Results for 'Avicenna'

42 found
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  1. Fate of the Flying Man: Medieval Reception of Avicenna's Thought Experiment.Juhana Toivanen - 2015 - Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy 3:64-98.
    This chapter discusses the reception of Avicenna’s well-known “flying man” thought experiment in twelfth- and thirteenth-century Latin philosophy. The central claim is that the argumentative role of the thought experiment changed radically in the latter half of the thirteenth century. The earlier authors—Dominicus Gundissalinus, William of Auvergne, Peter of Spain, and John of la Rochelle—understood it as an ontological proof for the existence and/or the nature of the soul. By contrast, Matthew of Aquasparta and Vital du Four used the (...)
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  2. Avicenna on the Indemonstrability of Definition.Riccardo Strobino - 2010 - Documenti E Studi Sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale 21:113-163.
    The paper provides some introductory comments and a preliminary translation of Avicenna’s Burhān, IV, 2. I shall first set the stage by outlining the structure of the book (sec. 1). I will then briefly introduce (sec. 2) a number of notions that are dealt with in the first treatise of the Burhān (e.g. definition, description). Burhān, IV, 2 is split into two parts: the first focuses mainly on Aristotle’s An. Post., B, 4, whereas the second covers some of the (...)
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  3. Avicenna’s Use of the Arabic Translations of the Posterior Analytics and the Ancient Commentary Tradition.Riccardo Strobino - 2012 - Oriens 40 (2):355–389.
    In this paper I shall discuss the relationship between the two known Arabic translations of Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics and Avicenna’s Kitāb al-Burhān. I shall argue that Avicenna relies on both (1) Abū Bishr Mattā’s translation and (2) the anonymous translation used by Averroes in the Long Commentary as well as in the Middle Commentary (and also indirectly preserved by Gerard of Cremona’s Latin translation of Aristotle’s work). Although, generally speaking, the problem is relevant to the history of the (...)
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  4.  45
    Experimentation in Avicenna's Philosophy by Referring to Its Practical Application in His Works on Natural Sciences.Roohollah Fadaei & Reza Akbari - 2019 - Philosophy and Kalam 51 (2):245ß260.
    Avicenna, beside his theoretical discussions about experimentation, practically applied his experimental method to natural sciences studies such as medicine, biology, and meteorology. His theoretical discussions subsume propositions concerning the conditions under which experimental knowledge is attained, the components of this knowledge and its functions. Some of these propositions are as follows: necessity of recurrent observations for acquiring experimental knowledge, certainty plus conditional universality of such knowledge, and its role as demonstrative premises. Investigating the application of his theory in natural (...)
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  5. The Elements of Avicenna’s Physics: Greek Sources and Arabic Innovations.Andreas Lammer - 2016 - Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter.
    This study is the first comprehensive analysis of the physical theory of the Islamic philosopher Avicenna (d. 1037). It seeks to understand his contribution against the developments within the preceding Greek and Arabic intellectual milieus, and to appreciate his philosophy as such by emphasising his independence as a critical and systematic thinker. Exploring Avicenna’s method of "teaching and learning," it investigates the implications of his account of the natural body as a three-dimensionally extended composite of matter and form, (...)
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  6.  19
    Avicenna on the Soul's Power to Manipulate Material Objects.Yasin Ramazan Basaran - 2015 - Eskiyeni 30 (2):145-157.
    In his article on the foundations of Ficino’s ideas on magic, James Hankins observes that, where Ficino justifies non-material causation in the universe, he is heavily indebted to Avicenna. As Hankins also points out, this Avicennan idea clearly violates the Aristotelian maxim that ‘physical causation requires contact’. Because Avicenna holds the view that the soul is neither a physical entity nor simply the form of body, Avicenna’s consent to the soul to manipulate material objects means assignment of (...)
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  7.  25
    Review on Avicenna’s philosophy of science (with approach of Seyyed Hossein Nasr). [REVIEW]Majid Asadpour - 2013 - Farhange Islami 3:122-140.
    This review is about some important ideas of famous Muslim philosopher, Avicenna about science and its philosophy on base of idea and works of Dr. Seyyed Hossein Nasr.
