Results for 'Formula of Humanity'

1000+ found
Order:
  1. Dignity and Respect: How to Apply Kant's Formula of Humanity.Paul Formosa - 2014 - Philosophical Forum 45 (1):49-68.
    Kant’s Formula of Humanity (FH) is considered by many, Kant included, to be the most intuitively appealing formulation of the categorical imperative. FH tells us that to treat persons with dignity and respect we must always treat them as ends in themselves and never as mere means. One set of issues raised by FH revolves around how FH is to be justified or grounded and how it relates to the other formulations of the categorical imperative. This set of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  2. Formal Approaches to Kant's Formula of Humanity.Andrews Reath - unknown
    My aim in this paper is to explore different ways of understanding Kant’s Formula of Humanity as a formal principle. I believe that a formal principle for Kant is a principle that is constitutive of some domain of cognition or rational activity. It is a principle that both constitutively guides that activity and serves as its internal regulative norm. In the first section of this essay, I explain why it is desirable to find a way to understand the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  3. Kant's Formula of Universal Law as a Test of Causality.W. Clark Wolf - 2023 - Philosophical Review 132 (3):459-90.
    Kant’s formula of universal law (FUL) is standardly understood as a test of the moral permissibility of an agent’s maxim: maxims which pass the test are morally neutral, and so permissible, while those which do not are morally impermissible. In contrast, I argue that the FUL tests whether a maxim is the cause or determining ground of an action at all. According to Kant’s general account of causality, nothing can be a cause of some effect unless there is a (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4.  77
    Agents, Actions, and Mere Means: A Reply to Critics.Pauline Kleingeld - 2024 - Journal for Ethics and Moral Philosophy / Zeitschrift Für Ethik Und Moralphilosophie 7 (1):165-181.
    The prohibition against using others ‘merely as means’ is one of Kant’s most famous ideas, but it has proven difficult to spell out with precision what it requires of us in practice. In ‘How to Use Someone “Merely as a Means”’ (2020), I proposed a new interpretation of the necessary and sufficient conditions for using someone ‘merely as a means’. I argued that my agent-focused actual consent inter- pretation has strong textual support and significant advantages over other readings of the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5.  69
    Kant's Universal Law and Humanity Formulae.Damian Williams - forthcoming - Forthcoming.
    Kant's formulae ought to effectively produce the same result when applied to the moral validity of any particular maxim; further, no valid maxim produces contradictory results when applied against Kant's Universal Law and Humanity formulae. Where one uses all formulae in the assessment of a maxim, one gains a more complete understanding of the moral law, thereby bridging principles of reason with intuition within the agent who has undertaken to evaluate the morality of a particular action. These formulae command (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6. Means, Ends, and Persons: The Meaning and Psychological Dimensions of Kant's Humanity Formula, by Robert Audi: New York: Oxford University Press, 2016, pp. xvi + 171, £29.99. [REVIEW]Paul Formosa - 2017 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 95 (2):412-412.
    Book review of 'Means, Ends, and Persons: The Meaning and Psychological Dimensions of Kant's Humanity Formula, by Robert Audi, OUP'.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7. Consent and the Mere Means Principle.Samuel Kahn - 2022 - Journal of Value Inquiry:1-19.
    Kant’s Formula of Humanity can be analyzed into two parts. One is an injunction to treat humanity always as an end. The other is a prohibition on using humanity as a mere means. The second is often referred to as the FH prohibition or the mere means prohibition. It has become popular to interpret this prohibition in terms of consent. The idea is that, if X uses Y's humanity as a means and Y does not (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  8. The Guise of the Objectively Good.Samuel Kahn - 2013 - Journal of Value Inquiry 47 (1-2):87-99.
    According to one influential version of the derivation of Kant’s Formula of Humanity, the following claim is true: Agents necessarily represent their ends as objectively good. In this paper I argue that there is good reason to regard GOG as false. The paper is divided into four sections. In the first, I explain what is at stake in arguing that GOG is false. In the second, I explicate the terminology in this claim. I also contrast the claim with (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  9. Merely a New Formula? G.A. Tittel on Kant’s ‘Reform’ of Moral Science.Michael Walschots - 2020 - Studi Kantiani 33:49-64.
