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Bibliography: Knowledge in Epistemology
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  1.  32
    'Now' with Subordinate Clauses.Sam Carter & Daniel Altshuler - 2017 - In Proceedings of SALT 27. pp. 340-357.
    We investigate a novel use of the English temporal modifiernow’, in which it combines with a subordinate clause. We argue for a univocal treatment of the (...)
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  2. Editorial: Time & Experience: Twins of the Eternal Now?Gregory M. Nixon - 2010 - Journal of Consciousness Exploration and Research 1 (5):482-489.
    In what follows, I suggest that, against most theories of time, there really is an actual present, a now, but that such an eternal moment cannot be (...)
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  3.  63
    The Ineffable Now in Physics.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    While physicists know how to use quantum mechanics, there is no consensus on what quantum mechanics is a mechanics of. The aim of this paper is to (...)
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  4. Navigating BeyondHere & NowAffordanceson Sensorimotor Maturation andFalse BeliefPerformance.Maria Brincker - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    How and when do we learn to understand other peoples perspectives and possibly divergent beliefs? This question has elicited much theoretical and empirical research. A puzzling (...)finding has been that toddlers perform well on so-called implicit false belief (FB) tasks but do not show such capacities on traditional explicit FB tasks. I propose a navigational approach, which offers a hitherto ignored way of making sense of the seemingly contradictory results. The proposal involves a distinction between how we navigate FBs as they relate to (1) our current affordances (here & now navigation) as opposed to (2) presently non-actual relations, where we need to leave our concrete embodied/situated viewpoint (counterfactual navigation). It is proposed that whereas toddlers seem able to understand FBs in their current affordance space, they do not yet possess the resources to navigate in abstraction from such concrete affordances, which explicit FB tests seem to require. It is hypothesized that counterfactual navigation depends on the development ofsensorimotor priors,” i.e., statistical expectations of own kinesthetic re-afference, which evidence now suggests matures around age four, consistent with core findings of explicit FB performance. (shrink)
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  5. Review of Steven Pinker's Enlightenment NOW[REVIEW]Nicholas Maxwell - 2018 - Metascience 27 (2):347-350.
    Steven Pinker's "Enlightenment NOW" is in many ways a terrific book, from which I have learnt much. But it is also deeply flawed. Science and (...)
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  6. Darwins Pluralism, Then and Now[REVIEW]Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther - 2012 - Metascience 21 (1):157-161.
    Tom Stoppards 1966 play (and 1990 movie) /Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead/ is a metatextas a text, it interprets, builds upon, and refers to another (...)
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  7. The Now and the Relation Between Motion and Time in Aristotle: A Systematic Reconstruction.Mark Sentesy - 2018 - Apeiron 51 (3):279-323.
    This paper reconstructs the relationship between the now, motion, and number in Aristotle to clarify the nature of the now, and, thereby, the relationship between motion and (...)
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  8. YouandI’, ‘HereandNow’: Spatial and Social Situatedness in Deixis.Beata Stawarska - 2008 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (3):399 – 418.
    I examine the ordinary-language use of deictic terms, notably the personal, spatial and temporal markers 'I' and 'you', 'here' and 'now', in order to make manifest (...)that their meaning is inextricably embedded within a pragmatic, perceptual and interpersonal situation. This inextricable embeddedness of deixis within the shared natural and social world suggests, I contend, an I-you connectedness at the heart of meaning and experience. The thesis of I-you connectedness extends to the larger claim about the situatedness of embodied perceivers within a shared perspectivally configured milieu. This claim can be cast in terms of a polycentric orientation to the natural and social world, which provides a robust alternative to an egocentric conception of experience. I develop this claim via a renewed phenomenological reflection on speech, assisted by ordinary-language philosophy, as well as relevant contributions from empirical sociolinguistic studies and developmental psychology. These reflective and empirical perspectives help make a case for the primacy of socially and spatially situated experience, which departs from the received notion of an asocial and uprooted mind. (shrink)
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  9. Theres No Place LikeHereand No Time LikeNow’.Albert Atkin - 2006 - American Philosophical Quarterly 43 (3):271-80.
    Is it possible for me to refer to someone other than myself with the word "I"? Or somewhere other than where I am with the word "here"? (...)
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  10. A Here-Now Theory of Indexicality.Gilbert Plumer - 1993 - Journal of Philosophical Research 18:193-211.
