Results for 'Tapan Kumar Das Gupta'

856 found
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  1. Von Kant Zu Bastian Ein Beitrag Zum Verstèandnis des Wissenschaftlichen Konzepts von Adolf Bastian Mit Vier Kleinen Schriften von Demselben.Tapan Kumar Das Gupta & Adolf Bastian - 1990 - T.K. Das Gupta.
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  2.  33
    Experimental Research to Optimize Process Parameters in Machining of Non Conducting Material with Hybrid Non Conconventional Machining.Vikrant Sharma & Sunil Kumar - 2017 - International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development 1 (4):107-116.
    Among all non conventional micro machining, electrochemical discharge machining ECDM is having high quality of material removal rate with zero residual stress. This machining has been accepted as a highly modern technology in micromachining. In this paper an effort has been done on micro drilling of glass using electrochemical discharge machining ECDM . A fixed tool and a step down transformer have been used to support the steady machining to increase the accuracy of work piece. The input parameters used in (...)
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  3.  20
    Experimental Research Work to Optimize Process Parameters Into Electro Chemical Abrasive Flow Machining Using Taguchi Methodology.Sandeep Singh & Sunil Kumar - 2017 - International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development 1 (4):22-29.
    Electrochemical assisted abrasive flow finishing is a newly developed hybrid finishing process which is used to finish the internal parts of work piece having complicated geometry to large extent. In electrochemical assisted abrasive flow machining higher abrasion of the material was detected due to the combine effect of ECM and AFF processes. In Electrochemical aided abrasive flow machining a electrolyte is added to the prepared media .This media consist a kind of polymeric carrier and abrasive particles that are hydrocarbon gel, (...)
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  4. Rural Green Marketing: Challenges and Opportunities in India.Indal Kumar - 2014 - SOCRATES 2 (JUNE 2014):194-203.
    Rural Green Marketing: Challenges and Opportunities in India -/- Author / Authors : Indal Kumar Page no.194-203 Discipline : Applied Economics/ Management/ Commerce Script/language : English/Roman Category : Research paper Keywords: Rural Green Product, Environmentally safe of rural market, opportunities and challenges of Green Marketing.
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  5. Moral Reasoning and Emotion.Joshua May & Victor Kumar - 2018 - In Karen Jones, Mark Timmons & Aaron Zimmerman (eds.), Routledge Handbook on Moral Epistemology. Routledge. pp. 139-156.
    This chapter discusses contemporary scientific research on the role of reason and emotion in moral judgment. The literature suggests that moral judgment is influenced by both reasoning and emotion separately, but there is also emerging evidence of the interaction between the two. While there are clear implications for the rationalism-sentimentalism debate, we conclude that important questions remain open about how central emotion is to moral judgment. We also suggest ways in which moral philosophy is not only guided by empirical research (...)
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  6. Overcoming the Legacy of Mistrust: African Americans’ Mistrust of Medical Profession.Marvin J. H. Lee, Kruthika Reddy, Junad Chowdhury, Nishant Kumar, Peter A. Clark, Papa Ndao, Stacey J. Suh & Sarah Song - 2018 - Journal of Healthcare Ethics and Administration 4 (1):16-40.
    Recent studies show that racism still exists in the American medical profession, the fact of which legitimizes the historically long-legacy of mistrust towards medical profession and health authorities among African Americans. Thus, it was suspected that the participation of black patients in end-of-life care has always been significantly low stemmed primarily from their mistrust of the medical profession. On the other hand, much research finds that there are other reasons than the mistrust which makes African Americans feel reluctant to the (...)
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  7. How to Debunk Moral Beliefs.Victor Kumar & Joshua May - 2019 - In Jussi Suikkanen & Antti Kauppinen (eds.), Methodology and Moral Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 25-48.
