Results for 'Zhang Shi'

42 found
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  1. Makeham, John, Ed., Dao Companion to Neo-Confucian Philosophy.Deborah A. Sommer - 2014 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13 (2):283-287.
    This volume includes nineteen articles by scholars from Asia, North America, and Europe on Chinese thinkers from the eleventh to the eighteenth centuries. Included here are intellectual biographies of literati such as Zhou Dunyi, the Cheng brothers, Zhu Xi, Zhang Shi, Hu Hong, Wang Yangming, and Dai Zhen. Essays are arranged chronologically, and most begin with a biographical sketch of their subject. They provide variety rather than uniformity of approach, but all in all these essays are remarkably rich and (...)
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  2. Nothing at Stake in Knowledge.David Rose, Edouard Machery, Stephen Stich, Mario Alai, Adriano Angelucci, Renatas Berniūnas, Emma E. Buchtel, Amita Chatterjee, Hyundeuk Cheon, In-Rae Cho, Daniel Cohnitz, Florian Cova, Vilius Dranseika, Ángeles Eraña Lagos, Laleh Ghadakpour, Maurice Grinberg, Ivar Hannikainen, Takaaki Hashimoto, Amir Horowitz, Evgeniya Hristova, Yasmina Jraissati, Veselina Kadreva, Kaori Karasawa, Hackjin Kim, Yeonjeong Kim, Minwoo Lee, Carlos Mauro, Masaharu Mizumoto, Sebastiano Moruzzi, Christopher Y. Olivola, Jorge Ornelas, Barbara Osimani, Carlos Romero, Alejandro Rosas Lopez, Massimo Sangoi, Andrea Sereni, Sarah Songhorian, Paulo Sousa, Noel Struchiner, Vera Tripodi, Naoki Usui, Alejandro Vázquez del Mercado, Giorgio Volpe, Hrag Abraham Vosgerichian, Xueyi Zhang & Jing Zhu - 2017 - Noûs 53 (1):224-247.
    In the remainder of this article, we will disarm an important motivation for epistemic contextualism and interest-relative invariantism. We will accomplish this by presenting a stringent test of whether there is a stakes effect on ordinary knowledge ascription. Having shown that, even on a stringent way of testing, stakes fail to impact ordinary knowledge ascription, we will conclude that we should take another look at classical invariantism. Here is how we will proceed. Section 1 lays out some limitations of previous (...)
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  3. The Ship of Theseus Puzzle.David Rose, Edouard Machery, Stephen Stich, Mario Alai, Adriano Angelucci, Renatas Berniūnas, Emma E. Buchtel, Amita Chatterjee, Hyundeuk Cheon, In-Rae Cho, Daniel Cohnitz, Florian Cova, Vilius Dranseika, Angeles Eraña Lagos, Laleh Ghadakpour, Maurice Grinberg, Ivar Hannikainen, Takaaki Hashimoto, Amir Horowitz, Evgeniya Hristova, Yasmina Jraissati, Veselina Kadreva, Kaori Karasawa, Hackjin Kim, Yeonjeong Kim, Min-Woo Lee, Carlos Mauro, Masaharu Mizumoto, Sebastiano Moruzzi, Christopher Y. Olivola, Jorge Ornelas, Barbara Osimani, Alejandro Rosas, Carlos Romero, Massimo Sangoi, Andrea Sereni, Sarah Songhorian, Paulo Sousa, Noel Struchiner, Vera Tripodi, Naoki Usui, Alejandro Vázquez Del Vázquez Del Mercado, Giorgio Volpe, Hrag A. Vosgerichian, Xueyi Zhang & Jing Zhu - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy 3.
    Does the Ship of Theseus present a genuine puzzle about persistence due to conflicting intuitions based on “continuity of form” and “continuity of matter” pulling in opposite directions? Philosophers are divided. Some claim that it presents a genuine puzzle but disagree over whether there is a solution. Others claim that there is no puzzle at all since the case has an obvious solution. To assess these proposals, we conducted a cross-cultural study involving nearly 3,000 people across twenty-two countries, speaking eighteen (...)