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  8.  66
    The Role of Essentially Ordered Causal Series in Avicenna’s Proof for the Necessary Existent in the Metaphysics of the Salvation.Celia Byrne - 2019 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 36 (2):121-138.
    Avicenna's proof for the existence of God (the Necessary Existent) in the Metaphysics of the Salvation relies on the claim that every possible existent shares a common cause. I argue that Avicenna has good reason to hold this claim given that he thinks that (1) every essentially ordered causal series originates in a first, common cause and that (2) every possible existent belongs to an essentially ordered series. Showing Avicenna's commitment to 1 and 2 allows me to (...)
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  9.  24
    Gundissalinus and Avicenna: Some Remarks on an Intricate Philosophical Connection.Nicola Polloni - 2017 - Documenti E Studi Sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale 28:515-552.
    This article analyses the peculiarities of Dominicus Gundissalinus’s reading and use of Avicenna’s writings in his original works. Gundissalinus (1120ca – post 1190) is the Latin translator of Avicenna’s De anima and Liber de philosophia prima, but also an original philosopher whose writings are precious witnesses of the very first reception of Avicennian philosophy in the Latin West. The article points out the structural bond with the Persian philosopher upon which Gundissalinus grounds his own speculation. This contribution stresses, (...)
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  10. Illuminationist School and Critique of Avicenna’s Karársīs Fi ‘L-Hikmah.Farshad Norouzi - forthcoming - New Philosophy.
    Shahāb ad-Dīn" Yahya ibn Habash ibn Amirak as-Suhrawardī, (also Shaikh al-Ishraq, Shaikh al-Maqtul) was founder of the illuminationist school (Ar. Hikmat al-ishraq; Pers. falsafaye ešrāqi ). Derived from “illumination,” a conventional translation of the Arabic term ishraq (lit. radiance, shining of the rising sun), “illuminationism” refers to the doctrine of the Ishraqiyyun, a school of philosophical and mystical thought of various Graeco-Oriental roots whose principles were propounded as an ancient “science of lights” (‘ilm al-anwar) . He chose this title to (...)
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  11.  90
    Insights of Avicenna.Allan Bäck - 2009 - In A. Storck (ed.), Aristotelis analytica posteriora: estudos acerca da rexepacao medieval dos segundos analiticos. Porto Algere: Linus Editores. pp. 111-148.
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  12.  45
    Avicenna the Commentator.Allan Bäck - 2008 - In Lloyd A. Newton (ed.), Medieval Commentaries on Aristotle's Categories. Laiden: pp. 31-71.
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  13.  40
    Thomas Aquinas and Avicenna on the Relationship Between First Philosophy and the Other Theoretical Sciences: A Note on Thomas's Commentary on Boethius's „De Trinitate", Q. 5, Art. 1, Ad 9. [REVIEW]John F. Wippel - 1973 - The Thomist 37 (1):133-154.
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  14.  23
    Avicenna's Essentialism.Sakineh Karimi & Mohammad Saeedimehr - 2019 - Journal of Knowledge 12 (1):179-212.
    Reflecting on Avicenna’s works indicates that by ‘Dhat’(ذات), when used in the context of universal essences, he means either the quiddity or the nature, and when used in the context of individual essence, especially God’s essence, he means the very existence. The second meaning, i.e. the nature, which is the result of his inquiry about the reality of things, is based on the first one, i.e. the quiddity. According to this second meaning, and througha kind of thought experiment and (...)
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  15.  17
    The Principles of Avicenna’s Physics.Sakineh Karimi & Mohammad Saeedimehr - 2013 - Falsafe-Ye Elm, Institue for Humanities and Cultural Studies 3 (4): 47-71.
    Abstract In the light of the analysis of Avicenna’s definition of “nature” we can discover the main principles of his physics, which are: ‘The agency of the nature’, ‘the directness of this agency’, ‘the natural object’, and ‘the essential agency of the nature’. One of the main consequences of this analysis is that the nature could be considered as the direct cause of the motion, immobility and spatial balance of the material objects. Moreover, it shows that natural objects are (...)
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  16. Why the Five Ways? Aquinas’s Avicennian Insight Into the Problem of Unity in the Aristotelian Metaphysics and Sacra Doctrina.Daniel D. De Haan - 2012 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 86:141-158.