    Arguments attempting to debunk moral beliefs, by showing they are unjustified, have tended to be global, targeting all moral beliefs or a large set of them. Popular debunking arguments point to various factors purportedly influencing moral beliefs, from evolutionary pressures, to automatic and emotionally-driven processes, to framing effects. We show that these sweeping arguments face a debunker’s dilemma: either the relevant factor is not a main basis for belief or it does not render the relevant beliefs unjustified. Empirical debunking arguments (...)
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  8. Conditionals in Theories of Truth.Anil Gupta & Shawn Standefer - 2017 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 46 (1):27-63.
    We argue that distinct conditionals—conditionals that are governed by different logics—are needed to formalize the rules of Truth Introduction and Truth Elimination. We show that revision theory, when enriched with the new conditionals, yields an attractive theory of truth. We go on to compare this theory with one recently proposed by Hartry Field.
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  9. On the Application of Formal Principles to Life Science Data: A Case Study in the Gene Ontology.Jacob Köhler, Anand Kumar & Barry Smith - 2004 - In Proceedings of DILS 2004 (Data Integration in the Life Sciences), (Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 2994). Berlin: Springer. pp. 79-94.
    Formal principles governing best practices in classification and definition have for too long been neglected in the construction of biomedical ontologies, in ways which have important negative consequences for data integration and ontology alignment. We argue that the use of such principles in ontology construction can serve as a valuable tool in error-detection and also in supporting reliable manual curation. We argue also that such principles are a prerequisite for the successful application of advanced data integration techniques such as ontology-based (...)
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  10. Ontology-Based Error Detection in SNOMED-CT.Werner Ceusters, Barry Smith, Anand Kumar & Christoffel Dhaen - 2004 - Proceedings of Medinfo 2004:482-6.
    Quality assurance in large terminologies is a difficult issue. We present two algorithms that can help terminology developers and users to identify potential mistakes. We demon­strate the methodology by outlining the different types of mistakes that are found when the algorithms are applied to SNOMED-CT. On the basis of the results, we argue that both formal logical and linguistic tools should be used in the development and quality-assurance process of large terminologies.
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  11. Controlled Vocabularies in Bioinformatics: A Case Study in the Gene Ontology.Barry Smith & Anand Kumar - 2004 - Drug Discovery Today: Biosilico 2 (6):246-252.
    The automatic integration of information resources in the life sciences is one of the most challenging goals facing biomedical informatics today. Controlled vocabularies have played an important role in realizing this goal, by making it possible to draw together information from heterogeneous sources secure in the knowledge that the same terms will also represent the same entities on all occasions of use. One of the most impressive achievements in this regard is the Gene Ontology (GO), which is rapidly acquiring the (...)
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  12. Oncology Ontology in the NCI Thesaurus.Anand Kumar & Barry Smith - 2005 - Artificial Intelligence in Medicine:213-220.
    The National Cancer Institute’s Thesaurus (NCIT) has been created with the goal of providing a controlled vocabulary which can be used by specialists in the various sub-domains of oncology. It is intended to be used for purposes of annotation in ways designed to ensure the integration of data and information deriving from these various sub-domains, and thus to support more powerful cross-domain inferences. In order to evaluate its suitability for this purpose, we examined the NCIT’s treatment of the kinds of (...)
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  13.  67
    Investigating Subsumption in DL-Based Terminologies: A Case Study in SNOMED CT.Olivier Bodenreider, Barry Smith, Anand Kumar & Anita Burgun - 2004 - In Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Formal Biomedical Knowledge Representation (KR-MED 2004). pp. 12-20.
    Formalisms such as description logics (DL) are sometimes expected to help terminologies ensure compliance with sound ontological principles. The objective of this paper is to study the degree to which one DL-based biomedical terminology (SNOMED CT) complies with such principles. We defined seven ontological principles (for example: each class must have at least one parent, each class must differ from its parent) and examined the properties of SNOMED CT classes with respect to these principles. Our major results are: 31% of (...)
