Results for 'Resource allocation'

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  1. Resource Allocation, Treatment, Disclosure, and Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: Some Comments on de Melo-Martin and Harris.César Palacios-gonzález - 2017 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 26 (2):278-287.
    Some Comments on de Melo-Martin and Harris.
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  2. Justified Commitments? Considering Resource Allocation and Fairness in Médecins Sans Frontières‐Holland.Lisa Fuller - 2006 - Developing World Bioethics 6 (2):59-70.
    Non‐governmental aid programs are an important source of health care for many people in the developing world. Despite the central role non‐governmental organizations play in the delivery of these vital services, for the most part they either lack formal systems of accountability to their recipients altogether, or have only very weak requirements in this regard. This is because most NGOs are both self‐mandating and self‐regulating. What is needed in terms of accountability is some means by which all the relevant stakeholders (...)
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  3. Dose optimisation and scarce resource allocation: two sides of the same coin.Garth Strohbehn, Govind Persad, William F. Parker & Srinivas Murthy - 2022 - BMJ Open 12 (10):e063436.
    Objective: A deep understanding of the relationship between a scarce drug's dose and clinical response is necessary to appropriately distribute a supply-constrained drug along these lines. Summary of key data: The vast majority of drug development and repurposing during the COVID-19 pandemic – an event that has made clear the ever-present scarcity in healthcare systems –has been ignorant of scarcity and dose optimisation's ability to help address it. Conclusions: Future pandemic clinical trials systems should obtain dose optimisation data, as these (...)
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  4. Energy Efficiency Multi task Offloading and Resource Allocation in Mobile Edge Computing.LiHuanjie Zang - 2018 - International Journal of Computer Techniques 5 (1):5-14.
    On edge computing, mobile devices can offload some computing intensive tasks to the cloud so that the time delay and battery losses can be reduced. Different from cloud computing, an edge computing model is under the constraint of radio transmitting bandwidth, power and etc. With regard to most models in presence, each user is assigned to a single mission, transmitting power or local CPU frequency on mobile terminals is deemed to be a constant. Furthermore, energy consumption has a positive correlation (...)
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  5. “Just” accuracy? Procedural fairness demands explainability in AI‑based medical resource allocation.Jon Rueda, Janet Delgado Rodríguez, Iris Parra Jounou, Joaquín Hortal-Carmona, Txetxu Ausín & David Rodríguez-Arias - 2022 - AI and Society:1-12.
    The increasing application of artificial intelligence (AI) to healthcare raises both hope and ethical concerns. Some advanced machine learning methods provide accurate clinical predictions at the expense of a significant lack of explainability. Alex John London has defended that accuracy is a more important value than explainability in AI medicine. In this article, we locate the trade-off between accurate performance and explainable algorithms in the context of distributive justice. We acknowledge that accuracy is cardinal from outcome-oriented justice because it helps (...)
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  6. Public health policy in resource allocation: the role of ubuntu ethics in redressing resource disparity between public and private healthcare in South Africa.Nosisa Cynthia Madaka - 2019 - Dissertation, University of Stellenbosch
    This thesis under the title “Public Health Policy in Resource Allocation: the Role of Ubuntu Ethics in Redressing Resource Disparity between Public and Private Healthcare in South Africa” explores health care disparities pertaining to resource allocation between public and private sector. It is of relevance and importance in South Africa where 54% of the population live on less than US$3 per day. Although the government has instituted certain changes aimed at transforming the public health care (...)
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  7. An Architecture of Thin Client in Internet of Things and Efficient Resource Allocation in Cloud for Data Distribution.Aymen Abdullah, Phamhung Phuoc & Eui Namhuh - 2017 - International Arab Journal of Information Technology 14 (6).
    These days, Thin-client devices are continuously accessing the Internet to perform/receive diversity of services in the cloud. However these devices might either has lack in their capacity (e.g., processing, CPU, memory, storage, battery, resource allocation, etc) or in their network resources which is not sufficient to meet users satisfaction in using Thin-client services. Furthermore, transferring big size of Big Data over the network to centralized server might burden the network, cause poor quality of services, cause long respond delay, (...)
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  8. Medical AI and human dignity: Contrasting perceptions of human and artificially intelligent (AI) decision making in diagnostic and medical resource allocation contexts.Paul Formosa, Wendy Rogers, Yannick Griep, Sarah Bankins & Deborah Richards - 2022 - Computers in Human Behaviour 133.