    This paper attempts to define indexicality so as to semantically distinguish indexicals from proper names and definite descriptions. The widely-accepted approach that says that indexical reference (...)is distinctive in being dependent on context of use is criticized. A reductive approach is proposed and defended that takes an indexical to be (roughly) an expression that either is or is equivalent tohereornow’, or is such that a tokening of it refers by relating something to the place and/or time that would have been referred to hadhereandnowbeen tokened instead. Alternative reductive approaches are criticized. (shrink)
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  11.  52
    Plato's Housing Policy: Then and Now.Debra Nails & Soula Proxenos - 2007 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 10:73-78.
    Plato put housing second only to a secure food supply in the order of business of an emerging polis [Republic 2.369d); we argue, without quibbling over (...)rank, that adequate housing ought to have fundamental priority, with health and education, in civil societies' planning, budgets, and legislative agendas. Something made explicit in the Platonic Laws, and often reiterated by today's poorbut as often forgotten by bureaucratsis that human wellbeing, eudaimonia, is impossible for the homeless. That is, adequate housing is valuable to human societies independently of its instrumental role in supporting the safety, health, and education of the populace. Currently, governments all too frequently end up undermining their own health and education programs as a direct result of neglecting the housing needs of the poor. Finally, we argue that governments ought now to be using the low-cost ways that already exist to provide, or to promote the provision of, better housing for their increasingly urbanized populations; further, even in those circumstances where it is necessary to subsidize housing, governments' most important role is to develop just regulatory and enforcement systems within which public- and private-sector investment can operate. (shrink)
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  12.  50
    Mechanisms, Then and Now: From Metaphysics to Practice.Stathis Psillos & Stavros Ioannidis - 2019 - In Brigitte Falkenburg & Gregor Schiemann (eds.), Mechanistic Explanations in Physics and Beyond. Cham: Springer Nature. pp. 11-31.
    For many old and new mechanists, Mechanism is both a metaphysical position and a thesis about scientific methodology. In this paper we discuss the relation between the (...)
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  13. Evolution of Phenotypic Plasticity: Where Are We Going Now?Massimo Pigliucci - 2005 - Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20 (9):481-486.
    The study of phenotypic plasticity has progressed significantly over the past few decades. We have moved from variation for plasticity being considered as a nuisance in evolutionary (...)
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  14. Philosophers Are Doing Something Different Now: Quantitative Data.Joshua Knobe - 2015 - Cognition 135:36-38.
    The philosophical study of mind in the twentieth century was dominated by a research program that used a priori methods to address foundational questions. Since that time, (...)
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  15.  50
    Just Say No (For Now): The Ethics of Illegal Drug Use.Mathieu Doucet - 2017 - Law Ethics and Philosophy 5:9-29.
    The war on drugs is widely criticized as unjust. The idea that the laws prohibiting drugs are unjust can easily lead to the conclusion that those laws (...)
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  16. Social Science's Conspiracy Theory Panic: Now They Want to Cure Everyone.Lee Basham & Matthew Dentith - 2016 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 5 (10):12-19.
    A response to a declaration in 'Le Monde', 'Luttons efficacement contre les théories du complot' by Gérald Bronner, Véronique Campion-Vincent, Sylvain Delouvée, Sebastian Dieguez, Karen Douglas, (...)Nicolas Gauvrit, Anthony Lantian, and Pascal Wagner-Egger, published on June the 6th, 2016. (shrink)
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  17.  61
    What? Now. Predictive Coding and Enculturation.Richard Menary - 2015 - In Thomas Metzinger & Jennifer M. Windt (eds.), Open Mind. M.I.T. Press.
    Regina Fabry has proposed an intriguing marriage of enculturated cognition and predictive processing. I raise some questions for whether this marriage will work and warn against expecting (...)
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  18.  11
    The Allais Paradox: What It Became, What It Really Was, What It Now Suggests to Us.Philippe Mongin - 2019 - Economics and Philosophy 35 (3):423-459.
    Whereas many others have scrutinized the Allais paradox from a theoretical angle, we study the paradox from an historical perspective and link our findings to a suggestion (...)
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  19. "All The Things We Could [Se]E by Now [Concerning Violence & Boko Haram], If Sigmund Freud's Wife Was Your Mother": Psychoanalysis, Race, & International Political Theory.Babajide I. Ajishafe - 2017 - International Journal of Political Theory 2 (1):11-37.