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  14.  81
    Mistakes in Medical Ontologies: Where Do They Come From and How Can They Be Detected?Werner Ceusters, Barry Smith, Anand Kumar & Christoffel Dhaen - 2004 - Studies in Health and Technology Informatics 102:145-164.
    We present the details of a methodology for quality assurance in large medical terminologies and describe three algorithms that can help terminology developers and users to identify potential mistakes. The methodology is based in part on linguistic criteria and in part on logical and ontological principles governing sound classifications. We conclude by outlining the results of applying the methodology in the form of a taxonomy different types of errors and potential errors detected in SNOMED-CT.
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  15. The Unified Medical Language System and the Gene Ontology: Some Critical Reflections.Anand Kumar & Barry Smith - 2003 - In A. Günter, R. Kruse & B. Neumann (eds.), KI 2003: Advances in Artificial Intelligence. Berlin: Springer. pp. 135-148.
    The Unified Medical Language System and the Gene Ontology are among the most widely used terminology resources in the biomedical domain. However, when we evaluate them in the light of simple principles for wellconstructed ontologies we find a number of characteristic inadequacies. Employing the theory of granular partitions, a new approach to the understanding of ontologies and of the relationships ontologies bear to instances in reality, we provide an application of this theory in relation to an example drawn from the (...)
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  16. Revising the UMLS Semantic Network.Steffen Schulze-Kremer, Barry Smith & Anand Kumar - 2004 - In MedInfo.
    The integration of standardized biomedical terminologies into a single, unified knowledge representation system has formed a key area of applied informatics research in recent years. The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is the most advanced and most prominent effort in this direction, bringing together within its Metathesaurus a large number of distinct source-terminologies. The UMLS Semantic Network, which is designed to support the integration of these source-terminologies, has proved to be a highly successful combination of formal coherence and broad scope. (...)
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  17. A Strategy for Improving and Integrating Biomedical Ontologies.Cornelius Rosse, Anand Kumar, Jose L. V. Mejino, Daniel L. Cook, Landon T. Detwiler & Barry Smith - 2005 - In Proceedings of the Annual Symposium of the American Medical Informatics Association. AMIA. pp. 639-643.
    The integration of biomedical terminologies is indispensable to the process of information integration. When terminologies are linked merely through the alignment of their leaf terms, however, differences in context and ontological structure are ignored. Making use of the SNAP and SPAN ontologies, we show how three reference domain ontologies can be integrated at a higher level, through what we shall call the OBR framework (for: Ontology of Biomedical Reality). OBR is designed to facilitate inference across the boundaries of domain ontologies (...)
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  18. Towards a Proteomics Meta-Classification.Anand Kumar & Barry Smith - 2004 - In IEEE Fourth Symposium on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering, Taichung, Taiwan. IEEE Press. pp. 419–427.
    that can serve as a foundation for more refined ontologies in the field of proteomics. Standard data sources classify proteins in terms of just one or two specific aspects. Thus SCOP (Structural Classification of Proteins) is described as classifying proteins on the basis of structural features; SWISSPROT annotates proteins on the basis of their structure and of parameters like post-translational modifications. Such data sources are connected to each other by pairwise term-to-term mappings. However, there are obstacles which stand in the (...)
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  19. Bridging the Gap Between Medical and Bioinformatics: An Ontological Case Study in Colon Carcinoma.Anand Kumar, Yum Lina Yip, Barry Smith & Pierre Grenon - 2006 - Computers in Biology and Medicine 36 (7):694--711.
    Ontological principles are needed in order to bridge the gap between medical and biological information in a robust and computable fashion. This is essential in order to draw inferences across the levels of granularity which span medicine and biology, an example of which include the understanding of the roles of tumor markers in the development and progress of carcinoma. Such information integration is also important for the integration of genomics information with the information contained in the electronic patient records in (...)