    This paper will argue that the order and the unity of St. Thomas Aquinas’s five ways can be elucidated through a consideration of St. Thomas’s appropriation of an Avicennian insight that he used to order and unify the wisdom of the Aristotelian and Abrahamic philosophical traditions towards the existence of God. I will begin with a central aporia from Aristotle’s Metaphysics. Aristotle says that the science of first philosophy has three different theoretical vectors: ontology, aitiology, and theology. But how can (...)
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  17. The Morally Difficult Notion of Heaven.Amir Saemi - 2018 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 92 (3):429-444.
    I will argue that Avicenna’s and Aquinas’s faith-based virtue ethics are crucially different from Aristotle’s virtue ethics, in that their ethics hinges on the theological notion of heaven, which is constitutively independent of the ethical life of the agent. As a result, their faith-based virtue ethics is objectionable. Moreover, I will also argue that the notion of heaven that Avicenna and Aquinas deploy in their moral philosophy is problematic; for it can rationally permit believers to commit morally horrendous (...)
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  18.  44
    Gundissalinus on the Angelic Creation of the Human Soul: A Peculiar Example of Philosophical Appropriation.Nicola Polloni - 2019 - Oriens 47 (3-4):313–347.
    With his original reflection—deeply influenced by many important Arabic thinkers—Gundissalinus wanted to renovate the Latin debate concerning crucial aspects of the philosophical tradition. Among the innovative doctrines he elaborated, one appears to be particularly problematic, for it touches a very delicate point of Christian theology: the divine creation of the human soul, and thus, the most intimate bond connecting the human being and his Creator. Notwithstanding the relevance of this point, Gundissalinus ascribed the creation of the human soul to the (...)
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  19.  55
    Al-Āmidi’s Reception of Ibn Sīnā: Reading Al-Nūr Al-Bāhir Fi Al-Ḥikam Al-Zawāhir.Syamsuddin Arif - 2010 - In Tzvi Langermann (ed.), Avicenna and His Legacy: A Golden Age of Science and Philosophy. Turnhout: Brepols. pp. 205-219.
    Contrary to the widespread assumption, philosophy in the Islamic world did not begin with al-Kindi nor ended with Ibn Rushd (Averroes). This article looks into the metaphysics part of Sayf al-Din al-Amidi's kitab al-Nur al-Bahir fi al-Hikam al-Zawahir ('The Splendid Light on the Bright Wisdom') in order to show the continuity of philosophy in post-classical period.
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  20. La perception et valorization de la philosophie arabe dans le Résumé de la Somme théologique de Saint Thomas d’Aquin de Georges Gennade Scholarios: les cas d’Avicenne et Averroès.Georgios Steiris & Nasia Lyckoura - 2013 - In G. Arabatzis (ed.), Marges de la Philosophie Byzantine. Institut du Livre - A.Kardamitsa. pp. 51-74.
    The article focuses on an unexamined so far aspect of byzantine philosophy, namely the influence of Arabic philosophy upon byzantine thinkers. Despite the vicinity of Byzantium and Arabic territories, the philosophical interactions were minimal. Scholarios claimed, in a dedicatory epistle to Constantine Paleologus (1405-1453), that he had studied the treatises of Avicenna, Averroes, and other Arab and Persian philosophers. He admitted that Averroes was beyond doubt the best commentator of Aristotle. Scholarios acknowledged that the study of the Arabs contributed (...)
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  21.  24
    Neither Created Nor Destructible: Ibn Sīnā on the Eternity of the Universe.Syamsuddin Arif - 2020 - Al-Shajarah 25 (1):85-106.
    This article discusses Ibn Sīnā’s reasons for upholding the eternity of the world in his major philosophical writings and the ensuing heated debate between his detractors (al-Ghazālī, al-Shahrastānī and al-Rāzī) and supporters (al-Ṭūsī and al-Āmidī). I argue that notwithstanding the responses and surrejoinders it had elicited, Ibn Sīnā’s position on the issue is indeed coherent and irrefutable, since he distinguishes three modes of eternity, corresponding to the hierarchy of beings which he introduced, namely, (i) absolutely eternal (by virtue of itself); (...)
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  22. Spinoza's Deification of Existence.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2013 - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 6:75-104.
