Results for 'oppositions'

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  1. Oppositions and Opposites.Fabien Schang - 2012 - In J.-Y. Beziau & Dale Jacquette (eds.), Around and Beyond the Square of Opposition. Bâle, Suisse: Birkhäuser. pp. 147--173.
    A formal theory of oppositions and opposites is proposed on the basis of a non- Fregean semantics, where opposites are negation-forming operators that shed some new light on the connection between opposition and negation. The paper proceeds as follows. After recalling the historical background, oppositions and opposites are compared from a mathematical perspective: the first occurs as a relation, the second as a function. Then the main point of the paper appears with a calculus of oppositions, by (...)
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  2. An Arithmetization of Logical Oppositions.Fabien Schang - 2016 - In Jean-Yves Beziau & Gianfranco Basti (eds.), The Square of Opposition: A Cornerstone of Thought. Bâle, Suisse: pp. 215-237.
    An arithmetic theory of oppositions is devised by comparing expressions, Boolean bitstrings, and integers. This leads to a set of correspondences between three domains of investigation, namely: logic, geometry, and arithmetic. The structural properties of each area are investigated in turn, before justifying the procedure as a whole. Io finish, I show how this helps to improve the logical calculus of oppositions, through the consideration of corresponding operations between integers.
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  3. Abstract Logic of Oppositions.Fabien Schang - 2012 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 21 (4):415--438.
    A general theory of logical oppositions is proposed by abstracting these from the Aristotelian background of quantified sentences. Opposition is a relation that goes beyond incompatibility (not being true together), and a question-answer semantics is devised to investigate the features of oppositions and opposites within a functional calculus. Finally, several theoretical problems about its applicability are considered.
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  4.  75
    Questions and Answers About Oppositions.Fabien Schang - 2011 - In Jean-Yves Beziau & Gillman Payette (eds.), The Square of Opposition: A General Framework for Cognition. Berne, Suisse: pp. 289-319.
    A general characterization of logical opposition is given in the present paper, where oppositions are defined by specific answers in an algebraic question-answer game. It is shown that opposition is essentially a semantic relation of truth values between syntactic opposites, before generalizing the theory of opposition from the initial Apuleian square to a variety of alter- native geometrical representations. In the light of this generalization, the famous problem of existential import is traced back to an ambiguous interpretation of assertoric (...)
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  5.  60
    Logic in Opposition.Fabien Schang - 2013 - Studia Humana 2 (3):31-45.
    It is claimed hereby that, against a current view of logic as a theory of consequence, opposition is a basic logical concept that can be used to define consequence itself. This requires some substantial changes in the underlying framework, including: a non-Fregean semantics of questions and answers, instead of the usual truth-conditional semantics; an extension of opposition as a relation between any structured objects; a definition of oppositions in terms of basic negation. Objections to this claim will be reviewed.
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  6. Greimas Embodied: How Kinesthetic Opposition Grounds the Semiotic Square.Jamin Pelkey - 2017 - Semiotica 2017 (214):277-305.
    According to Greimas, the semiotic square is far more than a heuristic for semantic and literary analysis. It represents the generative “deep structure” of human culture and cognition which “define the fundamental mode of existence of an individual or of a society, and subsequently the conditions of existence of semiotic objects” (Greimas & Rastier 1968: 48). The potential truth of this hypothesis, much less the conditions and implications of taking it seriously (as a truth claim), have received little attention in (...)
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  7. The Square of Opposition and Generalized Quantifiers.Duilio D'Alfonso - 2012 - In J.-Y. Beziau & Dale Jacquette (eds.), Around and Beyond the Square of Opposition. Birkhäuser. pp. 219--227.
    In this paper I propose a set-theoretical interpretation of the logical square of opposition, in the perspective opened by generalized quantifier theory. Generalized quantifiers allow us to account for the semantics of quantificational Noun Phrases, and of other natural language expressions, in a coherent and uniform way. I suggest that in the analysis of the meaning of Noun Phrases and Determiners the square of opposition may help representing some semantic features responsible to different logical properties of these expressions. I will (...)
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  8.  61
    Oppositions in a Line Segment.Alexandre Costa-Leite - 2018 - South American Journal of Logic 4 (1):185-193.
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  9. Dichotomies and Oppositions in Legal Argumentation.Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas Walton - 2010 - Ratio Juris 23 (2):229-257.
    In this paper we use a series of examples to show how oppositions and dichotomies are fundamental in legal argumentation, and vitally important to be aware of, because of their twofold nature. On the one hand, they are argument structures underlying various kinds of rational argumentation commonly used in law as a means of getting to the truth in a conflict of opinion under critical discussion by two opposing sides before a tryer of fact. On the other hand, they (...)