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  4. An Ontological Approach to Representing the Product Life Cycle.J. Neil Otte, Dimitris Kiritsi, Munira Mohd Ali, Ruoyu Yang, Binbin Zhang, Ron Rudnicki, Rahul Rai & Barry Smith - 2019 - Applied Ontology 14 (2):1-19.
    The ability to access and share data is key to optimizing and streamlining any industrial production process. Unfortunately, the manufacturing industry is stymied by a lack of interoperability among the systems by which data are produced and managed, and this is true both within and across organizations. In this paper, we describe our work to address this problem through the creation of a suite of modular ontologies representing the product life cycle and its successive phases, from design to end of (...)
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  5. Rational a Priori or Emotional a Priori? Husserl and Scheler’s Criticisms of Kant Regarding the Foundation of Ethics.Wei Zhang - 2011 - Cultura 8 (2):143-158.
    Based on the dispute between Protagoras and Socrates on the origin of ethics, one can ask the question of whether the principle of ethics is reason orfeeling/emotion, or whether ethics is grounded on reason or feeling/emotion. The development of Kant’s thoughts on ethics shows the tension between reason and feeling/emotion. In Kant’s final critical ethics, he held to a principle of “rational a priori.” On the one hand, this is presented as the rational a priori principle being the binding principle (...)
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  6. The Planteome Database: An Integrated Resource for Reference Ontologies, Plant Genomics and Phenomics.Laurel Cooper, Austin Meier, Marie-Angélique Laporte, Justin L. Elser, Chris Mungall, Brandon T. Sinn, Dario Cavaliere, Seth Carbon, Nathan A. Dunn, Barry Smith, Botong Qu, Justin Preece, Eugene Zhang, Sinisa Todorovic, Georgios Gkoutos, John H. Doonan, Dennis W. Stevenson, Elizabeth Arnaud & Pankaj Jaiswal - 2018 - Nucleic Acids Research 46 (D1):D1168–D1180.
    The Planteome project provides a suite of reference and species-specific ontologies for plants and annotations to genes and phenotypes. Ontologies serve as common standards for semantic integration of a large and growing corpus of plant genomics, phenomics and genetics data. The reference ontologies include the Plant Ontology, Plant Trait Ontology, and the Plant Experimental Conditions Ontology developed by the Planteome project, along with the Gene Ontology, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest, Phenotype and Attribute Ontology, and others. The project also provides (...)
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  7. Two Switches in the Theory of Counterfactuals.Ivano Ciardelli, Linmin Zhang & Lucas Champollion - 2018 - Linguistics and Philosophy (6).
    Based on a crowdsourced truth value judgment experiment, we provide empirical evidence challenging two classical views in semantics, and we develop a novel account of counterfactuals that combines ideas from inquisitive semantics and causal reasoning. First, we show that two truth-conditionally equivalent clauses can make different semantic contributions when embedded in a counterfactual antecedent. Assuming compositionality, this means that the meaning of these clauses is not fully determined by their truth conditions. This finding has a clear explanation in inquisitive semantics: (...)
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  8. The Protein Ontology: A Structured Representation of Protein Forms and Complexes.Darren Natale, Cecilia N. Arighi, Winona C. Barker, Judith A. Blake, Carol J. Bult, Michael Caudy, Harold J. Drabkin, Peter D’Eustachio, Alexei V. Evsikov, Hongzhan Huang, Jules Nchoutmboube, Natalia V. Roberts, Barry Smith, Jian Zhang & Cathy H. Wu - 2011 - Nucleic Acids Research 39 (1):D539-D545.
    The Protein Ontology (PRO) provides a formal, logically-based classification of specific protein classes including structured representations of protein isoforms, variants and modified forms. Initially focused on proteins found in human, mouse and Escherichia coli, PRO now includes representations of protein complexes. The PRO Consortium works in concert with the developers of other biomedical ontologies and protein knowledge bases to provide the ability to formally organize and integrate representations of precise protein forms so as to enhance accessibility to results of protein (...)
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  9. Die Intentionalität des Fühlens und die Schichtung der emotionalen Sphäre: Die fundamentalen Fragen in Max Schelers Phänomenologie des Fühlens.Wei Zhang - 2010 - Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique 6 (5):1-20.