    The aim of this paper is to clarify Spinoza’s views on some of the most fundamental issues of his metaphysics: the nature of God’s attributes, the nature of existence and eternity, and the relation between essence and existence in God. While there is an extensive literature on each of these topics, it seems that the following question was hardly raised so far: What is, for Spinoza, the relation between God’s existence and the divine attributes? Given Spinoza’s claims that there are (...)
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  23.  61
    Intuitive Knowledge in Ibn Sīnā: Its Distinctive Features and Prerequisites.Syamsuddin Arif - 2002 - Al-Shajarah 7 (2):213-251.
    Intuition (hads) as a function of 'aql, fitrah and khirad, according to Ibn Sina, not only constitutes the basis of all learning, and hence a way for arriving independently at new knowledge, but serves as means for verifying what has been studied and learned from others, representing direct insight into the true nature of reality as a coherent whole. Some questions remain, however, as to what distinguishes intuition from other kinds of cognition and what is so special about intuitive knowledge (...)
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  24.  45
    Intuition and Its Role in Ibn Sīnā’s Epistemology.Syamsuddin Arif - 2000 - Al-Shajarah 5 (1):95-126.
    This paper reexamines Ibn Sina’s theory of knowledge and discusses the key role he assigns to intuition in solving the epistemological problems of knowing the first principles, the middle terms, primary concepts, and existence of oneself. To reconstruct and give a coherent restatement of his epistemology by means of textual analysis and hermeneusis is certainly a worthwhile task since Ibn Sina’s own statement of his views about knowledge has come down to us in a very disjointed form, scattered throughout his (...)
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  25. La Absolutización de la Esencia Como Axioma Fundamental de la Metafísica Tomista.Hector Ferreiro - 2007 - Patristica Et Mediaevalia 28:83-97.
    Few theses characterize more especifically the metaphysics of Aquinas than the thesis of the real distinction between being and essence, the thesis of being as the act of the essence, the thesis of the ontological contingency of the universe and the conception of the cause of the existence of things as subsistent being. The aim of the present work is to prove that these theses, as well as others derived from them, like the claim of the identity of essence and (...)
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  26. The Legend of the Middle Ages: Philosophical Explorations of Medieval Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.Mehmet Karabela - 2012 - Philosophy East and West 62 (4):605-608.
    The majority of The Legend of the Middle Ages: Philosophical Explorations of Medieval Christianity, Judaism, and Islam has been published previously in different forms, but this edition has been completely revised by the author, the well-known French medievalist and intellectual historian Rémi Brague. It was first published in French under the title Au moyen du Moyen Âge in 2006. The book consists of sixteen essays ranging from Brague’s early years at the Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris I) in the 1990s up until (...)
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  27.  19
    Avicena e suas fontes: o De anima II.1 412a19-30.Meline Costa Souza - 2020 - Nuntius Antiquus 16 (1):101-126.
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  28. Filsafat Islam - Tradisi dan Kontroversi.Syamsuddin Arif - 2014 - TSAQAFAH - Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization 10 (1):221-247.
    Is there such a thing called “Islamic philosophy”? If there is one, what is it? What does it mean for philosophy to be Islamic? How does Islamic philosophy differ from non-Islamic one? Why do some Muslim scholars reject philosophy, ban its instruction, and even scorn its proponents? The present article will address all these questions and seeks to offer a balanced perspective on controversial issues pertaining to philosophy in Islamic intellectual context, drawing upon authoritative, primary sources. The first section deals (...)
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  29. Islamic Ethics and the Doctrine of the Mean.Hossein Atrak - 2014 - Journal of Philosophical Investigations at University of Tabriz 8 (14):131-147.
    Originally introduced by Plato and Aristotle, the doctrine of the mean is the most prevalent theory of ethics among Islamic scholars. According to this doctrine, every virtue or excellence of character lies in the observance of the mean, whereas vices are the excess or deficiency of the soul in his functions. Islamic scholars have been influenced by the doctrine, but they have also developed and re-conceptualized it in innovative ways. Kindi, Miskawayh, Avicenna, Raghib Isfahani, Nasir al-Din Tusi, and others (...)
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  30.  9
    Muslim Moralists’ Contributions to Moderation Theory in Ethics.Hossein Atrak - 2020 - Journal of Ethical Reflections 1 (2):69-92.