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  20. Context-Based Task Ontologies for Clinical Guidelines.Anand Kumar, Paolo Ciccarese, Barry Smith & Matteo Piazza - 2004 - In D. Pisanelli (ed.), Ontologies in Medicine: Proceedings of the Workshop on Medical Ontologies, Rome October 2003 (Studies in Health and Technology Informatics, 102). Amsterdam: IOS Press. pp. 81-94.
    Evidence-based medicine relies on the execution of clinical practice guidelines and protocols. A great deal of of effort has been invested in the development of various tools which automate the representation and execution of the recommendations contained within such guidelines and protocols by creating Computer Interpretable Guideline Models (CIGMs). Context-based task ontologies (CTOs), based on standard terminology systems like UMLS, form one of the core components of such a model. We have created DAML+OIL-based CTOs for the tasks mentioned in the (...)
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  21. Ontology for Task-Based Clinical Guidelines and the Theory of Granular Partitions.Anand Kumar & Barry Smith - 2003 - In Proceedings of 9th Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Europe (AIME 2003). Berlin: Springer. pp. 71-75.
    The theory of granular partitions (TGP) is a new approach to the understanding of ontologies and other classificatory systems. The paper explores the use of this new theory in the treatment of task-based clinical guidelines as a means for better understanding the relations between different clinical tasks, both within the framework of a single guideline and between related guidelines. We used as our starting point a DAML+OIL-based ontology for the WHO guideline for hypertension management, comparing this with related guidelines and (...)
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  22. Finite Circular Definitions.Anil Gupta - 2006 - In Thomas Bolander, Vincent F. Hendricks & Stig Andur Andersen (eds.), Self-Reference. CSLI Publications. pp. 79-93.
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  23.  98
    Investigating Subsumption in SNOMED CT: An Exploration Into Large Description Logic-Based Biomedical Terminologies.Olivier Bodenreider, Barry Smith, Anand Kumar & Anita Burgun - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 39 (3):183-195.
    Formalisms based on one or other flavor of Description Logic (DL) are sometimes put forward as helping to ensure that terminologies and controlled vocabularies comply with sound ontological principles. The objective of this paper is to study the degree to which one DL-based biomedical terminology (SNOMED CT) does indeed comply with such principles. We defined seven ontological principles (for example: each class must have at least one parent, each class must differ from its parent) and examined the properties of SNOMED (...)
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  24.  49
    Processing of Sub- and Supra-Second Intervals in the Primate Brain Results From the Calibration of Neuronal Oscillators Via Sensory, Motor, and Feedback Processes.Daya S. Gupta - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    The processing of time intervals in the sub- to supra-second range by the brain is critical for the interaction of primates with their surroundings in activities, such as foraging and hunting. For an accurate processing of time intervals by the brain, representation of physical time within neuronal circuits is necessary. I propose that time dimension of the physical surrounding is represented in the brain by different types of neuronal oscillators, generating spikes or spike bursts at regular intervals. The proposed oscillators (...)
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  25.  53
    Dependence Relationships Between Gene Ontology Terms Based on TIGR Gene Product Annotations.Anand Kumar, Barry Smith & Christian Borgelt - 2004 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop on Computational Terminology 2004:31-38.
    The Gene Ontology is an important tool for the representation and processing of information about gene products and functions. It provides controlled vocabularies for the designations of cellular components, molecular functions, and biological processes used in the annotation of genes and gene products. These constitute three separate ontologies, of cellular components), molecular functions and biological processes, respectively. The question we address here is: how are the terms in these three separate ontologies related to each other? We use statistical methods and (...)
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  26.  60
    Biomedical Informatics and Granularity.Anand Kumar & Barry Smith - 2004 - Comparative and Functional Genomics 5 (6-7):501-508.
    An explicit formal-ontological representation of entities existing at multiple levels of granularity is an urgent requirement for biomedical information processing. We discuss some fundamental principles which can form a basis for such a representation. We also comment on some of the implicit treatments of granularity in currently available ontologies and terminologies (GO, FMA, SNOMED CT).