    Forms of Artificial Intelligence (AI) are already being deployed into clinical settings and research into its future healthcare uses is accelerating. Despite this trajectory, more research is needed regarding the impacts on patients of increasing AI decision making. In particular, the impersonal nature of AI means that its deployment in highly sensitive contexts-of-use, such as in healthcare, raises issues associated with patients’ perceptions of (un) dignified treatment. We explore this issue through an experimental vignette study comparing individuals’ perceptions of being (...)
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  9. Against Exclusive Survivalism: Preventing Lost Life and Protecting the Disadvantaged in Resource Allocation.Govind Persad - 2021 - Hastings Center Report 51 (5):47-51.
    When life-saving medical resources are scarce and not everyone can be saved, is the only relevant goal saving the most lives? Or can other factors be considered, at least as tiebreakers, such as how early in life the people we don't save will die or how much future life they are likely to lose? This commentary defends a multiprinciple allocation approach that considers objectives in addition to saving more lives, including preventing early death and preventing harm in the form (...)
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  10. How the past matters for the future: a luck egalitarian sustainability principle for healthcare resource allocation.Andreas Albertsen - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (2):102-103.
    Christian Munthe, David Fumagalli and Erik Malmqvist argue that well-known healthcare resource allocation principles, such as need, prognosis, equal treatment and cost-effectiveness, should be supplemented with a principle of sustainability.1 Employing such a principle would entail that the allocation of healthcare resources should take into account whether a specific allocation causes negative dynamics, which would limit the amount of resources available in the future. As examples of allocation decisions, which may have such negative dynamics, they (...)
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  11. Substance in bureaucratic procedures for healthcare resource allocation: a reply to Smith.Gabriele Badano - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (1):75-76.
    William Smith’s recent article criticises the so-called orthodox approaches to the normative analysis of healthcare resource allocation, associated to the requirement that decision-makers should abide by strictly procedural principles of legitimacy defining a deliberative democratic process. Much of the appeal of Smith’s argument goes down to his awareness of real-world processes and, in particular, to the large gap he identifies between well-led democratic deliberation and the messiness of the process through which the intuitively legitimate Affordable Care Act was (...)
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  12.  86
    Allocation of Scarce Life-Saving Medical Resources: Why Does Age Matter?Felipe Dossena & Milene Tonetto - 2023 - Ethic@ - An International Journal for Moral Philosophy 22 (3):1111-1128.
    In this paper, we address the moral justification problem concerning the use of age as a criterion for the allocation of scarce life-saving medical resources. We present and discuss four justifications that stand out in philosophical literature: efficiency, sufficiency, egalitarian, and prioritarian. We aim to demonstrate that all these justifications are unsatisfactory since they entail counterintuitive implications in cases involving fetuses and newborns. We then suggest another justification for the relevance of age based on the Time-Relative Interest Account of (...)
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  13.  78
    Manufactured scarcity and the allocation of scarce resources–Authors' reply.Ezekiel J. Emanuel & Govind Persad - 2024 - The Lancet 403 (10426):532.
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  14. Beyond Individual Triage: Regional Allocation of Life-Saving Resources such as Ventilators in Public Health Emergencies.Jonathan Pugh, Dominic Wilkinson, Cesar Palacios-Gonzalez & Julian Savulescu - 2021 - Health Care Analysis 29 (4):263-282.
    In the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers in some countries were forced to make distressing triaging decisions about which individual patients should receive potentially life-saving treatment. Much of the ethical discussion prompted by the pandemic has concerned which moral principles should ground our response to these individual triage questions. In this paper we aim to broaden the scope of this discussion by considering the ethics of broader structural allocation decisions raised by the COVID-19 pandemic. More specifically, (...)
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  15. How to allocate scarce health resources without discriminating against people with disabilities.Tyler M. John, Joseph Millum & David Wasserman - 2017 - Economics and Philosophy 33 (2):161-186.
    One widely used method for allocating health care resources involves the use of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to rank treatments in terms of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. CEA has been criticized for discriminating against people with disabilities by valuing their lives less than those of non-disabled people. Avoiding discrimination seems to lead to the ’QALY trap’: we cannot value saving lives equally and still value raising quality of life. This paper reviews existing responses to the QALY trap and argues that all (...)