    In the first ever commentary on the Groundwork, one of Kant’s earliest critics, Gottlob August Tittel, argues that the categorical imperative is not a new principle of morality, but merely a new formula. This objection has been unjustly neglected in the secondary literature, despite the fact that Kant explicitly responds to it in a footnote in the second Critique. In this paper I seek to offer a thorough explanation of both Tittel’s ‘new formula’ objection and Kant’s response to (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  10. A Defense and Development of the Volitional Self-Contradiction Interpretation.Pauline Kleingeld - 2023 - Philosophia 51 (2):505-524.
    Kant’s Formula of Universal Law (FUL) is generally believed to require you to act only on the basis of maxims that you can will without contradiction to become universal laws. In “Contradiction and Kant’s Formula of Universal Law” (2017), I have proposed to read the FUL instead as requiring that, for any maxim on which you act, you can will two things simultaneously, without volitional self-contradiction: (1) willing the maxim as your own action principle and (2) willing that (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  11. CATEGORY OF ‘HAPPINESS’: ETYMOLOGY, ‘OBJECTIVE’ INDICATORS, ELEMENTS, AND FORMULA FOR HAPPINESS.Galina Ivanovna Kolesnikova - unknown
    The article reviews the category of ‘happiness’ along three lines: etymological discourse, ‘objective’ indicators and elements of happiness as a social/cultural phenomenon, as well as the author's proposed formula for happiness. The relevance of this study is determined by the fact that human resource is the main resource of the State, and the future of the country depends on the well-being of each individual. As a result of the etymological discourse, the following conclusions have been drawn: 1, the category (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12. Kantian Ethics, Dignity and Perfection.Paul Formosa - 2017 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    In this volume Paul Formosa sets out a novel approach to Kantian ethics as an ethics of dignity by focusing on the Formula of Humanity as a normative principle distinct from the Formula of Universal Law. By situating the Kantian conception of dignity within the wider literature on dignity, he develops an important distinction between status dignity, which all rational agents have, and achievement dignity, which all rational agents should aspire to. He then explores constructivist and realist (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  13. Nonaccidental Rightness and the Guise of the Objectively Good.Samuel J. M. Kahn - forthcoming - Journal of Early Modern Studies:Vol. 13, Issue 2, 2024.
    My goal in this paper is to show that two theses that are widely adopted among Kantian ethicists are irreconcilable. The paper is divided into four sections. In the first, I briefly sketch the contours of my own positive view of Kantian ethics, concentrating on the issues relevant to the two theses to be discussed: I argue that agents can perform actions from but not in conformity with duty, and I argue that agents intentionally can perform actions they take to (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14. Defending the possible consent interpretation from actual objections.Samuel Kahn - 2014 - Journal of Early Modern Studies 3 (2):88-100.
    In this paper, I defend the possible consent interpretation of Kant’s formula of humanity from objections according to which it has counterintuitive implications. I do this in two ways. First, I argue that to a great extent, the supposed counterintuitive implications rest on a misunderstanding of the possible consent interpretation. Second, I argue that to the extent that these supposed counterintuitive implications do not rest on a misunderstanding of the possible consent interpretation, they are not counterintuitive at all.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15. A Kantian Reading of 'Good' and 'Good For'. Some Reflections on Toni Rønnow-Rasmussen's Fitting Attitude Analysis of Value.Herlinde Pauer-Studer - 2023 - Value,Morality and Social Reality.
    The paper argues that Toni Rønnow-Rasmussen’s fitting-attitude analysis of ‘good’ and ‘good for’ allows us to interpret and justify Kant’s Formula of Humanity (FH) in a constructive way. His classification of ‘good’ as a non-relational intrinsic final value and ‘good for’ as a relational extrinsic final value sheds light on two main features of FH, namely that it requires us to display a specific attitude to human beings, while also obligating us to recognize this value in the relational (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16. A Critical Analysis of Immanuel Kant’s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals.Abraham Tsehay Jemberie - 2017 - International Journal of Research and Review 4 (3):54-75.
    Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), the German philosopher, is considered as the father of modern ethics and one of the great philosophers in the history of philosophy. He wanted to establish a firm foundation for moral philosophy. He contributed something new to modern ethics which was not attempted by earlier ethicists. He wanted to show by using reason that morality is based on a single supreme universal principle, which is binding to all rational beings. Precisely, Kant wanted to establish the first principle (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17. On the Singularity of the Categorical Imperative.Guus Duindam - 2023 - Southwest Philosophy Review 39 (1):165-173.
    Kant famously claims that there is only a single supreme principle of morality: the Categorical Imperative. This claim is often treated with skepticism. After all, Kant proceeds to provide no fewer than six formulations of this purportedly single supreme principle—formulations which appear to differ significantly. But appearances can be deceptive. In this paper, I argue that Kant was right. There is only a single Categorical Imperative, and each of its formulations expresses the very same moral principle.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18. The Practical and Philosophical Significance of Kant's Universality Formulations of the Categorical Imperative.Mark Timmons - 2005 - In B. Sharon Byrd & Jan C. Joerdan (eds.), Philosophica Practica Universalis: Festschrift for Joachim Hruschka, Jahrbuch fur Recht und Ethik (Annual Review of Law and Ethics). Duncker Und Humblot.
    This article begins with the claim that the Formula of Universal Law, interpreted as a test of the deontic status of actions, can't be made to work. If not, then one might wonder whether what other work it might do in the overall economy of Kant's ethics. I defend what I call the "formal constraint" interpretation of FUL, explaining how it can figure in a defense of the Formula of Humanity, and its psychological significance in moral thinking.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19. The Problem of the Kantian Line.Samuel Kahn - 2019 - International Philosophical Quarterly 59 (2):193-217.
    In this paper I discuss the problem of the Kantian line. The problem arises because the locus of value in Kantian ethics is rationality, which (counterintuitively) seems to entail that there are no duties to groups of beings like children. I argue that recent attempts to solve this problem by Wood and O’Neill overlook an important aspect of it before posing my own solution.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  20. Korsgaard's Expanded Regress Argument.Samuel Kahn - 2023 - Manuscrito 46 (2):40-65.
    In this discussion note, I aim to reconstruct and assess Korsgaard's recent attempt to extend her regress argument. I begin, in section 1, with a brief recapitulation of the regress argument. Then, in section 2, I turn to the extension. I argue that the extension does not work because Korsgaard cannot rule out the possibility--a possibility for which there is both empirical evidence and argumentative pressure coming directly from the original regress--that we value animality in ourselves qua animality of rational (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21. Experimental Philosophy of Connexivity.Niki Pfeifer & Leon Schöppl - manuscript
    While Classical Logic (CL) used to be the gold standard for evaluating the rationality of human reasoning, certain non-theorems of CL—like Aristotle’s and Boethius’ theses—appear intuitively rational and plausible. Connexive logics have been developed to capture the underlying intuition that conditionals whose antecedents contradict their consequents, should be false. We present results of two experiments (total n = 72), the first to investigate connexive principles and related formulae systematically. Our data suggest that connexive logics provide more plausible rationality frameworks for (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22. The Ambitious Idea of Kant's Corollary.Susan Castro - 2018 - In Violetta L. Waibel, Margit Ruffing & David Wagner (eds.), Natur und Freiheit. Akten des XII. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. De Gruyter. pp. 1779-1786.
    Misrepresentations can be innocuous or even useful, but Kant’s corollary to the formula of universal law appears to involve a pernicious one: “act as if the maxim of your action were to become by your will a universal law of nature”. Humans obviously cannot make their maxims into laws of nature, and it seems preposterous to claim that we are morally required to pretend that we can. Given that Kant was careful to eradicate pernicious misrepresentations from theoretical metaphysics, the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23. May I Treat A Collective As A Mere Means.Bill Wringe - 2014 - American Philosophical Quarterly 51 (3):273-284.