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  27.  97
    On Carcinomas and Other Pathological Entities.Barry Smith, Anand Kumar, Werner Ceusters & Cornelius Rosse - 2005 - Comparative and Functional Genomics 6 (7/8):379–387.
    Tumors, abscesses, cysts, scars, fractures are familiar types of what we shall call pathological continuant entities. The instances of such types exist always in or on anatomical structures, which thereby become transformed into pathological anatomical structures of corresponding types: a fractured tibia, a blistered thumb, a carcinomatous colon. In previous work on biomedical ontologies we showed how the provision of formal definitions for relations such as is_a, part_of and transformation_of can facilitate the integration of such ontologies in ways which have (...)
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  28.  49
    An Ontology for Carcinoma Classification for Clinical Bioinformatics.Anand Kumar, Yum Lina Yip, Barry Smith, Dirk Marwede & Daniel Novotny - 2005 - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 116 (1):635-640.
    There are a number of existing classifications and staging schemes for carcinomas, one of the most frequently used being the TNM classification. Such classifications represent classes of entities which exist at various anatomical levels of granularity. We argue that in order to apply such representations to the Electronic Health Records one needs sound ontologies which take into consideration the diversity of the domains which are involved in clinical bioinformatics. Here we outline a formal theory for addressing these issues in a (...)
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  29.  44
    Enhancing GO for the Sake of Clinical Bioinformatics.Anand Kumar & Barry Smith - 2004 - Proceedings of the Bio-Ontologies Workshop , Glasgow 133.
    Recent work on the quality assurance of the Gene Ontology (GO, Gene Ontology Consortium 2004) from the perspective of both linguistic and ontological organization has made it clear that GO lacks the kind of formalism needed to support logic-based reasoning. At the same time it is no less clear that GO has proven itself to be an excellent terminological resource that can serve to combine together a variety of biomedical database and information systems. Given the strengths of GO, it is (...)
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  30.  55
    A General Framework for Implementation of Clinical Guidelines by Healthcare Organizations.A. Kumar, Barry Smith, D. M. Pisanelli, A. Gangemi & M. Stefanelli - 2003 - In D. M. Pisanelli (ed.), Ontologies in Medicine: Proceedings of the Workshop on Medical Ontologies (Rome October 2003). Amsterdam: IOS Press. pp. 95-107.
    The paper presents the outlines of an ontology of plans and guidelines, which is then used as the basis for a framework for implementing guideline-based systems for the management of workflow in health care organizations. The framework has a number of special features, above all in that it enables us to represent in formal terms assignments of work-items both to individuals and to teams and to tailor guideline to specific contexts of application in health care organizations. It is designed also (...)
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  31.  39
    A Framework for Protein Classification.Anand Kumar & Barry Smith - 2003 - In Proceedings of the 2003 German Conference on Bioinformatics, Vol. II. pp. 55-57.
    It is widely understood that protein functions can be exhaustively described in terms of no single parameter, whether this be amino acid sequence or the three-dimensional structure of the underlying protein molecule. This means that a number of different attributes must be used to create an ontology of protein functions. Certainly much of the required information is already stored in databases such as Swiss-Prot, Protein Data Bank, SCOP and MIPS. But the latter have been developed for different purposes and the (...)
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  32.  52
    Six Questions on the Construction of Ontologies in Biomedicine.Anand Kumar, A. Burgun, W. Ceusters, J. Cimino, J. Davis, P. Elkin, I. Kalet, A. Rector, J. Rice, J. Rogers, Barry Smith & Others - 2005 - Report of the AMIA Working Group on Formal Biomedical Knowledge Representation 1.
    (Report assembled for the Workshop of the AMIA Working Group on Formal Biomedical Knowledge Representation in connection with AMIA Symposium, Washington DC, 2005.) Best practices in ontology building for biomedicine have been frequently discussed in recent years. However there is a range of seemingly disparate views represented by experts in the field. These views not only reflect the different uses to which ontologies are put, but also the experiences and disciplinary background of these experts themselves. We asked six questions related (...)
