Results for 'health research'

998 found
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  1. Should health research funding be proportional to the burden of disease?Joseph Millum - 2023 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 22 (1):76-99.
    Public funders of health research have been widely criticized on the grounds that their allocations of funding for disease-specific research do not reflect the relative burdens imposed by different diseases. For example, the US National Institutes of Health spends a much greater fraction of its budget on HIV/aids research and a much smaller fraction on migraine research than their relative contribution to the US burden of disease would suggest. Implicit in this criticism is a (...)
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  2. Health Research Priority Setting: The Duties of Individual Funders.Leah Pierson & Joseph Millum - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (11):6-17.
    The vast majority of health research resources are used to study conditions that affect a small, advantaged portion of the global population. This distribution has been widely criticized as inequitable and threatens to exacerbate health disparities. However, there has been little systematic work on what individual health research funders ought to do in response. In this article, we analyze the general and special duties of research funders to the different populations that might benefit from (...)
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  3. Should health research funding be proportional to the burden of disease?Joseph Millum - 2022 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 1 (1):1-24.
    Public funders of health research have been widely criticized on the grounds that their allocations of funding for disease-specific research do not reflect the relative burdens imposed by different diseases. For example, the US National Institutes of Health spends a much greater fraction of its budget on HIV/AIDS research and a much smaller fraction on migraine research than their relative contribution to the US burden of disease would suggest. Implicit in this criticism is a (...)
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  4. Health Research Priority Setting: Do Grant Review Processes Reflect Ethical Principles?Leah Pierson & Joseph Millum - forthcoming - Global Public Health.
    Most public and non-profit organisations that fund health research provide the majority of their funding in the form of grants. The calls for grant applications are often untargeted, such that a wide variety of applications may compete for the same funding. The grant review process therefore plays a critical role in determining how limited research resources are allocated. Despite this, little attention has been paid to whether grant review criteria align with widely endorsed ethical criteria for allocating (...)
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  5. The Social Value of Health Research and the Worst Off.Nicola Barsdorf & Joseph Millum - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):105-115.
    In this article we argue that the social value of health research should be conceptualized as a function of both the expected benefits of the research and the priority that the beneficiaries deserve. People deserve greater priority the worse off they are. This conception of social value can be applied for at least two important purposes: in health research priority setting when research funders, policy-makers, or researchers decide between alternative research projects; and in (...)
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  6. What is the environment in environmental health research? Perspectives from the ethics of science.David M. Frank - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 88 (C):172-180.
    Environmental health research produces scientific knowledge about environmental hazards crucial for public health and environmental justice movements that seek to prevent or reduce exposure to these hazards. The environment in environmental health research is conceptualized as the range of possible social, biological, chemical, and/or physical hazards or risks to human health, some of which merit study due to factors such as their probability and severity, the feasibility of their remediation, and injustice in their distribution. (...)
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  7. Health Research Participants' Preferences for Receiving Research Results.C. R. Long, M. K. Stewart, T. V. Cunningham, T. S. Warmack & P. A. McElfish - 2016 - Clinical Trials 13:1-10.
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  8. Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Health Research Priority Setting: The Duties of Individual Funders”.Leah Pierson & Joseph Millum - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (1):W5-W7.
    We respond to open peer commentaries on our target article, "Health Research Priority Setting: The Duties of Individual Funders".
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  9. Addressing the 'Global Basic Structure' in the Ethics of International Health Research Involving Human Subjects.Janet Borgerson - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Research 30 (9999):235-249.
    The context of international health research involving human subjects, and this should appear obvious, is the human community. As such, basic questions of how human beings should be treated by other human beings, particularly in situations of unequal power – e.g., in the form of control, choice, or opportunity – lay at the foundations of related ethical discourse when ethics are discussed at all. I trace a narrative that follows upon a recent revision process of international guidelines for (...)
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  10. Introduction: Case Studies in the Ethics of Mental Health Research.J. Millum - 2012 - Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 200:230-35.