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  16. Priority, Ethical Principle, and Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources. Di Wu - 2021 - Studies in Dialectics of Nature 11 (37):62-68.
    Aiming at the allocation of scarce medical resources, Immanuel and other scholars have put forward a set of influential ethical values and guiding principles. It assigns the priority of resource allocation to those whose lives can be saved and maximized, those who can bring the greatest instrumental value, and those who are the worse off. For other members of society, random selection under the same conditions is adopted. Following the Rawlsian "lexical order, lexicographical" rule, this priority arrangement (...)
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  17. Reserve system design for allocation of scarce medical resources in a pandemic: some perspectives from the field.Parag Pathak, Govind Persad, Tayfun Sönmez & M. Utku Unver - 2022 - Oxford Review of Economic Policy 38 (4):924–940.
    Reserve systems are a tool to allocate scarce resources when stakeholders do not have a single objective. This paper introduces some basic concepts about reserve systems for pandemic medical resource allocation. At the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic, we proposed that reserve systems can help practitioners arrive at compromises between competing stakeholders. More than a dozen states and local jurisdictions adopted reserve systems in initial phases of vaccine distribution. We highlight several design issues arising in some of these (...)
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  18. COVID-19 Vaccine Refusal and Fair Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources.Govind Persad & Emily A. Largent - 2022 - JAMA Health Forum 3 (4):e220356.
    When hospitals face surges of patients with COVID-19, fair allocation of scarce medical resources remains a challenge. Scarcity has at times encompassed not only hospital and intensive care unit beds—often reflecting staffing shortages—but also therapies and intensive treatments. Safe, highly effective COVID-19 vaccines have been free and widely available since mid-2021, yet many Americans remain unvaccinated by choice. Should their decision to forgo vaccination be considered when allocating scarce resources? Some have suggested it should, while others disagree. We offer (...)
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  19. The shared ethical framework to allocate scarce medical resources: a lesson from COVID-19.Ezekiel J. Emanuel & Govind Persad - 2023 - The Lancet 401 (10391):1892–1902.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has helped to clarify the fair and equitable allocation of scarce medical resources, both within and among countries. The ethical allocation of such resources entails a three-step process: (1) elucidating the fundamental ethical values for allocation, (2) using these values to delineate priority tiers for scarce resources, and (3) implementing the prioritisation to faithfully realise the fundamental values. Myriad reports and assessments have elucidated five core substantive values for ethical allocation: maximising benefits and (...)
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  20. Categorized priority systems: a new tool for fairly allocating scarce medical resources in the face of profound social inequities.Tayfun Sönmez, Parag A. Pathak, M. Utku Ünver, Govind Persad, Robert D. Truog & Douglas B. White - 2021 - Chest 153 (3):1294-1299.
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has motivated medical ethicists and several task forces to revisit or issue new guidelines on allocating scarce medical resources. Such guidelines are relevant for the allocation of scarce therapeutics and vaccines and for allocation of ICU beds, ventilators, and other life-sustaining treatments or potentially scarce interventions. Principles underlying these guidelines, like saving the most lives, mitigating disparities, reciprocity to those who assume additional risk (eg, essential workers and clinical trial participants), and equal (...)
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  21. Deliberative Democracy, Public Reason, and the Allocation of Clinical Care Resources.Gabriele Badano - 2014 - Dissertation, University College London
    This thesis discusses how societies should allocate clinical care resources. The first aim of the thesis is to defend the idea that clinical care resource allocation is a matter for deliberative democratic procedures. I argue that deliberative democracy is justified because of its ability to implement equal respect and autonomy. Furthermore, I address several in-principle objections to the project of applying deliberative democracy to clinical care resource allocation. Most notably, I respond to the narrow view of (...)
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  22. Fair Allocation of GLP-1 and Dual GLP-1-GIP Receptor Agonists.Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Johan L. Dellgren, Matthew S. McCoy & Govind Persad - forthcoming - New England Journal of Medicine.
    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, such as semaglutide, and dual GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor agonists, such as tirzepatide, have been found to be effective for treating obesity and diabetes, significantly reducing weight and the risk or predicted risk of adverse cardiovascular events. There is a global shortage of these medications that could last several years and raises questions about how limited supplies should be allocated. We propose a fair-allocation framework that enables evaluation of the ethics of (...)