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  33.  75
    Anatomical Information Science.Barry Smith, Jose Mejino, Stefan Schulz, Anand Kumar & Cornelius Rosse - 2005 - In A. G. Cohn & D. M. Mark (eds.), Spatial Information Theory. Springer. pp. 149-164.
    The Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) is a map of the human body. Like maps of other sorts – including the map-like representations we find in familiar anatomical atlases – it is a representation of a certain portion of spatial reality as it exists at a certain (idealized) instant of time. But unlike other maps, the FMA comes in the form of a sophisticated ontology of its objectdomain, comprising some 1.5 million statements of anatomical relations among some 70,000 anatomical kinds. (...)
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  34.  47
    Formalizing UMLS Relations Using Semantic Partitions in the Context of a Task-Based Clinical Guidelines Model.Anand Kumar, Matteo Piazza, Barry Smith, Silvana Quaglini & Mario Stefanelli - 2004 - In IFOMIS Reports. Saarbrücken: IFOMIS.
    An important part of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is its Semantic Network, consisting of 134 Semantic Types connected to each other by edges formed by one or more of 54 distinct Relation Types. This Network is however for many purposes overcomplex, and various groups have thus made attempts at simplification. Here we take this work further by simplifying the relations which involve the three Semantic Types – Diagnostic Procedure, Laboratory Procedure and Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure. We define operators (...)
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  35.  28
    On the Proper Treatment of Pathologies in Biomedical Ontologies.Barry Smith & Anand Kumar - 2005 - In Proceedings of the Bio-Ontologies Workshop, Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB 2005). Detroit: pp. 22-23.
    In previous work on biomedical ontologies we showed how the provision of formal definitions for relations such as is_a and part_of can support new types of auto-mated reasoning about biomedical phenomena. We here extend this approach to the transformation_of characteristic of pathologies.
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  36.  39
    Clinical Guidelines as Plans: An Ontological Theory.Anand Kumar, Barry Smith, Domenica Pisanelli, Aldo Gangemi & Mario Stefanelli - 2006 - Methods of Information in Medicine 45 (2):204-210.
    Clinical guidelines are special types of plans realized by collective agents. We provide an ontological theory of such plans that is designed to support the construction of a framework in which guideline-based information systems can be employed in the management of workflow in health care organizations. The framework we propose allows us to represent in formal terms how clinical guidelines are realized through the actions of are realized through the actions of individuals organized into teams. We provide various levels of (...)
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  37.  37
    Implementing Clinical Guidelines in an Organizational Setup.Anand Kumar, Barry Smith, Mario Stefanelli, Silvana Quaglini & Matteo Piazza - 2003 - In Proceedings of the Workshop on Model-Based and Qualitative Reasoning in Biomedicine, AIME . pp. 39-44.
    Outcomes research in healthcare has been a topic much addressed in recent years. Efforts in this direction have been supplemented by work in the areas of guidelines for clinical practice and computer-interpretable workflow and careflow models.In what follows we present the outlines of a framework for understanding the relations between organizations, guidelines, individual patients and patient-related functions. The derived framework provides a means to extract the knowledge contained in the guideline text at different granularities, in ways that can help us (...)
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  38. The Ontology of Blood Pressure: A Case Study in Creating Ontological Partitions in Biomedicine.Anand Kumar & Barry Smith - 2003 - IFOMIS Reports.
    We provide a methodology for the creation of ontological partitions in biomedicine and we test the methodology via an application to the phenomenon of blood pressure. An ontology of blood pressure must do justice to the complex networks of intersecting pathways in the organism by which blood pressure is regulated. To this end it must deal not only with the anatomical structures and physiological processes involved in such regulation but also with the relations between these at different levels of granularity. (...)
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  39. Basic Formal Ontology for Bioinformatics.Barry Smith, Anand Kumar & Thomas Bittner - 2005 - IFOMIS Reports.