    This collection presents six case studies on the ethics of mental health research, written by scientific researchers and ethicists from around the world. We publish them here as a resource for teachers of research ethics and as a contribution to several ongoing ethical debates. Each consists of a description of a research study that was proposed or carried out and an in-depth analysis of the ethics of the study.
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  11. Persons or datapoints?: Ethics, artificial intelligence, and the participatory turn in mental health research.Joshua August Skorburg, Kieran O'Doherty & Phoebe Friesen - 2024 - American Psychologist 79 (1):137-149.
    This article identifies and examines a tension in mental health researchers’ growing enthusiasm for the use of computational tools powered by advances in artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI/ML). Although there is increasing recognition of the value of participatory methods in science generally and in mental health research specifically, many AI/ML approaches, fueled by an ever-growing number of sensors collecting multimodal data, risk further distancing participants from research processes and rendering them as mere vectors or collections (...)
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  12. Access to Personal Information for Public Health Research: Transparency Should Always Be Mandatory.Louise Ringuette, Jean-Christophe Bélisle-Pipon, Victoria Doudenkova & Bryn Williams-Jones - 2018 - Canadian Journal of Bioethics/Revue canadienne de bioéthique 1 (2):94-98.
    In Québec, the Act Respecting Access to Documents Held by Public Bodies and the Protection of Personal Information provides an exception to transparency to most public institutions where public health research is conducted by allowing them to not disclose their uses of personal data. This exceptionalism is ethically problematic due to important concerns and we argue that all those who conduct research should be transparent and accountable for the work they do in the public interest.
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  13.  79
    Reconciling Data Actionability and Accountability in Global Health Research.Nathanael Sheehan & Sabina Leonelli - manuscript
    All too often, the requirements for actionability and accountability of data infrastructures are conceptualised as incompatible and leading to a trade-off situation where increasing one will unavoidably decrease the other. Through a comparative analysis of two data infrastructures used to share genomic data about the SARS-COV-2 virus, we argue that making data actionable for knowledge development involves a commitment to ensuring that the data in question are representative of the phenomena being studied and accountable to data subjects and users. This (...)
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  14. Country-Specific Health Research Paper- Overview of Bangladesh and Addressing Dental Health Situation of Bangladeshis.Md Majidul Haque Bhuiyan - manuscript
    Now, the climate of Bangladesh has subtropical monsoon weather with extensive seasonal variations concerning humidity, temperature, and rainfall. Furthermore, it has altitudes from 600 to 1000 meters above sea level, whereas, at 1063 m(3,488 ft.) altitude, Saka Haphong at Mowdok range is the highest height in the southern part the hill there (Wasson, R., 2003). Bangladesh is an emerging market as a developing nation where approximately 30% of its GDP comes from agriculture to tell more about the country. However, Bangladesh (...)
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  15. Climate Change, Pollution, Deforestation, and Mental Health: Research Trends, Gaps, and Ethical Considerations.Moritz E. Wigand, Cristian Timmermann, Ansgar Scherp, Thomas Becker & Florian Steger - 2022 - GeoHealth 6 (11):e2022GH000632.
    Climate change, pollution, and deforestation have a negative impact on global mental health. There is an environmental justice dimension to this challenge as wealthy people and high-income countries are major contributors to climate change and pollution, while poor people and low-income countries are heavily affected by the consequences. Using state-of-the art data mining, we analyzed and visualized the global research landscape on mental health, climate change, pollution and deforestation over a 15-year period. Metadata of papers were exported (...)
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  16. Accessing Online Data for Youth Mental Health Research: Meeting the Ethical Challenges.Elvira Perez Vallejos, Ansgar Koene, Christopher James Carter, Daniel Hunt, Christopher Woodard, Lachlan Urquhart, Aislinn Bergin & Ramona Statache - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (1):87-110.
    This article addresses the general ethical issues of accessing online personal data for research purposes. The authors discuss the practical aspects of online research with a specific case study that illustrates the ethical challenges encountered when accessing data from Kooth, an online youth web-counselling service. This paper firstly highlights the relevance of a process-based approach to ethics when accessing highly sensitive data and then discusses the ethical considerations and potential challenges regarding the accessing of public data from Digital (...)