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  10. Assertion and Hypothesis: A Logical Framework for Their Opposition Relations.Massimiliano Carrara, Daniele Chiffi & Ciro De Florio - 2017 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 25 (2):131-144.
    Following the speech act theory, we take hypotheses and assertions as linguistic acts with different illocutionary forces. We assume that a hypothesis is justified if there is at least a scintilla of evidence for the truth of its propositional content, while an assertion is justified when there is conclusive evidence that its propositional content is true. Here we extend the logical treatment for assertions given by Dalla Pozza and Garola by outlining a pragmatic logic for assertions and hypotheses. On the (...)
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  11.  41
    Oppositions in a Point.Alexandre Costa-Leite - manuscript
    Following a previous article (cf. Costa-Leite, A. (2018). Oppositions in a line segment, South American Journal of Logic, 4(1), pp.185-193) in which logical oppositions are defined in a line segment, this article goes one step further and proposes a method defining them using a zero-dimensional object: a point.
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  12.  19
    Logically-Consistent Hypothesis Testing and the Hexagon of Oppositions.Julio Michael Stern, Rafael Izbicki, Luis Gustavo Esteves & Rafael Bassi Stern - 2017 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 25 (5):741-757.
    Although logical consistency is desirable in scientific research, standard statistical hypothesis tests are typically logically inconsistent. To address this issue, previous work introduced agnostic hypothesis tests and proved that they can be logically consistent while retaining statistical optimality properties. This article characterizes the credal modalities in agnostic hypothesis tests and uses the hexagon of oppositions to explain the logical relations between these modalities. Geometric solids that are composed of hexagons of oppositions illustrate the conditions for these modalities to (...)
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  13. New Dimensions of the Square of Opposition.Jean-Yves Béziau & Stamatios Gerogiorgakis (eds.) - 2017 - Munich: Philosophia.
    The square of opposition is a diagram related to a theory of oppositions that goes back to Aristotle. Both the diagram and the theory have been discussed throughout the history of logic. Initially, the diagram was employed to present the Aristotelian theory of quantification, but extensions and criticisms of this theory have resulted in various other diagrams. The strength of the theory is that it is at the same time fairly simple and quite rich. The theory of oppositions (...)
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  14.  44
    Where Opposites Meet: Mathematics Between Science And Humanities.Ivano Zanzarella - 2019 - Scienza E Filosofia 22:302-321.
    The connection between science and mathematics is often considered necessary and insoluble. Therefore, a relationship between mathematics and humanities or arts is deemed exceptional or sometimes unnatural. Nevertheless, on the basis of historical, ontological and epistemological researches it can be noted that it’s impossible to warrant the immediate identification between mathematics and sciences on a deeper level than the practical one. Given the instrumentality and then the unnecessity of this connection, the relationship between mathematics and not-scientific disciplines is undeniable, even (...)
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  15.  38
    Rogue Opposition: Against Raikka's Genuine Opposition Thesis.Jeremy Watkins-Quesada - manuscript
    Juha Raikka argues against disassociation from collective responsibility based on a premise of logical inconsistency insofar as the conclusion ‘one is not guilty’ does not necessarily follow from the premise that ‘everyone is guilty.’ Raikka builds his case on a fictionalized national, ethnic, or cultural group that participates in human sacrifices for the sake of ‘medical reasons’ or human health. He concedes that this fictionalized group bears an uncanny resemblance to Western society and their proposed collective responsibility for practices ranging (...)
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  16.  29
    Oppositional Ideas, Not Dichotomous Thinking: Reply to Rorty.Hasana Sharp - 2010 - Political Theory 38 (1):142-147.
    Rorty finds that my own appropriation of Spinoza toward a re-conception of ideology critique falls short, however, by (a) failing to “take Spinoza’s mind-body identity seriously” and by (b) advocating a “battle of ideas” rather than an enlargement of perspective. She presents an illuminating analysis of how, according to Spinoza, dichotomies serve as blunt provisional tools that become counterproductive once understanding is reached. She suggests that I preserve certain distinctions to the detriment of my own liberation project, such as the (...)
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  17. From Opposition to Reciprocity: Karl Jaspers on Science, Philosophy, and What Lies Between Them.Ronny Miron - 2004 - International Philosophical Quarterly 44 (2):147-163.
    This article deals with the relationship between philosophy and science in the writings of Karl Jaspers and with its reception in the wider scholarly literature. The problem discussed is how to characterize the relationship that exists between science—defined on pure Kantian grounds as a universally valid knowledge of phenomenal objects—and philosophy—conceived by Jaspers as the transcending mode of thinking of personal Existenz rising towards the totality and unity of Being. Two solutions to that problem arise from Jaspers’s writings. The oppositionist (...)