    Les questions les plus fondamentales de la phénoménologie du sentir de Max Scheler concernent la place de l’intentionnalité dans la phénoménologie du sentir et la structuration de la sphère émotionnelle. Dans la première section, nous nous focaliserons avant tout sur la différence entre les sentiments non intentionnels et le sentir intentionnel, en comparant sur ce point les positions de Scheler et de Husserl. En effet, Scheler critique ces deux thèses fondamentales de Husserl: 1) les actes affectifs et leurs corrélats (« (...)
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  10.  57
    Four Facets of Privacy and Intellectual Freedom in Licensing Contracts for Electronic Journals.Alan Rubel & Mei Zhang - 2015 - College and Research Libraries 4 (76):427-449.
    This is a study of the treatment of library patron privacy in licenses for electronic journals in academic libraries. We begin by distinguishing four facets of privacy and intellectual freedom based on the LIS and philosophical literature. Next, we perform a content analysis of 42 license agreements for electronic journals, focusing on terms for enforcing authorized use and collection and sharing of user data. We compare our findings to model licenses, to recommendations proposed in a recent treatise on licenses, and (...)
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  11. The Foundation of Phenomenological Ethics: Intentional Feelings.Wei Zhang - 2009 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (1):130-142.
    E. Husserl’s reflections in Logical Investigations on “intentional feelings” and “non-intentional feelings” are significant in both his later ethical explorations and M. Scheler’s thought on ethics. Through the incorporation of the views of Husserl and Scheler, we find that the phenomenology of the intentional feeling-acts is not only the foundation of the non-formal ethics of values in Scheler’s phenomenology, but also at least the constitutive foundation of the ethics of Husserl’s first orientation.
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  12. Breaking de Morgan's Law in Counterfactual Antecedents.Lucas Champollion, Ivano Ciardelli & Linmin Zhang - manuscript
    The main goal of this paper is to investigate the relation between the meaning of a sentence and its truth conditions. We report on a comprehension experiment on counterfactual conditionals, based on a context in which a light is controlled by two switches. Our main finding is that the truth-conditionally equivalent clauses (i) "switch A or switch B is down" and (ii) "switch A and switch B are not both up" make different semantic contributions when embedded in a conditional antecedent. (...)
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  13.  66
    OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events.Yongqun He, Sirarat Sarntivijai, Yu Lin, Zuoshuang Xiang, Abra Guo, Shelley Zhang, Desikan Jagannathan, Luca Toldo, Cui Tao & Barry Smith - 2014 - Journal of Biomedical Semantics 5 (29):1-13.
    A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. Description: The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data (...)
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  14. Scheler's Critique of Husserl's Phenomenological Understanding of "Objective a Priori".Wei Zhang - 2011 - Prolegomena 10 (2):265-280.
    On the one hand, Scheler's critique of Kant's concept of a priori benefits from Husserl to a large extent, and it complements and deepens Husserl's. On the other hand, Scheler also critiques Husserl's definition of a priori. Husserl's material a priori as ideal object primarily thanks to his so-called "Bolzano- turn". In this connection, Scheler grabs hold of the relation of Husserl to Bolzano from the very beginning. For Scheler, Husserl thinks in a "platonic" way, and still falls in a (...)
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  15. Zhu Xi’s Spiritual Practice as the Basis of His Central Philosophical Concepts.Joseph A. Adler - 2008 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 7 (1):57-79.
    The argument is that (1) the spiritual crisis that Zhu Xi discussed with Zhang Shi 張栻 (1133–1180) and the other “gentlemen of Hunan” from about 1167 to 1169, which was resolved by an understanding of what we might call the interpenetration of the mind’s stillness and activity (dong-jing 動靜) or equilibrium and harmony (zhong-he 中和), (2) led directly to his realization that Zhou Dunyi’s thought provided a cosmological basis for that resolution, and (3) this in turn led Zhu Xi (...)
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  16.  86
    Schelerova Kritika Husserlova Fenomenološkog Shvaćanja "Objektivnog a Priori".Wei Zhang - 2011 - Prolegomena 10 (2):265-280.