    Originally introduced by Plato and Aristotle, Moderation Theory in Ethics is the most prevalent theory of ethics among Islamic scholars. Moderation Theory suggests that every virtue or excellence of character lies in the mean between two vices: excess or defect. Every ethical virtue comes from moderation in actions or emotions and every ethical vice comes from excess or defect. This paper suggests that while Islamic scholars have been influenced by this doctrine, they have also developed and re-conceptualized it in innovative (...)
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  31. Studied Abroad for 400 Years: Oliva Sabuco's New Philosophy of Human Nature.Mary Ellen Waithe - manuscript
    Oliva Sabuco's New Philosophy of Human nature (1587) is an early modern philosophy of medicine that challenged the views of the successors to Aristotle, especially Galen and Ibn Sina (Avicenna). It also challenged the paradigm of the male as the epitome of the human and instead offers a gender-neutral philosophy of human nature. Now largely forgotten, it was widely read and influential amongst philosophers of medicine including DeClave, LePois, Harvey,Southey and others, particularly for its account of the role of (...)
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  32.  92
    Gundissalinus’s Application of Al-Farabi’s Metaphysical Programme. A Case of Epistemological Transfer.Nicola Polloni - 2016 - Mediterranea 1:69-106.
    This study deals with Dominicus Gundissalinus’s discussion on metaphysics as philosophical discipline. Gundissalinus’s translation and re-elaboration of al-Fārābī’s Iḥṣā’ al-ʿulūm furnish him, in the De scientiis, a specific and detailed procedure for metaphysical analysis articulated in two different stages, an ascending and a descending one. This very same procedure is presented by Gundissalinus also in his De divisione philosophiae, where the increased number of sources –in particular, Avicenna– does not prevent Gundissalinus to quote the entire passage on the methods (...)
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  33. Al-Fārābi on the Role of Philosophy of History in the History of Civilization.Georgios Steiris - 2018 - In Christian and Islamic Philosophies of Time. Wilmington USA: Vernon Press. pp. 135-144.
    This volume constitutes an attempt at bringing together philosophies of time—or more precisely, philosophies on time and, in a concomitant way, history—emerging from Christianity’s and Islam’s intellectual histories. Starting from the Neoplatonic heritage and the voice of classical philosophy, the volume enters the Byzantine and Arabic intellectual worlds up to Ibn Al-Arabi’s times. A conscious choice in this volume is not to engage with, perhaps, the most prominent figures of Christian and Arabic philosophy, i.e., Augustine on the one hand and (...)
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  34. John Duns Scotus and the Ontology of Mixture.Lucian Petrescu - 2014 - Res Philosophica 91 (3):315-337.
    This paper presents Duns Scotus’s theory of mixture in the context of medieval discussions over Aristotle’s theory of mixed bodies. It revisits the accounts of mixture given by Avicenna, Averroes, and Thomas Aquinas, before presenting Scotus’s account as a reaction to Averroes. It argues that Duns Scotus rejected the Aristotelian theory of mixture altogether and that his account went contrary to the entire Latin tradition. Scotus denies that mixts arise out of the four classical elements and he maintains that (...)
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  35.  70
    Figuration: A Philosophy of Dance.Joshua M. Hall - 2012 - Dissertation, Vanderbilt University
    Dance receives relatively little attention in the history of philosophy. My strategy for connecting that history to dance consists in tracing a genealogy of its dance-relevant moments. In preparation, I perform a phenomenological analysis of my own eighteen years of dance experience, in order to generate a small cluster of central concepts or “Moves” for elucidating dance. At this genealogical-phenomenological intersection, I find what I term “positure” most helpfully treated in Plato, Aristotle and Nietzsche; “gesture” similarly in Condillac, Mead and (...)
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  36.  71
    Alfarabi's Imaginative Critique: Overflowing Materialism in Virtuous Community.Joshua M. Hall - 2015 - South African Journal of Philosophy 34 (2):175-192.
    Though currently marginalised in Western philosophy, tenth-century Arabic philosopher Abu Nasr Alfarabi is one of the most important thinkers of the medieval era. In fact, he was known as the ‘second teacher’ (after Aristotle) to philosophers such as Avicenna and Averroes. As this epithet suggests, Alfarabi and his successors engaged in a critical and creative dialogue with thinkers from other historical traditions, including that of the Ancient Greeks, although the creativity of his part is often marginalised as well. In (...)