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  17. Public interest in health data research: laying out the conceptual groundwork.Angela Ballantyne & G. Owen Schaefer - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (9):610-616.
    The future of health research will be characterised by three continuing trends: rising demand for health data; increasing impracticability of obtaining specific consent for secondary research; and decreasing capacity to effectively anonymise data. In this context, governments, clinicians and the research community must demonstrate that they can be responsible stewards of health data. IRBs and RECs sit at heart of this process because in many jurisdictions they have the capacity to grant consent waivers when (...)
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  18. Authorship and Responsibility in Health Sciences Research: A Review of Procedures for Fairly Allocating Authorship in Multi-Author Studies.Elise Smith & Bryn Williams-Jones - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (2):199-212.
    While there has been significant discussion in the health sciences and ethics literatures about problems associated with publication practices (e.g., ghost- and gift-authorship, conflicts of interest), there has been relatively little practical guidance developed to help researchers determine how they should fairly allocate credit for multi-authored publications. Fair allocation of credit requires that participating authors be acknowledged for their contribution and responsibilities, but it is not obvious what contributions should warrant authorship, nor who should be responsible for the quality (...)
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  19. Book Review. "Research Methods for Public Health". Stuart McClean, Isabelle Bray, Nick de Viggiani, Emma Bird, Paul Pilkington. (Reseña. Métodos de investigación en salud pública).Carlos Alberto Rosas Jimenez - 2021 - Persona y Bioética 2 (25):1-3.
    One of the great challenges for students of any discipline is to be able to put into practice the knowledge learned in theory. Public health does not escape this challenge. Research Methods for Public Health is a book that seeks to help students understand in a simple way how to enter into the practice of public health research. This book stands out for its easy reading, but especially because it emphasizes the existence of quantitative and (...)
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  20. Consent and the ethical duty to participate in health data research.Angela Ballantyne & G. Owen Schaefer - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (6):392-396.
    The predominant view is that a study using health data is observational research and should require individual consent unless it can be shown that gaining consent is impractical. But recent arguments have been made that citizens have an ethical obligation to share their health information for research purposes. In our view, this obligation is sufficient ground to expand the circumstances where secondary use research with identifiable health information is permitted without explicit subject consent. As (...)
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  21. Role of Theory and Research in Policy Development in Health Care System.Abdulaziz Alsufyani - 2020 - American Journal of Public Health Research 8 (6):61-66.
    The implementation of actions for health is only possible by adequate policy development. There is a need to review the nature and development of policy in health political science gaze. Therefore, the present study aims to conduct a review on theory and researches to develop adequate policies in health care system. It provides a comprehensive review about the important theories with empirical research evidences for promoting health. The review analysis shows that it is important to (...)
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  22. The Ethical Obligation for Research During Public Health Emergencies: Insights From the COVID-19 Pandemic.Mariana Barosa, Euzebiusz Jamrozik & Vinay Prasad - 2023 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy (1):49-70.
    In times of crises, public health leaders may claim that trials of public health interventions are unethical. One reason for this claim can be that equipoise—i.e. a situation of uncertainty and/or disagreement among experts about the evidence regarding an intervention—has been disturbed by a change of collective expert views. Some might claim that equipoise is disturbed if the majority of experts believe that emergency public health interventions are likely to be more beneficial than harmful. However, such beliefs (...)
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  23. Improving the Ethical Review of Health Policy and Systems Research: Some Suggestions.Govind Persad - 2021 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 49 (1):123-125.
    Consistent and well-designed frameworks for ethical oversight enable socially valuable research while forestalling harmful or poorly designed studies. I suggest some alterations that might strengthen the valuable checklist Rattani & Hyder propose for the ethical review of health policy and systems research (HPSR), or prompt future work in the area.