    Two senses of ‘ontology’ can be distinguished in the current literature. First is the sense favored by information scientists, who view ontologies as software implementations designed to capture in some formal way the consensus conceptualization shared by those working on information systems or databases in a given domain. [Gruber 1993] Second is the sense favored by philosophers, who regard ontologies as theories of different types of entities (objects, processes, relations, functions) [Smith 2003]. Where information systems ontologists seek to maximize reasoning (...)
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  40.  14
    Translation: Shri Arvind Ka Shiksha Darshan.K. K. Sharma, Saroj Sobti, Ramesh Kumar Parwa, Suresh Kumar & Desh Raj Sirswal - 2010 - Ambala Cantt.: Centre for Sri Aurobindo Studies.
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  41. Changing Views at Banaras Hindu University on the Academic Study of Religion: A First Report From an on-Going Research Project.Åke Sander, Clemens Cavallin & Sushil Kumar - 2016 - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 6 (1):107-142.
    Given India’s vibrant religious landscape, there is a somewhat surprising paucity of depart‐ ments, centres or even programs for the academic study of religion. This article discusses this issue based on the preliminary results of an interview study conducted at Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi, India, in 2014 and 20 Its focus is on the views of university teachers and researchers concerning the place, role and function of religion and religious stud‐ ies at BHU. Twenty‐eight semi‐structured interviews were conducted. In (...)
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  42. Rural Development with Special Reference to Drinking Water, Health and Agriculture in India.Shailendra Kumar - 2014 - SOCRATES 2 (1):210-221.
    Rural India comprises 73 %of the country’s population, but its share in the total national income is less than 45 %. The rural sector is characterized by low income levels, poor quality of life and a weak human capital-base. There are many problems in rural India related with the health, agriculture & drinking water. Generally rural public health facilities across the country are having a difficult time attracting, retaining, and ensuring regular presence of highly trained medical professionals. The higher the (...)
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  43. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON MEASUREMENT OF EMPLOYEE's SATISFACTION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO AREVA, ALLAHABAD.Indal Kumar - 2014 - SOCRATES 2 (1):222-233.
    This study has been done to measure the satisfaction level of employees with special reference to AREVA, Allahabad. Nowadays scenario has been changed to sustain in such a competitive market. It is very important to retain good employees that contribute towards the achievement of organizational goal and employee’s satisfaction as well. The research papers highlight some of these problems and present a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of AREVA Companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction (...)
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  44. Histórias das ciências e os “fundamentos históricos” da Psicologia.Marcio Luiz - 2018 - Temporalidades 10 (1):129-158.
    RESUMO: O presente texto põe algumas questões referentes à “história” dos fundamentos da Psicologia entre os séculos XIX e XX, mostrando como ocorrem ainda, em História da Psicologia, certos fatores controversos, muitos deles tributários de postulados filosóficos do século XIX, especialmente em torno do positivismo. O artigo concentra-se em mostrar, preliminarmente, de que forma a ruptura da Filosofia Natural e a ascensão da figura do “cientista” no século XIX ensejaram novos motivos de análise, dentre eles certo cientificismo que se impôs (...)
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  45. Gupta’s Gambit.Selim Berker - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 152 (1):17-39.
    After summarizing the essential details of Anil Gupta’s account of perceptual justification in his book _Empiricism and Experience_, I argue for three claims: (1) Gupta’s proposal is closer to rationalism than advertised; (2) there is a major lacuna in Gupta’s account of how convergence in light of experience yields absolute entitlements to form beliefs; and (3) Gupta has not adequately explained how ordinary courses of experience can lead to convergence on a commonsense view of the world.
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  46.  64
    Warum das Gettier-Problem kein Scheinproblem ist.Sven Bernecker - 2013 - In Gerhard Ernst & Lisa Marani (eds.), Das Gettierproblem: Eine Bilanz nach 50 Jahren. Paderborn, Germany: Mentis. pp. 29-48.