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  37.  77
    Co-Reading Aristotle’s Practical Reasoning.Mostafa Younesie - manuscript
    In Islamic Arabic /Persian thought speculations about ethics may be divided into textual / scriptural; theological; religious; and philosophical too. The “philosophical ethics” has within itself Socratic, Platonic, Aristotelian and neo-Platonic trends and versions with such main thinkers such as Farabi; Avicenna; and Averroes. Here we will concentrate on Farabi and those aspects of his speculations that are Aristotelian and can be reordered and arranged around “practical reasoning”.
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  38. Introduction to the Non-Dualism Approach in Hinduism and its Connection to Other Religions and Philosophies.Sriram Ganapathi Subramanian & Benyamin Ghojogh - manuscript
    In this paper, we introduce the Hinduism religion and philosophy. We start with introducing the holy books in Hinduism including Vedas and Upanishads. Then, we explain the simplistic Hinduism, Brahman, gods and their incarnations, stories of apocalypse, karma, reincarnation, heavens and hells, vegetarianism, and sanctity of cows. Then, we switch to the profound Hinduism which is the main core of Hinduism and is monotheistic. In profound Hinduism, we focus on the non-dualism or Advaita Vedanta approach in Hinduism. We discuss consciousness, (...)
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  39. Skepticism and Rationality: Ghazali, Hume, and Kant.Khosrow Bagheri Noaparast - 2013 - Journal of Religious Though 13 (2):3-18.
    Considering three philosophers – Ghazali , Hume, and Kant – we perceive that they were at grips with skepticism and each had a different attitude towards it. While Hume remains in a skeptical sphere, Ghazali and Kant offer solutions for skepticism, although their solutions differ largely. Criticizing Aristotle’s view on essential necessity, Ghazali expands Avicenna’s emphasis on experimentation and, in effect, negates the necessary relation between cause and effect. Ghazali preceded Hume in this regard for some 6 centuries and (...)
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  40.  60
    De ce (nu) suntem fericiți?Nicolae Sfetcu - 2019 - Drobeta Turnu Severin: MultiMedia Publishing.
    Fericirea este un concept fuzzy. Ea poate fi definită în termeni de a trăi o viață bună sau de a înflori, mai degrabă decât de a experimenta o emoție. Fericirea în acest sens a fost folosită pentru a traduce eudaimonia greacă și este încă folosită în etica virtuții. A existat o tranziție în timp, de la accent pe fericirea virtuții la virtutea fericirii. În psihologie, fericirea este o stare mentală sau emoțională a bunăstării, care poate fi definită, printre altele, de (...)
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  41. Inteligența emoțională.Nicolae Sfetcu - 2020 - Drobeta Turnu Severin: MultiMedia Publishing.
    Inteligența emoțională este un set de abilități pentru răspunsurile la evenimente care constituie emoții. Prin integrarea inteligenței cu emoția se pot determina „cel puțin unele răspunsuri „corecte” în ceea ce privește sentimentele” pentru a distinge indivizii în funcţie de inteligența emoțională într-un context cultural dat. În prezent, organizațiile trebuie să facă față, pe lângă o concurență sporită, și unei dezvoltări și inovații tehnologice exponențiale, și unor procese de schimbare care afectează toate stările emoționale ale angajaților. Toate aceste provocări, împreună cu (...)
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  42.  63
    Moartea - Aspecte psihologice, ştiinţifice, religioase, culturale şi filozofice.Nicolae Sfetcu - 2015 - Drobeta Turnu Severin: MultiMedia Publishing.
    Despre moarte, durere, doliu, viaţa de după moarte şi nemurire. De ce trebuie să murim ca oameni pentru a trăi ca specie. "Nimeni nu vrea să moară. Chiar și cei care doresc să ajungă în cer, nu ar vrea să moară pentru a ajunge acolo. Și totuși, moartea este destinația pe care o împărtășim cu toții. Nimeni nu a scăpat vreodată. Și aşa şi trebuie, pentru că Moartea este foarte probabil cea mai bună invenție a Vieții. Este agentul de schimbare (...)
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