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  24.  93
    The problem of the consent for the processing of health data, particularly for biomedical research purposes, from the perspective of fundamental rights protection in the Digital Era.Joaquín Sarrión Esteve - 2018 - Revista de Derecho y Genoma Humano: Genética, Biotecnología y Medicina Avanzada = Law and the Human Genome Review: Genetics, Biotechnology and Advanced Medicine 48:107-132.
    Health data processing fields face ethical and legal problems regarding fundamental rights. As we know, patients can benefit in the Digital Era from having health or medical information available, and medical decisions can be more effective with a better understanding of clinical histories, medical and health data thanks to the development of Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things and other Digital technologies. However, at the same time, we need to guarantee fundamental rights, including privacy ones. The complaint about (...)
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  25. Precision Medicine and Big Data: The Application of an Ethics Framework for Big Data in Health and Research.G. Owen Schaefer, E. Shyong Tai & Shirley Sun - 2019 - Asian Bioethics Review 11 (3):275-288.
    As opposed to a ‘one size fits all’ approach, precision medicine uses relevant biological, medical, behavioural and environmental information about a person to further personalize their healthcare. This could mean better prediction of someone’s disease risk and more effective diagnosis and treatment if they have a condition. Big data allows for far more precision and tailoring than was ever before possible by linking together diverse datasets to reveal hitherto-unknown correlations and causal pathways. But it also raises ethical issues relating to (...)
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  26. An Ethics Framework for Big Data in Health and Research.Vicki Xafis, G. Owen Schaefer, Markus K. Labude, Iain Brassington, Angela Ballantyne, Hannah Yeefen Lim, Wendy Lipworth, Tamra Lysaght, Cameron Stewart, Shirley Sun, Graeme T. Laurie & E. Shyong Tai - 2019 - Asian Bioethics Review 11 (3):227-254.
    Ethical decision-making frameworks assist in identifying the issues at stake in a particular setting and thinking through, in a methodical manner, the ethical issues that require consideration as well as the values that need to be considered and promoted. Decisions made about the use, sharing, and re-use of big data are complex and laden with values. This paper sets out an Ethics Framework for Big Data in Health and Research developed by a working group convened by the Science, (...)
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  27. Pandemic surveillance: ethics at the intersection of information, research, and health.Daniel Susser - 2022 - In Margaret Hu (ed.), Pandemic Surveillance: Privacy, Security, and Data Ethics. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. pp. 187-196.
    This chapter provides a high-level overview of key ethical issues raised by the use of surveillance technologies, such as digital contact tracing, disease surveillance, and vaccine passports, to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. To some extent, these issues are entirely familiar. I argue that they raise old questions in new form and with new urgency, at the intersection of information ethics, research ethics, and public health. Whenever we deal with data-driven technologies, we have to ask how they fare in (...)
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  28. Embodiment and Objectification in Illness and Health Care: Taking Phenomenology from Theory to Practice.Anthony Vincent Fernandez - 2020 - Journal of Clinical Nursing 29 (21-22):4403-4412.
    Aims and Objectives. This article uses the concept of embodiment to demonstrate a conceptual approach to applied phenomenology. -/- Background. Traditionally, qualitative researchers and healthcare professionals have been taught phenomenological methods, such as the epoché, reduction, or bracketing. These methods are typically construed as a way of avoiding biases so that one may attend to the phenomena in an open and unprejudiced way. However, it has also been argued that qualitative researchers and healthcare professionals can benefit from phenomenology’s well-articulated theoretical (...)
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  29. Clarifying how to deploy the public interest criterion in consent waivers for health data and tissue research.G. Owen Schaefer, Graeme Laurie, Sumytra Menon, Alastair V. Campbell & Teck Chuan Voo - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-10.
    Background Several jurisdictions, including Singapore, Australia, New Zealand and most recently Ireland, have a public interest or public good criterion for granting waivers of consent in biomedical research using secondary health data or tissue. However, the concept of the public interest is not well defined in this context, which creates difficulties for institutions, institutional review boards and regulators trying to implement the criterion. Main text This paper clarifies how the public interest criterion can be defensibly deployed. We first (...)