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  17.  64
    Review: Jonathan L. Kvanvig . Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion. Volume Six. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. 320 Pages; $90.00/Hardcover. [REVIEW]Yin Zhang - 2016 - Philosophical Forum 47 (1):91-95.
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  18.  89
    Schelers Kritik an der phänomenologischen Auffassung des gegenständlichen Apriori bei Husserl.Wei Zhang - 2011 - Prolegomena 10 (2):265-280.
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  19. Pedestrian Detection Based on Hierarchical Co-Occurrence Model for Occlusion Handling.Xiaowei Zhang, HaiMiao Hu, Fan Jiang & Bo Li - 2015 - Neurocomputing 10.
    In pedestrian detection, occlusions are typically treated as an unstructured source of noise and explicit models have lagged behind those for object appearance, which will result in degradation of detection performance. In this paper, a hierarchical co-occurrence model is proposed to enhance the semantic representation of a pedestrian. In our proposed hierarchical model, a latent SVM structure is employed to model the spatial co-occurrence relations among the parent–child pairs of nodes as hidden variables for handling the partial occlusions. Moreover, the (...)
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  20.  22
    Being and Human Being.Xinyan Zhang - manuscript
    We may never understand what the phrase “human being” means if we do not try to understand ontological meaning of the concept “Being” or “being” or “beings”. With two essays presented together, the author tries to explain not only this concept but also its ontological consequence to other concepts such as “universe”, “life”, “organism”, “human” and “human mind”.
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  21. Research on Context-Awareness Mobile SNS Recommendation Algorithm.Zhijun Zhang & Hong Liu - 2015 - Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence 28.
    Although patterns of human activity show a large degree of freedom, they exhibit structural patterns subjected by geographic and social constraints. Aiming at various problems of personalized recommendation in mobile networks, a social network recommendation algorithm is proposed with a variety of context-aware information and combined with a series of social network analysis methods.Based on geographical location and temporal information, potential social relations among users are mined deeply to find the most similar set of users for the target user, then (...)
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  22.  7
    On Being.Xinyan Zhang - manuscript
    “Being” or “being and beings” might be the meta-notion when philosophy and science were still sharing the same mind or minds in ancient Greek and Europe. To find its meaning and to become a part of the meaning are however more and more vital nowadays, not for philosophy but for science, especially for physics and biology. The author proposes in this essay that this concept may mean to us nothing more or less than the unity or unification of Parmenides’ idea (...)
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  23.  22
    God's Hate.Xinyan Zhang - manuscript
    God is free. If free, God certainly hates being omniscient, omnipotent, eternal and perfection. If God hates so, ....
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  24.  20
    The Source and the Nature of Life and Consciousness.Xinyan Zhang - manuscript
    It seems to the author that, though it is possible to reach an explanation of consciousness, there is no direct way for us to go. In other words, the author believes that, only through a detour, through an understanding of everything outside mind, we may and can and will finally reach an understanding of those inside. The author tries in this article to discuss some details of such a detour, first from the understanding of Being and being, universe and life, (...)
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  25.  92
    上下文感知的移动社交网络推荐算法研究.Zhijun Zhang & Hong Liu - 2015 - 模式识别与人工智能 28 (5):404-410.
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  26. Entropy : A Concept That is Not a Physical Quantity.Shufeng Zhang - 2012 - Physics Essays 25 (2):172-176.
    This study has demonstrated that entropy is not a physical quantity, that is, the physical quantity called entropy does not exist. If the efficiency of heat engine is defined as η = W/W1, and the reversible cycle is considered to be the Stirling cycle, then, given ∮dQ/T = 0, we can prove ∮dW/T = 0 and ∮d/T = 0. If ∮dQ/T = 0, ∮dW/T = 0 and ∮dE/T = 0 are thought to define new system state variables, such definitions would (...)