    In response to the sonic media and ludicrosity of her time, Hortense J. Spillers' paradigmatic essay ""All the Things You Could Be by Now, If Sigmund (...) Freud's Wife Was Your Mother": Psychoanalysis and Race," transfigures Charles Mingus' melodic, cryptic, and most puzzling record title into a workable theoretical cacophony. Closely written within the contexts and outside the confines of "some vaguely defined territory between well established republics," Spillers is able to open up the sarcophagus of meaning(s) within the Black occupation of the psychoanalytic discourse. Mingus' original assertion, "all the things you could be by now, if Sigmund Freud's wife was your mother," means absolutely nothing insofar as it means everything in the face of constructed openings and invitations into "extending the realm of possibility for what might be known." As such, this article asks a similar question relating to what might be known about the sensual convergence of media, violence, and representation ('all the things we could see by now') of international, political, and theoretical significance. If anything, Spillers and Mingus compel us toward locating some semblance of forgotten relationality between what appears to be abstract, distant, and unfamiliar. Given our contemporary era of violent post-colonial terror and desires for alternatives to the afterlife of slavery, this article endorses the free-floating investigation into the live survey of unprotected human flesh in the specific case of Boko Haram's explosion in modern media. Is it possible that such a study is able to uncover the motive behind the assembly of spectatorship? Through a Freudian reading of human nature into international political theory, this article indicates that narrative formation and transmission is an essential component to the development of both ethno-universalisms and global constructions of race and captivity. (shrink)
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  20. Philosophy for Children in Australia: Then, Now, and Where to From Here?Gilbert Burgh & Simone Thornton - 2016 - Re-Engaging with Politics: Re-Imagining the University, 45th Annual Conference of the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia, ACU, Melbourne, 5-8 Dec 2015.
    In the late 1960s Matthew Lipman and his colleagues at IAPC developed an educational philosophy he called Philosophy for Children. At the heart of Philosophy for Children (...)
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  21.  76
    The Now What Problem for Error Theory.Matthew Lutz - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 171 (2):351-371.
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  22. Essential Dependence, Truthmaking, and Mereology: Then and Now.Ross Inman - 2012 - In Lukas Novak, Daniel D. Novotny, Prokop Sousedik & David Svoboda (eds.), Metaphysics: Aristotelian, Scholastic, Analytic. Ontos Verlag. pp. 73-90.
    One notable area in analytic metaphysics that has seen a revival of Aristotelian and scho- lastic inspired metaphysics is the return to a more robust construal of (...)
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  23. Standpoint Theory Then and Now.Alessandra Tanesini - forthcoming - In Routledge Handbook of Social Epistemology. London, UK:
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  24. All Together Now: Conventionalism and Everyday Moral Life.Erin Taylor - manuscript
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  25.  97
    Population and Having Children Now.Jan Narveson - 2017 - Journal of Practical Ethics 5 (2):49-61.
    This paper aims to state the obviousthe commonsense, rational approach to child-producing. We have no general obligation to promote either thegeneral happinessor the (...)
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  26. Hilbert's Program Then and Now.Richard Zach - 2007 - In Dale Jacquette (ed.), Philosophy of Logic. Amsterdam: North Holland. pp. 411–447.
    Hilberts program was an ambitious and wide-ranging project in the philosophy and foundations of mathematics. In order todispose of the foundational questions in mathematics once (...) and for all,” Hilbert proposed a two-pronged approach in 1921: first, classical mathematics should be formalized in axiomatic systems; second, using only restricted, “finitarymeans, one should give proofs of the consistency of these axiomatic systems. Although Gödels incompleteness theorems show that the program as originally conceived cannot be carried out, it had many partial successes, and generated important advances in logical theory and metatheory, both at the time and since. The article discusses the historical background and development of Hilberts program, its philosophical underpinnings and consequences, and its subsequent development and influences since the 1930s. (shrink)
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  27.  43
    How Do You Like Me Now?Gerald Hull - manuscript
    These reflections are an attempt to get to the heart of the "reason is the slave of the passions" debate. The whole point of deliberation is (...) to arrive at a choice. What factors persons find to be choice-relevant is a purely empirical matter. This has significant consequences for the views of Hume, Williams, Nagel, Parfit and Korsgaard regarding practical reason. (shrink)
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  28. NEUROTEOLOGÍA ¿ES HOY LA NUEVA TEOLOGÍA NATURAL? / Is Neurotheology Now the New Natural Theology?Miguel Acosta - 2015 - Naturaleza y Libertad. Revista de Estudios Interdisciplinares 5:11-51.