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  23. Ethical Allocation of Remdesivir.Parker Crutchfield, Tyler S. Gibb, Michael J. Redinger & William Fales - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):84-86.
    As the federal government distributed remdesivir to some of the states COVID-19 hit hardest, policymakers scrambled to develop criteria to allocate the drug to their hospitals. Our state, Michigan, was among those states to receive an initial quantity of the drug from the U.S. government. The disparities in burden of disease in Michigan are striking. Detroit has a death rate more than three times the state average. Our recommendation to the state was that it should prioritize the communities that bear (...)
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  24. Fair allocation of scarce therapies for COVID-19.Govind Persad, Monica E. Peek & Seema K. Shah - 2021 - Clinical Infectious Diseases 18:ciab1039.
    The U.S. FDA has issued emergency use authorizations for monoclonal antibodies for non-hospitalized patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 disease and for individuals exposed to COVID-19 as post-exposure prophylaxis. One EUA for an oral antiviral drug, molnupiravir, has also been recommended by FDA’s Antimicrobial Drugs Advisory Committee, and others appear likely in the near future. Due to increased demand because of the Delta variant, the federal government resumed control over the supply and asked states to ration doses. As future variants (...)
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  25. Ethical heuristics for pandemic allocation of ventilators across hospitals.César Palacios-González, Jonathan Pugh, Dominic Wilkinson & Julian Savulescu - 2022 - Developing World Bioethics 22 (1):34-43.
    In response to the COVID‐19 pandemic philosophers and governments have proposed scarce resource allocation guidelines. Their purpose is to advise healthcare professionals on how to ethically allocate scarce medical resources. One challenging feature of the pandemic has been the large numbers of patients needing mechanical ventilatory support. Guidelines have paradigmatically focused on the question of what doctors should do if they have fewer ventilators than patients who need respiratory support: which patient should get the ventilator? There is, however, (...)
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  26. Nurse time as a scarce health care resource.Donna Dickenson - 1994 - In Geoffrey Hunt (ed.), Ethical issues in nursing. London: Routledge. pp. 207-217.
    For a long time, discussion about scarce health care resource allocation was limited to allocation of medical resources, with the paradigmatic case being kidney transplants. This narrow focus on medical resource prevents us from seeing that there are many cases-- perhaps even the majority--in which time is the real scarce resource, particularly nurse time. What ethical principles should apply to nurse time as a scarce health care resource?
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  27. Is efficiency ethical? Resource issues in health care.Donna Dickenson - 1995 - In Brenda Almond (ed.), Introducing Applied Ethics. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 229-246.
    How can we allocate scarce health care resources justly? In particular, are markets the most efficient way to deliver health services? Much blood, sweat and ink has been shed over this issue, but rarely has either faction challenged the unspoken assumption behind the claim made by advocates of markets: that efficiency advances the interests of both individuals and society. Whether markets actually do increase efficiency is arguably a matter for economists, but the deeper ethical question is whether efficiency is the (...)
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  28. Fair domestic allocation of monkeypox virus countermeasures.Govind Persad, R. J. Leland, Trygve Ottersen, Henry S. Richardson, Carla Saenz, G. Owen Schaefer & Ezekiel J. Emanuel - 2023 - Lancet Public Health 8 (5):e378–e382.
    Countermeasures for mpox (formerly known as monkeypox), primarily vaccines, have been in limited supply in many countries during outbreaks. Equitable allocation of scarce resources during public health emergencies is a complex challenge. Identifying the objectives and core values for the allocation of mpox countermeasures, using those values to provide guidance for priority groups and prioritisation tiers, and optimising allocation implementation are important. The fundamental values for the allocation of mpox countermeasures are: preventing death and illness; reducing (...)
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  29. Knowledge Resource Inequality.Sidharta Chatterjee - 2021 - IUP Journal of Knowledge Management 19 (3):49-75.
    Inequality is an effect of much concern for economists and policy makers. Inequality gives rise to poverty, a phenomenon still troubling the world economy, characterized by a gap wherein the standard deviation between the rich and the poor is too high. Various factors are attributed to the growing inequality, but one which is often overlooked is misallocation of knowledge resources. In this paper, we reinforce the concept of knowledge as being a capital resource. Following this, by using a simple (...)