    According to Kant, it is impermissible to treat humanity as a mere means. If we accept Kant's equation of humanity with rational agency, and are literalists about ascriptions of agency to collectives it appears to follow that we may not treat collectives as mere means. On most standard accounts of what it is to treat something as a means this conclusion seems highly implausible. I conclude that we are faced with a range of options. One would be to (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  24. AI, alignment, and the categorical imperative.Fritz McDonald - 2023 - AI and Ethics 3:337-344.
    Tae Wan Kim, John Hooker, and Thomas Donaldson make an attempt, in recent articles, to solve the alignment problem. As they define the alignment problem, it is the issue of how to give AI systems moral intelligence. They contend that one might program machines with a version of Kantian ethics cast in deontic modal logic. On their view, machines can be aligned with human values if such machines obey principles of universalization and autonomy, as well as a deontic utilitarian principle. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25. “I” Who? A New Look at Peirce’s Theory of Indexical Self-Reference.Marco Stango - 2015 - The Pluralist 10 (2):220-246.
    The aim of this article is to address the problem of what is usually called “self-consciousness” by studying Charles S. Peirce’s semeiotic treatment of self-referential statements. Peirce believes that an adequate study of the mind requires “to reduce all mental action,” including “self-consciousness,” “to the formula of valid reasoning” and its semeiotic nature. While Peirce makes frequent use of the notion of “consciousness,” he is at the same time distant from the understanding of the “conscious mind” that Descartes invented (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26. Architecture and Deconstruction. The Case of Peter Eisenman and Bernard Tschumi.Cezary Wąs - 2015 - Dissertation, University of Wrocław
    Architecture and Deconstruction Case of Peter Eisenman and Bernard Tschumi -/- Introduction Towards deconstruction in architecture Intensive relations between philosophical deconstruction and architecture, which were present in the late 1980s and early 1990s, belong to the past and therefore may be described from a greater than before distance. Within these relations three basic variations can be distinguished: the first one, in which philosophy of deconstruction deals with architectural terms but does not interfere with real architecture, the second one, in which (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. Kantianism for Animals.Nico Dario Müller - 2022 - New York City, New York, USA: Palgrave Macmillan.
    This open access book revises Kant’s ethical thought in one of its most notorious respects: its exclusion of animals from moral consideration. The book gives readers in animal ethics an accessible introduction to Kant’s views on our duties to others, and his view that we have only ‘indirect’ duties regarding animals. It then investigates how one would have to depart from Kant in order to recognise that animals matter morally for their own sake. Particular attention is paid to Kant’s ‘ (...) of Humanity,' the role of autonomy and the moral law, as well as Kant’s notions of practical reason and animal instinct. The result is a deliberately amended version of Kantianism which nevertheless remains faithful to central aspects of Kant’s thought. The book’s final part illustrates the framework’s use in applied contexts, addressing the issues of using animals as mere means, the ethics of veganism and vegetarianism, and environmental protection. Nico Dario Müller shows how, when furnished with duties to animals, Kant's moral philosophy can be a powerful resource for animal ethicists. (shrink)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  28. Forgiveness and Moral Development.Paula Satne - 2016 - Philosophia 44 (4):1029-1055.
    Forgiveness is clearly an important aspect of our moral lives, yet surprisingly Kant, one of the most important authors in the history of Western ethics, seems to have very little to say about it. Some authors explain this omission by noting that forgiveness sits uncomfortably in Kant’s moral thought: forgiveness seems to have an ineluctably ‘elective’ aspect which makes it to a certain extent arbitrary; thus it stands in tension with Kant’s claim that agents are autonomous beings, capable of determining (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  29. The Method of Kant’s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Establishing Moral Metaphysics as a Science.Susan V. H. Castro - 2006 - Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles
    This dissertation concerns the methodology Kant employs in the first two sections of the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (Groundwork I-II) with particular attention to how the execution of the method of analysis in these sections contributes to the establishment of moral metaphysics as a science. My thesis is that Kant had a detailed strategy for the Groundwork, that this strategy and Kant’s reasons for adopting it can be ascertained from the Critique of Pure Reason (first Critique) and his (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30. Filozofia praw człowieka. Prawa człowieka w świetle ich międzynarodowej ochrony.Marek Piechowiak - 1999 - Lublin: Towarzystwo Naukowe KUL.
    PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN RIGHTS: HUMAN RIGHTS IN LIGHT OF THEIR INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION Summary The book consists of two main parts: in the first, on the basis of an analysis of international law, elements of the contemporary conception of human rights and its positive legal protection are identified; in the second - in light of the first part -a philosophical theory of law based on the tradition leading from Plato, Aristotle, and St. Thomas Aquinas is constructed. The conclusion contains an application (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  31. Menschenwürde, Persönlichkeit und die verfassungsmäßige Kontrolle. Oder: starke Normativität ohne Metaphysik?Wei Feng - 2021 - Archiv Für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie, Beiheft 165:23-61.
    The concept of human dignity has been criticized as either too thick or too thin. However, according to the non-positivistic standpoint, the legal normativity of human dignity can be justified and thus strengthened by means of its moral correctness. From the individual perspective, Mencius’ understanding of human dignity as an intrinsic value and Kant’s formula of ‘man as an end in itself’ can be adequately understood based on the differentiation of, as well as the connection between, principium diiudicationis and (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32. How to Use Someone ‘Merely as a Means’.Pauline Kleingeld - 2020 - Kantian Review 25 (3):389-414.
    The prohibition on using others ‘merely as means’ is one of the best-known and most influential elements of Immanuel Kant’s moral theory. But it is widely regarded as impossible to specify with precision the conditions under which this prohibition is violated. On the basis of a re-examination of Kant’s texts, the article develops a novel account of the conditions for using someone ‘merely as a means’. It is argued that this account has not only strong textual support but also significant (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   20 citations  
  33. Kants subjektivistische Begründung von Moral und Freiheit im Naturrecht Feyerabend.Markus Kohl - 2021 - In Haakonssen Knud, Grunert Frank & Diethelm Crystal (eds.), Natural Law 1625-1850. Brill. pp. 150-171.
    “Naturrecht Feyerabend” is a collection of student notes taken on a lecture that Kant gave around the time he was working on the Groundwork. I show that these notes portray Kant as proposing a defense of morality and freedom whose “subjectivism” is unparalleled by anything that we find in his major published works. Kant here traces both the normativity of the moral principle that we must treat humanity as an end in itself and the legitimacy of regarding ourselves as (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34. Kant and Consequentialism (Reflections on Cummiskey’s Kantian Consequentialism).Vasil Gluchman - 2018 - Studia Philosophica Kantiana 7 (1):18-29.
    In his article, the author considers possible forms of relationship between Kant’s ethics and consequentialism. In this context, he analyses David Cummiskey’s views which are expressed in his book, Kantian Consequentialism (1996). He demonstrates the possibility of justifying the consequentialism on the basis of Kant’s ethics and its values. Likewise, several other authors (such as Scott Forschler, Philipp Stratton-Lake, Michael Ridge) are of the opinion of the possible compatibility of Kant’s ethics and consequentialism. On the other hand, however, Christine M. (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  35. "I that is we, we that is I," perspectives on contemporary Hegel : social ontology, recognition, naturalism, and the critique of Kantian constructivism.Italo Testa & Luigi Ruggiu (eds.) - 2016 - Boston: Brill.
    In _"I that is We, We that is I"_ leading scholars analyze the many facets of Hegel’s formula for the intersubjective structure of human life and explores its relevance for debates on social ontology, recognition, action theory, constructivism, and naturalism.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  36. Kant and Sexual Perversion.Alan Soble - 2003 - The Monist 86 (1):55-89.
    This article discusses the views of Immanuel Kant on sexual perversion (what he calls "carnal crimes against nature"), as found in his Vorlesung (Lectures on Ethics) and the Metaphysics of Morals (both the Rechtslehre and Tugendlehre). Kant criticizes sexual perversion by appealing to Natural Law and to his Formula of Humanity. Neither argument for the immorality of sexual perversion succeeds.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  37. Kant's Racism as a Philosophical Problem.Laurenz Ramsauer - 2023 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 104 (4):791-815.