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  30. Public Health, Political Solidarity, and the Ethics of Orientation Ascriptions.Matthew Andler - 2022 - Ergo 8 (27).
    How ought we socially to categorize individuals with respect to sexual orientation? In this paper, I engage with philosophical work on the foundations of political solidarity as well as public health research on the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS in order to develop a categorization scheme conducive to the normatively important aims of LGBTQIA+ social movements.
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  31. Public Health and Safety: The Social Determinants of Health and Criminal Behavior.Gregg D. Caruso - 2017 - London, UK: ResearchLinks Books.
    There are a number of important links and similarities between public health and safety. In this extended essay, Gregg D. Caruso defends and expands his public health-quarantine model, which is a non-retributive alternative for addressing criminal behavior that draws on the public health framework and prioritizes prevention and social justice. In developing his account, he explores the relationship between public health and safety, focusing on how social inequalities and systemic injustices affect health outcomes and crime (...)
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  32. Ethics of the health-related internet of things: a narrative review.Brent Mittelstadt - 2017 - Ethics and Information Technology 19 (3):1-19.
    The internet of things is increasingly spreading into the domain of medical and social care. Internet-enabled devices for monitoring and managing the health and well-being of users outside of traditional medical institutions have rapidly become common tools to support healthcare. Health-related internet of things (H-IoT) technologies increasingly play a key role in health management, for purposes including disease prevention, real-time tele-monitoring of patient’s functions, testing of treatments, fitness and well-being monitoring, medication dispensation, and health research (...)
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  33. Health, Disability, and Well-Being.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2015 - In Guy Fletcher (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Well-Being. New York,: Routledge.
    Much academic work (in philosophy, economics, law, etc.), as well as common sense, assumes that ill health reduces well-being. It is bad for a person to become sick, injured, disabled, etc. Empirical research, however, shows that people living with health problems report surprisingly high levels of well-being - in some cases as high as the self-reported well-being of healthy people. In this chapter, I explore the relationship between health and well-being. I argue that although we have (...)
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  34. Detecting Health Problems Related to Addiction of Video Game Playing Using an Expert System.Samy S. Abu Naser & Mohran H. Al-Bayed - 2016 - World Wide Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development 2 (9):7-12.
    Today’s everyone normal life can include a normal rate of playing computer games or video games; but what about an excessive or compulsive use of video games that impact on our life? Our kids, who usually spend a lot of time in playing video games will likely have a trouble in paying attention to their school lessons. In this paper, we introduce an expert system to help users in getting the correct diagnosis of the health problem of video game (...)
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  35. Are physicians willing to ration health care? Conflicting findings in a systematic review of survey research.Daniel Strech, Govind Persad, Georg Marckmann & Marion Danis - 2009 - Health Policy 90 (2):113-124.
    Several quantitative surveys have been conducted internationally to gather empirical information about physicians’ general attitudes towards health care rationing. Are physicians ready to accept and implement rationing, or are they rather reluctant? Do they prefer implicit bedside rationing that allows the physician–patient relationship broad leeway in individual decisions? Or do physicians prefer strategies that apply explicit criteria and rules?
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  36. Transforming the field: the role of academic health centers in promoting and sustaining equity based community engaged research.Shannon Sanchez-Youngman, Prajakta Adsul, Amber Gonzales, Elizabeth Dickson, Katie Myers, Christina Alaniz & Nina Wallerstein - 2023 - Frontiers in Public Health 11:1111779.
    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) and community engaged research (CEnR) are key to promoting community and patient engagement in actionable evidence-based strategies to improve research for health equity. Rapid growth of CBPR/CEnR research projects have led to the broad adoption of partnering principles in community-academic partnerships and among some health and academic organizations. Yet, transformation of principles into best practices that foster trust, shared power, and equity outcomes still remain fragmented, are dependent on individuals with (...)
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  37. Health Justice in the City: Why an Intersectional Analysis of Transportation Matters for Bioethics.Samantha Elaine Noll & Laci Nichole Hubbard-Mattix - 2019 - Essays in Philosophy 20 (2):130-145.