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  27. Leaf Extract of Eupatorium Adenophorum Negatively Regulates Growth of Alternanthera Philoxeroides.Huabao Chen, Chunping Yang, Kai Shu, Wenming Wang, Zhaojun Li, Guoshu Gong & Min Zhang - manuscript
    Allelopathy is an important biological phenomenon in exotic plant invasions. Studies about this phenomenon can help us to understand how plant interactions influence plant colony and ecosystem functioning. Both alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides, Ap) and crofton weed (Eupatorium adenophorum, Ea) are important destructive exotic species in China. Their allelopathic effects on native plant species are well documented. However, whether alligator weed and crofton weed antagonize each other regarding plant growth? There is largely unknown currently. Here we report that the leaf (...)
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  28. Descartes' Doctrine of Clear and Distinct Perception: A Systematic Clarification.Weite Zhang - 2016 - Dissertation, Heidelberg University
    This book attempts to contribute a historical and interpretive study of Descartes' epistemology. It provides a systematic and exhaustive clarification of the mysterious and puzzling doctrine of "clear and distinct perception" and illuminates the relationships between this doctrine and four other central notions: "truth," "metaphysical doubt," "(metaphysical) certainty," and "knowledge." -/- Roughly speaking, a clear and distinct perception is a pure understanding, an intellectual perception, or a mental intuition in which a purified and attending mind has a simple mental intuition (...)
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  29. Kants Architektonik der Reinen Vernunft -- Eine Aufklärung Über Eine Weltbürgerliche Weisheit.Guang Zhang - 2017 - Dissertation, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen
    Sie ist eine systematische und dialektische Auseinandesetzung mit Kants Architektonik der reinen Vernunft in der Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Damit zeigt Sie uns an, dass die Kritik der reinen Vernunft sich mit der Unterscheidung von Anschauung und Begriffen als eine Aufklärung einer praktischen Zweckmäßigkeit unserer Vernunft vorstellt.
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  30. The Unique Features of Hui Shi's Thought: A Comparative Study Between Hui Shi and Other Pre-Qin Philosophers.Keqian Xu - 1997 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 24 (2):231-253.
    Hui Shi (370-310B.C.E.?) is a unique one among the pre-Qin scholars. The object and orientation of his scholarship emphasized on “chasing after the materials” or the research for objective knowledge of natural things. He shows a tendency of tolerating and advocating diversity and variety, and intentionally pursuing new and unusual ideas. In certain degree he judges the value of knowledge by its truthfulness rather than its usefulness. As pointed out by Wing-tsit Chan, Hui shi represents a “tendency in ancient China (...)
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  31. “存在”、“此在”与“是非”——兼论庄子、海德格尔对人的存在问题观点之异同(“Sein”, “Dasein” and “Shi Fei”: Zhuang Zi and Heidgger’s Opinions on the Issue of Human Existence).Keqian Xu - 1999 - 南京师大学报(Journal of Nanjing Normal University) 1999 (6):25-30.
    The thorny problem, which we are confronted with in translating the term of “Sein”(Being) from western Philosophy into Chinese, highlights the ambiguity, paradoxy and vagueness of the issue of Sein from a specific viewpoint. Although there is no exact equivalent in Chinese for the word of “Sein”, we use several different words to express the meanings consisted in the issue of “Sein”. By comparison we may find that what is discussed by Zhuang Zi using the terms of “Shi” and “Fei” (...)
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  32.  33
    Zhang Yibing, Back to Marx: Changes of Philosophical Discourse in the Context of Economics. [REVIEW]Kaan Kangal - 2017 - Science and Society 81:305-309.
    This massive book packs an astounding amount of analysis of Marx into its pages. Three contributions are here noteworthy: 1) Zhang presents one of the most extensive overviews on Marx’s entire work; 2) he provides good reasons to think that some of the standard readings are uncharitable, if not entirely inconsistent; 3) he holds that the late Marx’s world outlook is to be considered as a historical phenomenology.
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  33.  20
    Knowledge and Authority in Shī‘Ī Philosophy.Hossein Ziai - 2001 - In Linda Clarke (ed.), Shī‘ite Heritage: Essays on Classical and Modern Traditions. Binghamton and New York: GLOBAL PUBLICATIONS, Binghamton University. pp. 359-374.
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  34. 中國哲學之“是”與“實”“事”“史”“時”“勢”.Keqian Xu - 2007 - Jounal of Nanjing Normal University 2007 (5):29-33.