    Immanuel Kant was possibly both the most influential racist and the most influential moral philosopher of modern, Western thought. So far, authors have either interpreted Kant as an “inconsistent egalitarian” or as a “consistent inegalitarian.” On the former view, Kant failed to draw the necessary conclusions about persons from his own moral philosophy; on the latter view, Kant did not consider non‐White people as persons at all. However, both standard interpretations face significant textual difficulties; instead, I argue that Kant's moral (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  38. Saving Lives and Respecting Persons.Greg Bognar & Samuel J. Kerstein - 2010 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 5 (2):1-21.
    In the distribution of resources, persons must be respected, or so many philosophers contend. Unfortunately, they often leave it unclear why a certain allocation would respect persons, while another would not. In this paper, we explore what it means to respect persons in the distribution of scarce, life-saving resources. We begin by presenting two kinds of cases. In different age cases, we have a drug that we must use either to save a young person who would live for many more (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  39. The Cosmology of St Maximus the Confessor as a Basis for Ecological and Humanitarian Ethics.E. Brown Dewhurst - 2014 - Teologikon 1 (3):126-140.
    This paper explores the cosmology of St Maximus the Confessor and its relevance for contemporary ethics. It takes as it’s starting point two papers on Maximus’ cosmology and environmental ethics (Bordeianu, 2009; Munteanu, 2010) and from there argues that we can not consider environmental ethics in isolation from other ethical issues. This, as both Ware and Keselopoulos have also pointed out, is because the environmental crisis is actually a crisis in the human heart and in human attitudes toward everything about (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40. Kant, Buddhism, and Self-centered Vice.Bradford Cokelet - 2018 - In Philip J. Ivanhoe, Owen Flanagan, Victoria S. Harrison, Hagop Sarkissian & Eric Schwitzgebel (eds.), The Oneness Hypothesis: Beyond the Boundary of Self. New York, NY, USA: Columbia University Press. pp. 169-191.
    This article discusses the vice of self-centeredness, argues that it inhibits our ability to treat humanity as an end in itself, and that Kantian moral theory cannot account for this fact. After in this way arguing that Kantian theory fails to provide a fully adequate account of agents who live up to the formula of humanity, I discuss Buddhist resources for developing a better account.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41. Samuel J. Kerstein, How to Treat Persons. [REVIEW]Samuel Kahn - 2014 - Kantian Review 19 (2):319-323.
    Samuel Kerstein’s recent (2013) How To Treat Persons is an ambitious attempt to develop a new, broadly Kantian account of what it is to treat others as mere means and what it means to act in accordance with others’ dignity. His project is explicitly nonfoundationalist: his interpretation stands or falls on its ability to accommodate our pretheoretic intuitions, and he does an admirable job of handling carefully a range of well fleshed out and sometimes subtle examples. In what follows, I (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42. The Construction of Social Reality: An Exchange.Barry Smith & John Searle - 2003 - American Journal of Economics and Sociology 62 (2):285-309.
    Part 1 of this exchange consists in a critique by Smith of Searle’s The Construction of Social Reality focusing on Searle’s use of the formula ‘X counts as Y in context C’. Smith argues that this formula works well for social objects such as dollar bills and presidents where the corresponding X terms (pieces of paper, human beings) are easy to identify. In cases such as debts and prices and money in a bank's computers, however, the formula (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   50 citations  
  43. A Kantian Solution to the Trolley Problem.Pauline Kleingeld - 2020 - Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 10:204-228.
    This chapter proposes a solution to the Trolley Problem in terms of the Kantian prohibition on using a person ‘merely as a means.’ A solution of this type seems impossible due to the difficulties it is widely thought to encounter in the scenario known as the Loop case. The chapter offers a conception of ‘using merely as a means’ that explains the morally relevant difference between the classic Bystander and Footbridge cases. It then shows, contrary to the standard view, that (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  44. Paying People to Risk Life or Limb.Robert C. Hughes - 2019 - Business Ethics Quarterly 29 (3):295-316.