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  30. The Case for Resource Sensitivity: Why It Is Ethical to Provide Cheaper, Less Effective Treatments in Global Health.Govind C. Persad & Ezekiel J. Emanuel - 2017 - Hastings Center Report 47 (5):17-24.
    We consider an ethical dilemma in global health: is it ethically acceptable to provide some patients cheaper treatments that are less effective or more toxic than the treatments other patients receive? We argue that it is ethical to consider local resource constraints when deciding what interventions to provide. The provision of cheaper, less effective health care is frequently the most effective way of promoting health and realizing the ethical values of utility, equality, and priority to the worst off.
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  31. Are Indirect Benefits Relevant to Health Care Allocation Decisions?Jessica Du Toit & Joseph Millum - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (5):540-557.
    When allocating scarce healthcare resources, the expected benefits of alternative allocations matter. But, there are different kinds of benefits. Some are direct benefits to the recipient of the resource such as the health improvements of receiving treatment. Others are indirect benefits to third parties such as the economic gains from having a healthier workforce. This article considers whether only the direct benefits of alternative healthcare resource allocations are relevant to allocation decisions, or whether indirect benefits are relevant (...)
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  32. Public Preferences about Fairness and the Ethics of Allocating Scarce Medical Interventions.Govind Persad - 2017 - In Meng Li & David P. Tracer (eds.), Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Fairness, Equity, and Justice. Springer. pp. 51-65.
    This chapter examines how social- scientific research on public preferences bears on the ethical question of how those resources should in fact be allocated, and explain how social-scientific researchers might find an understanding of work in ethics useful as they design mechanisms for data collection and analysis. I proceed by first distinguishing the methodologies of social science and ethics. I then provide an overview of different approaches to the ethics of allocating scarce medical interventions, including an approach—the complete lives system—which (...)
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  33. A Multicenter Weighted Lottery to Equitably Allocate Scarce COVID-19 Therapeutics.D. B. White, E. K. McCreary, C. H. Chang, M. Schmidhofer, J. R. Bariola, N. N. Jonassaint, Parag A. Pathak, G. Persad, R. D. Truog, T. Sonmez & M. Utku Unver - 2022 - American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 206 (4):503–506.
    Shortages of new therapeutics to treat coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have forced clinicians, public health officials, and health systems to grapple with difficult questions about how to fairly allocate potentially life-saving treatments when there are not enough for all patients in need (1). Shortages have occurred with remdesivir, tocilizumab, monoclonal antibodies, and the oral antiviral Paxlovid (2) -/- Ensuring equitable allocation is especially important in light of the disproportionate burden experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic by disadvantaged groups, including Black, Hispanic/Latino (...)
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  34. e-AIMSS (Electronic Asset Inventory and Management System in School) for Resource Optimization and Organizational Productivity.Antonio C. Ahmad - 2023 - International Journal of Multidisciplinary Educational Research and Innovation 1 (3):109-120.
    This capstone is centered around the development of an efficient electronic property inventory system tailored for school assets, driven by the overarching objective of resource optimization to ensure equitable access to vital materials for all learners. The methodology follows the “ISSO” framework (Ignite, Strategize, Systematize, Operationalize), complemented by a Logical Framework. The project employs a homegrown digitalized system constructed through a waterfall model approach, which undergoes alpha and beta testing. The study’s analysis utilizes a t-Test to evaluate its impact. (...)
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  35. Climate Change and the Moral Significance of Historical Injustice in Natural Resource Governance.Megan Blomfield - 2015 - In Aaron Maltais & Catriona McKinnon (eds.), The Ethics of Climate Governance.
    In discussions about responsibility for climate change, it is often suggested that the historical use of natural resources is in some way relevant to our current attempts to address this problem fairly. In particular, both theorists and actors in the public realm have argued that historical high-emitters of greenhouse gases (GHGs) – or the beneficiaries of those emissions – are in possession of some form of debt, deriving from their overuse of a natural resource that should have been shared (...)