    La Neuroteología surge como una nueva forma de explicar las relaciones entre el ser humano y Dios, las religiones y la espiritualidad en general a partir de (...)
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  29. Now and in England:” Four Quartets, Place and Martin Heideggers Concept of Dwelling.Dominic Griffiths - 2012 - Yeats Eliot Review 29 (1/2):3-18.
    T.S. Eliots Four Quartets is foremost a meditation on the significance of place. Each quartet is named for a place which holds importance for Eliot, either (...) because of historical or personal memory. I argue that this importance is grounded in an ontological topology, by which I mean that the poem explores the fate of the individual and his/her heritage as inextricably bound up with the notion of place. This sense of place extends beyond the borders of a single life to encompass the remembered past and the unknown future. How this broader narrative of the passing and enduring of human existence can be better understood is a primary concern of the work of Martin Heidegger, in whose Being and Time the historical, situated context of an individual within a community is an important theme. Even more important is his later work in which this theme is extended to include place and dwelling. Dwelling is a particularly rich and poetic idea, weaving the narratological, topological and temporal aspects of human existence together, offering a challenge to modern technology thinking. This paper explores Heideggers thoughts on the topology of Being within the context of a poem which, I contend, is also telling the story of human situatedness, and attempting to understand what it means to truly dwell. (shrink)
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  30.  53
    Then and NowA Thomistic Account of History.Timothy Kearns - 2016 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 90:243-259.
    Thomists do not have a standard account of history as a discipline or of historical knowledge in general. Since Thomism is a tradition of thought derived in (...)
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  31. Now, Me.Terrance Tomkow - manuscript
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  32.  84
    Emerging Neurotechnologies for Lie-Detection: Where Are We Now? An Appraisal of Wolpe, Foster and Langleben'sEmerging Neurotechnologies for Lie-Detection: Promise and PerilsFive Years Later.Steven E. Hyman - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (10):49-50.
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  33.  42
    Review of David Coady, What to Believe Now: Applying Epistemology to Contemporary Issues (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012). [REVIEW]Diego E. Machuca - 2014 - Philosophy in Review 34 (3-4):139-141.
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  34.  96
    Are We All Scientific Experts Now[REVIEW]Thomas Vogt - 2015 - Physics Today 68:52.
    Book review of Harry Collins book 'Are we all scientific experts now?'.
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  35. False Spiritual Economy: Why anI Want It All and I Want It NowAttitude DoesnT Promote Spiritual Growth.Edo Shonin & William Van Gordon - 2014 - Meditation: Research and Practice.
    It is fair to say that in contemporary society there is a growing demand amongst consumers for instant gratification and for products and services that can be (...)
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  36.  69
    Who Should Do the Dishes Now? Exploring Gender and Housework in Contemporary Urban South Wales.Dawn Mannay - 2014 - Contemporary Wales 27 (1):21-39.
    This paper revisits Jane Pilcher's (1994) seminal chapter 'Who should do the dishes? Three generations of Welsh women talking about men and housework'. Two decades on (...)from the original study, the paper explores this question in contemporary south Wales by drawing upon data generated in a study of mothers and daughters residing in a Welsh, marginalized, urban housing area. The paper argues that in contemporary Wales, the domestic sphere remains a site of inequality, where women are negotiating the impossibility of being both in full-time employment and meeting the ideology of the 'Welsh Mam'. Furthermore, the work of women and the accompanying expectations have moved from being peripheral to becoming central; this places women in a psychological impasse where they identify themselves as 'lazy' when they cannot simultaneously fulfil these roles to the unreachable standards of the new respectable working-class femininity. (shrink)
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  37. Indexicals and the Metaphysics of Semantic Tokens: When Shapes and Sounds Become Utterances.Cathal O'Madagain - 2014 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 3 (1):71-79.
    To avoid difficulties facing intention-based accounts of indexicals, Cohen () recently defends a conventionalist account that focuses on the context of tokening. On this view, a token (...)