    Wie der Titel des Aufsatzes bereits signalisiert, werde ich dafür argumentieren, dass das Gettier-Problem ein genuines Problem ist, keines, das sich lediglich einer falschen Fragestellung verdankt. Versuche, das Gettier-Problem aufzulösen statt zu lösen, sind zum Scheitern verurteilt. In den ersten beiden Abschnitten wird eine Typologisierung von Gettier-Fällen vorgenommen und zwischen zwei Lesarten des Gettier-Problems unterschieden. Im dritten Abschnitt werden einige Auflösungsversuche des Gettier-Problems der kritischen Prüfung unterzogen. Der vierte Abschnitt diskutiert die reliabilistische Antwort auf das Gettier-Problem. Es wird gezeigt, dass (...)
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  47. Meister Eckhart, der "Seelengrund", und das Verständnis von Bewusstsein.Alfred Gierer - 2019 - In Wissenschaftliches Denken, das Rätsel Bewusstsein und pro-religiöse Ideen. Würzburg, Germany: Königshausen&Neumann. pp. 61-64.
    An English translation of the essay and an extended introduction are included in the download. In diesem Essay geht es um ein religionsfreundliches Selbst- und Weltverständnis, das die Reichweite der menschlichen Vernunft ebenso wie deren intrinsische Grenzen achtet. In dem weiten Feld wählen wir hier Betrachtungen des mittelalterlichen Philosophen und Theologen Meister Eckhart aus. Eckhart (ca.1260-1338) gilt vielen als Mystiker, anderen als Philosophen des Christentums. Er war wohl Beides. Philosophisch ist seine Lehre, die einzelne menschliche Seele habe einen göttlichen, unvergänglichen (...)
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  48. Was lehrt uns das Gettier-Problem über das Verhältnis zwischen Intuitionen und Begriffsanalysen?Geert Keil - 2013 - In Gerhard Ernst & Lisa Marani (eds.), Das Gettierproblem. Eine Bilanz nach 50 Jahren. Mentis. pp. 107-144.
    Der Beitrag beleuchtet einen bisher kaum gewürdigten Grund dafür, dass die Gettier-Debatte nicht zu einer systematisch verbesserten Analyse des Wissensbegriffs geführt hat. Es wird die These entwickelt und verteidigt, dass diejenigen Komplikationen, die einen Gettierfall zu einem solchen machen, sich stets in den blinden Flecken der Situationsrepräsentation des epistemischen Subjekts befinden. Diese These ist in die metaphilosophische Fragestellung eingebettet, was das Gettierproblem uns über das Verhältnis von sprachlichen Intuitionen und Begriffsanalysen lehrt. Es gibt unter kompetenten Sprechern beträchtliche Einmütigkeit darüber, dass (...)
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  49. Replies to Brewer, Gupta, and McDowell.Susanna Siegel - 2019 - Philosophical Issues 29 (1):403-410.
    "The Uneasy Heirs of Acquaintance" is my first-round contribution to a 4-way exchange with Bill Brewer, Anil Gupta, and John McDowell. In the first round, each of us writes a commentary on the other three, and in the second round we reply to each other's first-round contributions. This is my second-round contribution.
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  50.  83
    A metaphysics of the laws of nature / Uma metafísica das leis da natureza.Rodrigo Cid - 2016 - In Lúcio Marques & Maurício Reis (eds.), Entre o ser e o não-ser. Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil:
    Antes de começarmos a falar sobre as leis da natureza, creio que vale a pena explicar algumas coisas sobre o título dessa conferência. Nele, digo que farei uma introdução à metafísica das leis da natureza. Uma introdução, em filosofia, consiste da apresentação de um problema filosófico, indicando as razões pelas quais tal problema é um problema, e das principais posições que tentam resolvê-lo, com suas respectivas dificuldades mais aparentes. Uma introdução não deve dar respostas definitivas sobre qual posição devemos aceitar, (...)
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