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  36. Equal Deeds, Different Needs – Need, Accountability, and Resource Availability in Third-Party Distribution Decisions.Alexander Max Bauer & Jan Romann - 2020 - In Joshua Knobe & Shaun Nichols (eds.), The Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    We present a vignette study conducted with a quota sample of the German population (n = 400). Subjects had to redistribute a good between two hypothetical persons who contributed equally to the available amount but differed in quantity needed and the reason for their neediness. On a within-subjects level, we tested for the effects of need, accountability, and resource availability on their third-party distribution decisions. Between subjects, we further varied the kinds of needs: The persons either needed the good (...)
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  37. Priority-setting in international non-governmental organizations: it is not as easy as ABCD.Lisa Fuller - 2012 - Journal of Global Ethics 8 (1):5-17.
    Recently theorists have demonstrated a growing interest in the ethical aspects of resource allocation in international non-governmental humanitarian, development and human rights organizations (INGOs). This article provides an analysis of Thomas Pogge's proposal for how international human rights organizations ought to choose which projects to fund. Pogge's allocation principle states that an INGO should govern its decision making about candidate projects by such rules and procedures as are expected to maximize its long-run cost-effectiveness, defined as the expected (...)
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  38. Rationing, Responsibility, and Vaccination During COVID-19: A Conceptual Map.Jin K. Park & Ben Davies - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics:1-14.
    Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, shortages of scarce healthcare resources consistently presented significant moral and practical challenges. While the importance of vaccines as a key pharmaceutical intervention to stem pandemic scarcity was widely publicized, a sizable proportion of the population chose not to vaccinate. In response, some have defended the use of vaccination status as a criterion for the allocation of scarce medical resources. In this paper, we critically interpret this burgeoning literature, and describe a framework for thinking about vaccine-sensitive (...)
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  39. Health Research Priority Setting: The Duties of Individual Funders.Leah Pierson & Joseph Millum - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (11):6-17.
    The vast majority of health research resources are used to study conditions that affect a small, advantaged portion of the global population. This distribution has been widely criticized as inequitable and threatens to exacerbate health disparities. However, there has been little systematic work on what individual health research funders ought to do in response. In this article, we analyze the general and special duties of research funders to the different populations that might benefit from health research. We assess how these (...)
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  40. If You’re a Rawlsian, How Come You’re So Close to Utilitarianism and Intuitionism? A Critique of Daniels’s Accountability for Reasonableness.Gabriele Badano - 2018 - Health Care Analysis 26 (1):1-16.
    Norman Daniels’s theory of ‘accountability for reasonableness’ is an influential conception of fairness in healthcare resource allocation. Although it is widely thought that this theory provides a consistent extension of John Rawls’s general conception of justice, this paper shows that accountability for reasonableness has important points of contact with both utilitarianism and intuitionism, the main targets of Rawls’s argument. My aim is to demonstrate that its overlap with utilitarianism and intuitionism leaves accountability for reasonableness open to damaging critiques. (...)
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  41. Should Pediatric Patients Be Prioritized When Rationing Life-Saving Treatments During the COVID-19 Pandemic.Ryan M. Antiel, Farr A. Curlin, Govind Persad, Douglas B. White, Cathy Zhang, Aaron Glickman, Ezekiel J. Emanuel & John Lantos - 2020 - Pediatrics 146 (3):e2020012542.
    Coronavirus disease 2019 can lead to respiratory failure. Some patients require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. During the current pandemic, health care resources in some cities have been overwhelmed, and doctors have faced complex decisions about resource allocation. We present a case in which a pediatric hospital caring for both children and adults seeks to establish guidelines for the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation if there are not enough resources to treat every patient. Experts in critical care, end-of-life care, (...)
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  42. Health Research Priority Setting: Do Grant Review Processes Reflect Ethical Principles?Leah Pierson & Joseph Millum - forthcoming - Global Public Health.
    Most public and non-profit organisations that fund health research provide the majority of their funding in the form of grants. The calls for grant applications are often untargeted, such that a wide variety of applications may compete for the same funding. The grant review process therefore plays a critical role in determining how limited research resources are allocated. Despite this, little attention has been paid to whether grant review criteria align with widely endorsed ethical criteria for allocating health research resources. (...)
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  43. Setting priorities fairly in response to Covid-19: identifying overlapping consensus and reasonable disagreement.David Wasserman, Govind Persad & Joseph Millum - 2020 - Journal of Law and the Biosciences 1 (1):doi:10.1093/jlb/lsaa044.