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  18. Squares of Oppositions, Commutative Diagrams, and Galois Connections for Topological Spaces and Similarity Structures.Thomas Mormann - manuscript
    The aim of this paper is to elucidate the relationship between Aristotelian conceptual oppositions, commutative diagrams of relational structures, and Galois connections.This is done by investigating in detail some examples of Aristotelian conceptual oppositions arising from topological spaces and similarity structures. The main technical device for this endeavor is the notion of Galois connections of order structures.
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  19.  61
    Ethical Narratives and Oppositional Consciousness.John Proios - forthcoming - Apa Newsletter on Feminism and Philosophy.
    The purpose of this paper is to consider the ethical, political, and epistemological dimensions of upward mobility, through higher education, from a personal perspective. I explore some of the contradictions exposed in my experience pursuing aphilosophy Ph.D., in light of scholarship highlighting challenges for low socio-economic status (SES) undergraduate students. I evaluate the proposal from the philosopher Jennifer M. Morton (2019) that low-SES students need ‘clear-eyed ethical narratives’ to navigate higher education. I argue that, in order to develop these narratives, (...)
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  20.  63
    How Theoretically Opposite Models of Interethnic Power-Sharing Can Complement Each Other and Contribute to Political Stabilization: The Case of Nigeria.Krzysztof Trzcinski - 2016 - Politeja 42 (3):53-73.
    The aim of this article is to demonstrate the thesis that the stabilization of Nigeria’s complicated political situation is furthered by the functioning in that country of institutions based on two models of interethnic power-sharing – consociationalism and centripetalism – and that the two are to some extent complementary in Nigerian practice, despite the fact that political theory sees the two as opposites of each other. The article begins with a short analysis of the political situation in Nigeria. This is (...)
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  21.  40
    Scepticisme, Fidéisme Et Évidentialisme : Oppositions Et Origines.Artūrs Logins - 2013 - Dialogue 51 (4):613-642.
    Les principales attitudes adoptées devant les questions centrales de l’épistémologie générale sont selon nous l’évidentialisme, le scepticisme et le fidéisme. Dans cet article, nous présentons d’une part les arguments permettant d’accepter une forme de l’évidentialisme selon laquelle aucune croyance fausse ne peut être justifiée sur la base de raisons probantes. D’autre part, nous proposons de considérer l’aspect historique de l’émergence de l’évidentialisme au début des Lumières. Nous explorons un cas particulier qui témoigne de l’émergence de l’évidentialisme moderne comme opposition au (...)
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  22. From Aristotle’s Oppositions to Aristotelian Oppositions.Fabien Schang - 2017 - In Valery V. Petroff (ed.), The Legacies of Aristotle as Constitutive Element of European Rationality: Proceedings of the Moscow International Conference on Aristotle. Moscou, Russie:
    Aristotle’s philosophy is considered with respect to one central concept of his philosophy, viz. opposition. Far from being a mere side-effect of syllogistic, it is argued in the present paper that opposition helps to articulate ontology and logic through an account of what can be or cannot be in a systematic and structural way. The paper is divided into three main parts. In Section I, the notion of Being is scrutinized through Aristotle’s theory of categories. In Section II, the notion (...)
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  23. ARE DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY OPPOSITE EFFECTS OF THE QUANTUM VACUUM? Guillen - manuscript
    In the standard model of cosmology, λCDM, were introduced to explain the anomalies of the orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters highest according estimated by General Relativity the dark matter and the accelerated expansion of the universe the dark energy. The model λCDM is based in the equations of the General Relativity that of the total mass-energy of the universe assigns 4.9% to matter (including only baryonic matter), 26.8%, to dark matter and 68.3% to dark energy adjusted according observed in (...)
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  24. Difference, Dissemination, Opposition, Pharmakon.Khristos Nizamis - 2001 - In V. E. Taylor & C. E. Winquist (eds.), Encyclopedia of Postmodernism. Routledge. pp. 97-99, 103-104, 266-267, 279-281.
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  25. Quantum Complementarity: Both Duality and Opposition.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Metaphysics eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 13 (13):1-6.
    Quantum complementarity is interpreted in terms of duality and opposition. Any two conjugates are considered both as dual and opposite. Thus quantum mechanics introduces a mathematical model of them in an exact and experimental science. It is based on the complex Hilbert space, which coincides with the dual one. The two dual Hilbert spaces model both duality and opposition to resolve unifying the quantum and smooth motions. The model involves necessarily infinity even in any finitely dimensional subspace of the complex (...)
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  26. Halted Democracy: Government Hijacking of the New Opposition in Azerbaijan.Altay Goyushov & Ilkin Huseynli - 2019 - In Olaf Leiße (ed.), Politik und Gesellschaft im Kaukasus: Eine unruhige Region zwischen Tradition und Transformation. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer VS. pp. 27-51.
