptual point of view this basic question: can be the nature of quantum entangled states interpreted ontologically or epistemologically? According some works, the degrees of freedom of quantum systems permit us to establish a possible classification between factorizables and entangled states. We suggest, that the "choice" of degree of freedom, even if mathematically justified introduces epistemic element, not only in the systems but also in their classification. We retain, instead, (...)
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  19. The Dynamics of Stock Exchange Based on the Formalism of Weak Continuous Quantum Measurement.S. I. Melnyk & I. G. Tuluzov - 2010 - Journal of Physics 238 (012035):1-9.
    The problem of measurement in economic models and the possibility of their quantum-mechanical description are considered. It is revealed that the apparent paradox of such a description is associated with a priori requirement of conformity of the model to all the alternatives of free choice of the observer. The measurement of the state of a trader on a stock exchange is formally defined as his responses to the proposals of sale at a fixed price. It is shown that an analogue (...)
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  20. CHSH and Local Causlaity.Han Geurdes - 2010 - Adv Studies Theoretical Physics 4 (20):945.
    Mathematics equivalent to Bell's derivation of the inequalities, also allows a local hidden variables explanation for the correlation between distant measurements.
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  21. A New Look at Relational Holism in Quantum Mechanics.Matteo Morganti - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (5):1027--1038.
    Teller argued that violations of Bell’s inequalities are to be explained by interpreting quantum entangled systems according to ‘relational holism’, that is, by postulating that they exhibit irreducible (‘inherent’) relations. Teller also suggested a possible application of this idea to quantum statistics. However, the basic proposal was not explained in detail nor has the additional idea about statistics been articulated in further work. In this article, I reconsider relational holism, amending it and spelling it out as appears necessary for a (...)
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  22. Quantum Mechanics Reality and Separability.Franco Selleri & G. Tarozzi - 1981 - la Rivista Del Nuovo Cimento 4 (2):1-53.
    TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction; de Broglie's paradox.; Quantum theory of distant particles; The EPR paradox; Einstein locality and Bell's inequality; Recent research on Bell's inequality; General consequences of Einstein locality; Nonloeality and relativity; Time-symmetric theories; The Bohm-Aharonov hypothesis; Experiments on Einstein locality; Reduction of the wave packet; Measurements, reality and consciousness; Conclusions.
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Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen
  1. Физически парадокси във философска интерпретация.Vasil Penchev - 1997 - Sofia: "ЛИК".
    Two physical "paradoxes" (the paradox of twins in special relativity and that of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen in quantum mechanics) are considered philosophically from a common viwepoint. Its essence is the unification of "measurement" and "motion". an idea for the generalization of the concept of reference fram is suggested.
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