    Proposals for allocating scarce lifesaving resources in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic have aligned in some ways and conflicted in others. This paper attempts a kind of priority setting in addressing these conflicts. In the first part, we identify points on which we do not believe that reasonable people should differ—even if they do. These are (i) the inadequacy of traditional clinical ethics to address priority-setting in a pandemic; (ii) the relevance of saving lives; (iii) the flaws of first-come, (...)
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  44. Modelling Combinatorial Auctions in Linear Logic.Daniele Porello & Ulle Endriss - 2010 - In Daniele Porello & Ulle Endriss (eds.), Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference, {KR} 2010, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 9-13, 2010.
    We show that linear logic can serve as an expressive framework in which to model a rich variety of combinatorial auction mechanisms. Due to its resource-sensitive nature, linear logic can easily represent bids in combinatorial auctions in which goods may be sold in multiple units, and we show how it naturally generalises several bidding languages familiar from the literature. Moreover, the winner determination problem, i.e., the problem of computing an allocation of goods to bidders producing a certain amount (...)
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  45. How not to count the health benefits of family planning.Jacob Zionts & Joseph Millum - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 1:1-4.
    Several influential organisations have attempted to quantify the costs and benefits of expanding access to interventions-like contraceptives-that are expected to decrease the number of pregnancies. Such health economic evaluations can be invaluable to those making decisions about how to allocate scarce resources for health. Yet how the benefits should be measured depends on controversial value judgments. One such value judgment is found in recent analyses from the Disease Control Priority Network (DCPN) and the Study Group for the Global Investment Framework (...)
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  46. Why should HCWs receive priority access to vaccines in a pandemic?Xavier Symons, Steve Matthews & Bernadette Tobin - 2021 - BMC Medical Ethics 22 (1):1-9.
    BackgroundViral pandemics present a range of ethical challenges for policy makers, not the least among which are difficult decisions about how to allocate scarce healthcare resources. One important question is whether healthcare workers should receive priority access to a vaccine in the event that an effective vaccine becomes available. This question is especially relevant in the coronavirus pandemic with governments and health authorities currently facing questions of distribution of COVID-19 vaccines.Main textIn this article, we critically evaluate the most common ethical (...)
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  47. Expanding Deliberation in Critical-Care Policy Design.Govind C. Persad - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (1):60-63.
    In this commentary, I suggest expanding the deliberative aspects of critical care policy development in two ways. First, critical-care policy development should expand the scope of deliberation by leaving fewer issues up to expertise or private choice. For instance. it should allow deliberation about the relevance of age, disability, social position, and psychological well-being to allocation decisions. Second, it should broaden both the set of costs considered and the set of stakeholders represented in the deliberative process. In particular, it (...)
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  48. Balancing small against large burdens.Alex Voorhoeve - 2018 - Behavioural Public Policy 2 (1):125-142.
    Common principles for resource allocation in health care can prioritize the alleviation of small health burdens over lifesaving treatment. I argue that there is some evidence that these principles are at odds with a sizable share of public opinion, which holds that saving a life should take priority over any number of cures for minor ailments. I propose two possible explanations for this opinion, one debunking and one vindicatory. I also outline how well-designed surveys and moral inquiry could (...)
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  49. Systemising Triage: COVID-19 Guidelines and Their Underlying Theories of Distributive Justice.Lukas J. Meier - 2022 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 25 (4):703-714.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has been overwhelming public health-care systems around the world. With demand exceeding the availability of medical resources in several regions, hospitals have been forced to invoke triage. To ensure that this difficult task proceeds in a fair and organised manner, governments scrambled experts to draft triage guidelines under enormous time pressure. Although there are similarities between the documents, they vary considerably in how much weight their respective authors place on the different criteria that they propose. Since most (...)
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  50. It’s a Three-Ring Circus: How Morally Educative Practices Are Undermined by Institutions.Ron Beadle & Matthew Sinnicks - forthcoming - Business Ethics Quarterly:1-27.
    Since the publication of Alasdair MacIntyre’s After Virtue in 1981, tensions inherent to the relationship between morally educative practices and the institutions that house them have been widely noted. We propose a taxonomy of the ways in which the pursuit of external goods by institutions undermines the pursuit of the internal goods of practices. These comprise substitution, where the institution replaces the pursuit of one type of good by another; frustration, where opportunities for practitioners to discover goods or develop new (...)
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