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  38. Relativity Theory May Not Have the Last Word on the Nature of Time: Quantum Theory and Probabilism.Nicholas Maxwell - 2017 - In G. Ghirardi & S. Wuppulur (eds.), Space, Time and the Limits of Human Understanding. Springer. pp. 109-124.
    Two radically different views about time are possible. According to the first, the universe is three dimensional. It has a past and a future, but that does (...)
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  39.  51
    We Need Progress in Ideas About How to Achieve Progress.Nicholas Maxwell - 2018 - Metascience (2).
    Steven Pinker's book Enlightenment NOW is in many ways a terrific book, from which I have learnt much. But it is also deeply flawed. Science and (...)reason are at the heart of the book, but the conceptions that Steven Pinker defends are damagingly irrational. And these defective conceptions of science and reason, as a result of being associated with the Enlightenment Programme for the past two or three centuries, have been responsible, in part, for the genesis of the global problems we now suffer from, and our current inability to deal with them properly. There is not a glimmering of an awareness of any of this in Pinkers book. This flaw in Enlightenment NOW is serious indeed. (shrink)
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  40.  33
    Tiempo lógico y tiempo real.Indalecio García - 2012 - Ontology Studies: Cuadernos de Ontología:289-301.
    Aristotle describes time as continuous (cf. Phys. 219a 10-15). We argue here, first, that the time's continuity and magnitude's continuity differ, even though time's (...)continuity depends on magnitude: actually a magnitude can be divided, that is, can fail to be continuous, but not time: time can be never actually divided, because an actual division in time would imply something like a real point in which time is denied, and that is impossible according to Aristotle (cf. Phys. 251b 10-28). The only divisions that time as continuous would admit are those made by the soul, i. e. only logical divisions. Secondly, we indicate that time could be considered from two perspectives: a logicalor, in a way, mathematical–, and other in the strict sense real. These two perspectives would be suggested by the distinction of meanings that Aristotle makes about the now (cf. Phys. 219b 10-13). The ontological perspective would show certain nexus between the Aristotle's analysis of time with those of contemporary Physics. (shrink)
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  41.  51
    The Specious Present: Background for My Students (Special Author V Woolf).Chatterjee Subhasis Chattopadhyay - manuscript
    This 4 slides' presentation is supplementary material for my students who have opted for Virginia Woolf as their Masters' 'special author'. The presentation shows how James' the (...)
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  42. Whitehead & the Elusive Present: Process Philosophy's Creative Core.Gregory M. Nixon - 2010 - Journal of Consciousness Exploration and Research 1 (5):625-639.
    Times arrow is necessary for progress from a past that has already happened to a future that is only potential until creatively determined in the present. (...)But times arrow is unnecessary in Einsteins so-called block universe, so there is no creative unfolding in an actual present. How can there be an actual present when there is no universal moment of simultaneity? Events in various places will have different presents according to the position, velocity, and nature of the perceiver. Standing against this view is traditional common sense since we normally experience times arrow as reality and the present as our place in the stream of consciousness, but we err to imagine we are living in the actual present. The present of our daily experience is actually a specious present, according to E. Robert Kelly (later popularized by William James), or duration, according to Henri Bergson, an habitus, as elucidated by Kerby (1991), or, simply, the psychological present (Adams, 2010) – all terms indicating that our experienced present so consists of the past overlapping into the future that any potential for acting from the creative moment is crowded out. Yet, for philosophers of process from Herakleitos onward, it is the philosophies of change or process that treat times arrow and the creative fire of the actual present as realities. In this essay, I examine the most well known but possibly least understood process cosmology of Alfred North Whitehead to seek out this elusive but actual present. In doing so, I will also ask if process philosophy is itself an example of the creative imagination and if this relates to doing science. I conclude Whitehead's process philosophy falls short of allowing for the actual creative spontaneity of a dynamic (eternal) present. (shrink)
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  43. Is Present Time a Precondition for the Existence of the Material and Public World?Dwight Holbrook - 2015 - Social Epistemology 29 (1):118-144.
    Is Present Time a Precondition for the Existence of the Material and Public World?. . ???aop.label???. doi: 10.1080/02691728.2013.782591.
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  44.  86
    Remembering My Life with Peter Hare.John Corcoran - 2008 - Philosophy Now 58:62-70.
    Excerpts and paraphrases of this memoir appeared in 2008 and 2009. I posted it in full here in happy memory of Peter Hare and my joyful years (...)