    Recently, there has been a concerted effort to shift bioethics’ traditional focus from clinical and research settings to more robustly engage with issues of justice and health equity. This broader bioethics agenda seeks to embed health related issues in wider institutional and cultural contexts and to help develop fair policies. In this paper, we argue that bioethicists who ascribe to the broader bioethics’ agenda could gain valuable insights from the interdisciplinary field of environmental justice and transportation justice, (...)
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  38. Closing the gender gap in depression through the lived experience of young women – a response to ‘Don't mind the gap: Why do we not care about the gender gap in mental health?’, Patalay and Demkowicz (2023).Lucienne Spencer & Matthew Broome - 2023 - Child and Adolescent Mental Health 1.
    Most mental health research largely ignores or minimises gender and age differences in depression. In ‘Don't mind the gap: Why do we not care about the gender gap in mental health?’, Patalay and Demkowicz identify a dearth of research on the causal factors of depression in young women. They attribute this to an over-reliance on biological accounts of gender differences in depression. Patalay and Demkowicz conclude that a person-centred approach that meaningfully engages with the reports of (...)
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  39. Designing the Health-related Internet of Things: Ethical Principles and Guidelines.Brent Mittelstadt - 2017 - Information 8 (3):77.
    The conjunction of wireless computing, ubiquitous Internet access, and the miniaturisation of sensors have opened the door for technological applications that can monitor health and well-being outside of formal healthcare systems. The health-related Internet of Things (H-IoT) increasingly plays a key role in health management by providing real-time tele-monitoring of patients, testing of treatments, actuation of medical devices, and fitness and well-being monitoring. Given its numerous applications and proposed benefits, adoption by medical and social care institutions and (...)
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  40. Mental health, normativity, and local knowledge in global perspective.Elena Popa - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 84 (C):101334.
    Approaching mental health on a global scale with particular reference to low- and mid-income countries raises issues concerning the disregard of the local context and values and the imposition of values characteristic of the Global North. Seeking a philosophical viewpoint to surmount these problems, the present paper argues for a value-laden framework for psychiatry with the specific incorporation of value pluralism, particularly in relation to the Global South context, while also emphasizing personal values such as the choice of treatment. (...)
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  41. The Global Forum for Bioethics in Research: Past present and future.Katherine Littler, Joseph Millum & Douglas Richard Wassenaar - 2014 - South African Journal of Bioethics and Law 7 (1):5.
    The Global Forum on Bioethics in Research (GFBR) served as a global platform for debate on ethical issues in international health research between 1999 and 2008, bringing together research ethics experts, researchers, policy makers and community members from developing and developed countries. In total, nine GFBR meetings were held on six continents. Work is currently underway to revive the GFBR. This paper describes the purpose and history of the GFBR and presents key elements for its reinstatement, (...)
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  42. The Health Reframing of Climate Change and the Poverty of Narrow Bioethics.Kyle Ferguson - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (4):705-717.
    We must resist thoroughly reframing climate change as a health issue. For human health–centric ethical frameworks omit dimensions of value that we must duly consider. We need a new, an environmental, research ethic, one that we can use to more completely and impartially evaluate proposed research on mitigation and adaptation strategies.
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  43. Health Practices Among Secondary School Teachers During Covid-19 Pandemic (2nd edition).Joan Mae L. Tabudlong - 2023 - International Journal of Multidisciplinary Educational Research and Innovation 1 (2):51-64.
    This study aimed to determine the health practices among the secondary school teachers during the Covid-19 pandemic in Ichon National High School. This considered the socio - demographic profile of the teachers in terms of age, sex, civil status and teaching load and the extent of practice employed by the teachers in the said health dimensions. A total of 53 teachers from Ichon National High School participated as respondents in the evaluative method of research that consists in (...)
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  44. Bio-ethics and one health: a case study approach to building reflexive governance.Antoine Boudreau LeBlanc, Bryn Williams-Jones & Cécile Aenishaenslin - 2022 - Frontiers in Public Health 10 (648593).