    The fundamental task of philosophy is to seek for “Shi” or “Being”. One of the features of Chinese Philosophy is that it seeks “Shi是(Bing)” through“shi实(fact)”, “shi事(event)”, “shi史(history)”, “shi时(time)”, “shi势(trend)”, which constituted the general context of understanding and hermeneutic of “Shi(Bing)”in Chinese philosophy. This also represents the practical, humanistic and dialectic features of Chinese philosophy.
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  35. Formal A Priori, or Material A Priori: On Scheler's Critique of Kant's Concept of the A Priori.Zhang Renzhi - 2008 - Modern Philosophy 1:016.
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  36. Tusi's Three Philosophical Questions ( Appendix: Arabic Text).Pirooz Fatoorchi - 2014 - International Journal of Shi'i Studies 9 (2):13-14.
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  37. Moral Reason, Moral Sentiments and the Realization of Altruism: A Motivational Theory of Altruism.JeeLoo Liu - 2012 - Asian Philosophy 22 (2):93-119.
    This paper begins with Thomas Nagel's (1970) investigation of the possibility of altruism to further examine how to motivate altruism. When the pursuit of the gratification of one's own desires generally has an immediate causal efficacy, how can one also be motivated to care for others and to act towards the well-being of others? A successful motivational theory of altruism must explain how altruism is possible under all these motivational interferences. The paper will begin with an exposition of Nagel's proposal, (...)
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  38. Review of The Quran and the Secular Mind: A Philosophy of Islam, Shabbir Akhtar, 2008. [REVIEW]Amir Dastmalchian - 2010 - Journal of Shi‘a Islamic Studies 3 (4):498-501.
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  39.  77
    Cognitive Contours: Recent Work on Cross-Cultural Psychology and its Relevance for Education.W. Martin Davies - 2007 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 26 (1):13-42.
    This paper outlines new work in cross-cultural psychology largely drawn from Nisbett, Choi, and Smith (Cognition, 65, 15–32, 1997); Nisbett, Peng, Choi, & Norenzayan, Psychological Review, 108(2), 291–310, 2001; Nisbett, The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently...and Why. New York: Free Press 2003), Ji, Zhang and Nisbett (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(1), 57–65, 2004), Norenzayan (2000) and Peng (Naive Dialecticism and its Effects on Reasoning and Judgement about Contradiction. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (...)
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  40.  56
    A Branched Model For Substantial Motion.Muhammad Legenhausen - 2009 - Journal of Shi‘a Islamic Studies 2:53-67.
    The seventeenth century Muslim philosopher Muhammad Sadr al-Din Shirazi, known as Mulla Sadra, introduced the idea of substantial motion in Islamic philosophy. This view is characterized by a continuity criterion for diachronic identity, a four-dimensional view of individual substances, the notion that possibilities change, and the continual creation of all creatures. Modern philosophical logic provides means to model a variety of claims about individuals, substances, modality and time. In this paper, the semantics of formal systems discussed by Carnap, Bressan and (...)
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  41. Existential Anthropology: What Could It Be? An Interpretation of Heidegger.Piette Albert - 2014 - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 4 (2).
    Based on an interpretation of the work of martin Heidegger, this article o ers a shi away om social and cultural anthropology, which explores sociocultural aspects, and also om general anthropology, which aims to summarise all dimensions of human being. the author de nes the speci city of existential anthropology: observing and conceiving human beings as they exist and continue to exist towards death. With a few twists in relation to Heidegger’s thought, the author discusses what is theoretically and methodologically (...)
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  42.  3
    A Study and Critique of the «Tark-i Awlà» Approach in Justifying Prophets' Lapses.Hossein Atrak - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical-Theological Research 20 (76):29-56.
    Abstract This article delves into the study of the term «tark-i awlà» (abandoning performance of that which is better and doing that which is less than better) as an approach for defending the infallibility of the prophets when confronting verses from the Holy Qur‘ān that apparently prove the prophets committed sins; and after going into the semantics of «tark-i awlà», the following question has been made the focus of discussion and study: are the intellectual arguments proving the infalliblity of the (...)
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