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  45.  61
    Background Category and Its Place in the Material World.Dwight Holbrook - 2010 - Mind and Matter 8 (2):145-165.
    However robust the mind's cognitive strategies of objectifying and rendering in object terms conscious experience, there is nevertheless that which resists object/substantivity categorization: an exteriority that (...) comes out of perception itself and that is here termed the 'background '. In seeking out, in this inquiry, the non- objectified and non-thingness part of the observed world, we must first of all distinguish this background from such misrepresenta- tions as mere 'seeming '. The background -- while not thing-like or detectable as data will be defended as existing concretely and empirically to the observer, notwithstanding our objectifying and substantive way of framing our understanding of the world. It will be shown to have verifiability despite being knowable only from the first-person perspective. The aim is to demonstrate its presence by way of a number of its features, and to show that far from being a mere subjective quality, it stands as real as do spatial objects or whatever arises spatially as a discretizable information source in the empirical world. (shrink)
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  46.  12
    McTaggart Saves Schrodinger's Cat?Paul Merriam - manuscript
    This paper proposes an interpretation of time that is an 'A-theory' in that it incorporates both McTaggart's A-series and his B-series. The A-series characteristics (...) are supposed to be 'ontologically private' analogous to qualia in the Inverted Spectrum thought experiment and is given a definition. The main idea is that the experimenter and the cat do not share the same A-series characteristics. So there is no single time at which the cat gets ascribed different states. It is proposed one may define a 'unit of becoming' that coordinatizes the future/present/past spectrum as well as allowing one to calculate the rates of becoming. We give a picture of this interpretation and discuss how it relates to the Schrodinger's Cat 'paradox'. Also relativity is briefly considered. (shrink)
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  47.  18
    Notes 2 A Theory of Time 6 7 2019.Paul Merriam - manuscript
    A theory of time was proposed in "A theory of time", an early version of which is on PhilPapers. The idea was that the A-series (...)
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  48. In Light of the Theory of Special Relativity is a Passage of Time and the Argument of the Presentist Untenable?Mekhi Dhesi - 2016 - Dissertation, University College London
    In light of the Special Theory of Relativity and the Minkowski creation ofspacetime’, the universe is taken to be a four-dimensional entity which postulates bodies (...)as existing within a temporally extended reality. The Special Theory of Relativitys implications liken the nature of the universe to ablockwithin which all events coexist equally in spacetime. Such a view strikes against the very essence of presentism, which holds that all that exists is the instantaneous state of objects in the present moment. With respect to the present moment, events have a clear division into the past or future, however such regions do not exist in reality and the universe is a three-dimensional entity. The consequences of a four-dimensional universe are disturbing to say the least for our everyday human experience, with once objective facts about reality becoming dependent upon an observers relative motion and the debate over the extent of true free will in a Block Universe. This paper will look at arguments which seek to rescue the presentist view in light of Special Relativity so such four-dimensionalist implications do not have to be accepted. Two approaches will be considered. The first accepts that presentism is incompatible with Special Relativity, and seeks to show that the theory is ultimately false. The second holds that it is the Block Universe interpretation of Special Relativity that is wrong, and a version of presentism can be reconciled with Special Relativity. The paper will expound and critically examine both of these approaches to review whether the case for the three-dimensionalist and a fundamental passage of time can be made. (shrink)
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  49. Existence Is Evidence of Immortality.Michael Huemer - manuscript
    Time may be infinite in both directions. If it is, then, if persons could live at most once in all of time, the probability that you would (...)
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  50. Person as Scientist, Person as Moralist.Joshua Knobe - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):315.
    It has often been suggested that peoples ordinary capacities for understanding the world make use of much the same methods one might find in a formal (...)scientific investigation. A series of recent experimental results offer a challenge to this widely-held view, suggesting that peoples moral judgments can actually influence the intuitions they hold both in folk psychology and in causal cognition. The present target article distinguishes two basic approaches to explaining such effects. One approach would be to say that the relevant competencies are entirely non-moral but that some additional factor (conversational pragmatics, performance error, etc.) then interferes and allows peoples moral judgments to affect their intuitions. Another approach would be to say that moral considerations truly do figure in workings of the competencies themselves. It is argued that the data available now favor the second of these approaches over the first. (shrink)
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