    Surveillance programs supporting the management of One Health issues such as antibiotic resistance are complex systems in themselves. Designing ethical surveillance systems is thus a complex task (retroactive and iterative), yet one that is also complicated to implement and evaluate (e.g., sharing, collaboration, and governance). The governance of health surveillance requires attention to ethical concerns about data and knowledge (e.g., performance, trust, accountability, and transparency) and empowerment ethics, also referred to as a form of responsible self-governance. Ethics in (...)
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  45. Theorizing Participatory Research.Andrew Evans & Angela Potochnik - 2023 - In Emily E. Anderson (ed.), Ethical Issues in Community and Patient Stakeholder–Engaged Health Research. Springer Verlag. pp. 11-26.
    “Participatory research” is an umbrella term for a wide variety of scientific research projects that include participation of members of the lay public beyond simply using humans as “subjects” of research. In this chapter, we begin by surveying the variety of participatory research approaches across fields. We examine the goals of participatory research projects, including social and scientific value. Next, we apply a theoretical framework to challenges that participatory research faces. We then survey three (...)
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  46. Establishing and Harmonizing Ontologies in an Interdisciplinary Health Care and Clinical Research Environment.Barry Smith & Mathias Brochhausen - 2008 - Studies in Health, Technology and Informatics 134:219-234.
    Ontologies are being ever more commonly used in biomedical informatics and we provide a survey of some of these uses, and of the relations between ontologies and other terminology resources. In order for ontologies to become truly useful, two objectives must be met. First, ways must be found for the transparent evaluation of ontologies. Second, existing ontologies need to be harmonised. We argue that one key foundation for both ontology evaluation and harmonisation is the adoption of a realist paradigm in (...)
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  47. Negative findings in electronic health records and biomedical ontologies: a realist approach.Werner Ceusters, Peter Elkin & Barry Smith - 2007 - International Journal of Medical Informatics 76 (3):S326-S333.
    PURPOSE—A substantial fraction of the observations made by clinicians and entered into patient records are expressed by means of negation or by using terms which contain negative qualifiers (as in “absence of pulse” or “surgical procedure not performed”). This seems at first sight to present problems for ontologies, terminologies and data repositories that adhere to a realist view and thus reject any reference to putative non-existing entities. Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) and Referent Tracking (RT) are examples of such paradigms. The (...)
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  48. Explanation in Public Health.Olaf Dammann - 2018 - In Sridhar Venkatapuram & Alex Broadbent (eds.), Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Public Health. Routledge.
    In this chapter, I first outline the public health workflow from assessment via goal definition and intervention to evaluation. Further, I discuss the types and subtypes of explanation used in public health research and practice: scientific, justificatory, methodological, and prospective. In doing this, I take the discussion far beyond the usual focus in philosophy of science as answers to “why?”-questions. The chapter ends with a few comments on my proposal.
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  49. The Ethical Implications of Personal Health Monitoring.Brent Mittelstadt - 2014 - International Journal of Technoethics 5 (2):37-60.
    Personal Health Monitoring (PHM) uses electronic devices which monitor and record health-related data outside a hospital, usually within the home. This paper examines the ethical issues raised by PHM. Eight themes describing the ethical implications of PHM are identified through a review of 68 academic articles concerning PHM. The identified themes include privacy, autonomy, obtrusiveness and visibility, stigma and identity, medicalisation, social isolation, delivery of care, and safety and technological need. The issues around each of these are discussed. (...)
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  50. Evidence Mapping to Justify Health Interventions.Olaf Dammann - 2021 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 64 (2):155-172.
    In order to support health interventions, biomedical and population health researchers need to collect solid evidence. This article asks what type of evidence this should be and expands on previous work that focused on etiological explanations, or causal-mechanical explanations of why and how illness occurs. The article proposes adding predictive evidence to the explanatory evidence, in order to form a joint evidence set, or JES = [A,B,C,D], which consists of four different types of evidence: association [A], biology [B], (...)
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