    Does the content of a physically dangerous job affect the moral permissibility of hiring for that job? To what extent may employers consider costs in choosing workplace safety measures? Drawing on Kantian ethical theory, this article defends two strong ethical standards of workplace safety. First, the content of a hazardous job does indeed affect the moral permissibility of offering it. Unless employees need hazard pay to meet basic needs, it is permissible to offer a dangerous job only if prospective employees (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  45. Historical Perspective on Social Justice.Samuel Akpan Bassey - 2016 - OmniScience: A Multi-Disciplinary Journal 6 (3):1-8.
    From antiquity to date, communal clashes, inter tribal even to global crisis of war is antecedented by penetration of ill-will, unfair sharing formula of human and natural resources by a privileged few resulting in high social, economic and political acrimony hence, the growing calls to reframe the politics of poverty reduction and social protection in particular, in terms of extending the ‘social contract’ to the poorest groups as people are getting increasingly aware of injustice. This premise is on the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46. The Notion of Truth in Natural and Formal Languages.P. Olcott - manuscript
    For any natural (human) or formal (mathematical) language L we know that an expression X of language L is true if and only if there are expressions Γ of language L that connect X to known facts. -/- By extending the notion of a Well Formed Formula to include syntactically formalized rules for rejecting semantically incorrect expressions we recognize and reject expressions that evaluate to neither True nor False.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47. Petition to Include Cephalopods as “Animals” Deserving of Humane Treatment under the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.New England Anti-Vivisection Society, American Anti-Vivisection Society, The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, The Humane Society of the United States, Humane Society Legislative Fund, Jennifer Jacquet, Becca Franks, Judit Pungor, Jennifer Mather, Peter Godfrey-Smith, Lori Marino, Greg Barord, Carl Safina, Heather Browning & Walter Veit - forthcoming - Harvard Law School Animal Law and Policy Clinic:1–30.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  48. Knowledge and Presence in Early Greek Poetry and Philosophy.James Lesher - forthcoming - In ‘Knowledge’ in Archaic Greece: What Counted as ‘knowledge’ Before there was a Discipline called Philosophy. Washington, DC: Center for Hellenic Studies.
    Philosophical reflection on the conditions of knowledge did not begin in a cultural vacuum. Several centuries before the Ionian thinkers began their investigations, the Homeric bards had identified various factors that militate against a secure grasp of the truth. In the words of the ‘second invocation of the Muses’ in Iliad II: “you, goddesses, are present and know all things, whereas we mortals hear only a rumor and know nothing.” Similarly Archilochus: “Of such a sort, Glaucus, son of Leptines, is (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  49. Logical Foundations of Local Gauge Symmetry and Symmetry Breaking.Yingrui Yang - 2022 - Journal of Human Cognition 6 (1):18-23.
    The present paper intends to report two results. It is shown that the formula P(x)=∀y∀z[¬G(x, y)→¬M(z)] provides the logic underlying gauge symmetry, where M denotes the predicate of being massive. For the logic of spontaneous symmetry breaking, by Higgs mechanism, we have P(x)=∀y∀z[G(x, y)→M(z)]. Notice that the above two formulas are not logically equivalent. The results are obtained by integrating four components, namely, gauge symmetry and Higgs mechanism in quantum field theory, and Gödel's incompleteness theorem and Tarski's indefinability theorem (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50.  88
    Kant and Stoic Ethics.Melissa Merritt (ed.) - forthcoming - Cambridge University Press.
    The volume brings together ancient-philosophy specialists and Kant scholars to advance our understanding of the significance of Stoicism for Immanuel Kant's ethical thought. Kant and Stoic Ethics -/- Contents: -/- Introduction -/- 1 Ethical Formulae in Ancient Stoicism — Brad Inwood -/- 2 Duties and Permissible Actions in the Early Stoics and Kant — Iakovos Vasiliou -/- 3 The Stoics and Kant on the Motive of Duty — Jacob Klein -/- 4 Kant on the Unity and Plurality of the Virtues (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 1000