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  27. ARE DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY OPPOSITE EFFECTS OF THE QUANTUM VACUUM?Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez - manuscript
    In the standard model of cosmology, λCDM, were introduced to explain the anomalies of the orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters highest according estimated by General Relativity the dark matter and the accelerated expansion of the universe the dark energy. The model λCDM is based in the equations of the General Relativity that of the total mass-energy of the universe assigns 4.9% to matter (including only baryonic matter), 26.8%, to dark matter and 68.3% to dark energy adjusted according observed in (...)
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  28. Feeling, Knowledge, Self-Preservation: Audre Lorde’s Oppositional Agency and Some Implications for Ethics.Caleb Ward - 2020 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 6 (4):463-482.
    Throughout her work, Audre Lorde maintains that her self-preservation in the face of oppression depends on acting from the recognition and valorization of her feelings as a deep source of knowledge. This claim, taken as a portrayal of agency, poses challenges to standard positions in ethics, epistemology, and moral psychology. This article examines the oppositional agency articulated by Lorde’s thought, locating feeling, poetry, and the power she calls “the erotic” within her avowed project of self-preservation. It then explores the implications (...)
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  29. The Splendid and the Savage: The Dance of the Opposites in Indigenous Andean Thought.Hillary S. Webb - 2013 - Journal of Transpersonal Research 4 (1).
    One of the most well-known and defining characteristics of indigenous Andean thought is its adherence to a “complementary dualism” in which the “opposites” of existence are viewed as interdependent parts of a harmonious whole. This is in many ways in stark contrast to Western philosophical models, which have historically tended towards an “antagonistic dualism,” the view that the opposites are engaged in an eternal struggle for dominance. This paper considers how a culture’s relationship to the opposites—whether seen as a “war” (...)
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  30. Kant on Negative Quantities, Real Opposition and Inertia.Jennifer McRobert - manuscript
    Kant's obscure essay entitled An Attempt to Introduce the Concept of Negative Quantities into Philosophy has received virtually no attention in the Kant literature. The essay has been in English translation for over twenty years, though not widely available. In his original 1983 translation, Gordon Treash argues that the Negative Quantities essay should be understood as part of an ongoing response to the philosophy of Christian Wolff. Like Hoffmann and Crusius before him, the Kant of 1763 is at odds with (...)
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  31. Judith Butler's Critique of Binary Gender Opposition in Gender Trouble: A Task-Based Lesson Sequence.Sasha S. Euler - 2018 - In M. Eisenmann & C. Ludwig (ed.), Queer Beats: Gender and Literature in the EFL Classroom. Frankfurt, Germany: pp. 439-460.
    This chapter presents a task-based lesson sequence based on Judith Butler's Gender Trouble. Gender Trouble is a great piece of philosophical literature. However, as philosophical literature is a genre rarely found in EFL teaching, this chapter first demonstrates in detail the merits of this genre for the teaching ofEnglish for Academic Purposes. After a brief analysis of the source text, which deconstructs the entire sex-gender link and presents both sex and gender as free-floating, this chapter presents task-based methodology and how (...)
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  32.  70
    The Weakness of the Law: The Opposition of Concept and Life in Hegel’s Early Ethics.W. Clark Wolf - 2017 - In Evangelia Sembou (ed.), The Young Hegel and Religion. New York, NY, USA: Peter Lang. pp. 142-72.
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  33. Independence of the Grossone-Based Infinity Methodology From Non-Standard Analysis and Comments Upon Logical Fallacies in Some Texts Asserting the Opposite.Yaroslav D. Sergeyev - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (1):153-170.
    This paper considers non-standard analysis and a recently introduced computational methodology based on the notion of ①. The latter approach was developed with the intention to allow one to work with infinities and infinitesimals numerically in a unique computational framework and in all the situations requiring these notions. Non-standard analysis is a classical purely symbolic technique that works with ultrafilters, external and internal sets, standard and non-standard numbers, etc. In its turn, the ①-based methodology does not use any of these (...)
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  34. Pleasure and Its Contraries.Olivier Massin - 2014 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 5 (1):15-40.
    What is the contrary of pleasure? “Pain” is one common answer. This paper argues that pleasure instead has two natural contraries: unpleasure and hedonic indifference. This view is defended by drawing attention to two often-neglected concepts: the formal relation of polar opposition and the psychological state of hedonic indifference. The existence of mixed feelings, it is argued, does not threaten the contrariety of pleasure and unpleasure.
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  35.  61
    End of the Square?Fabien Schang - 2018 - South American Journal of Logic 4 (2):485-505.
    It has been recently argued that the well-known square of opposition is a gathering that can be reduced to a one-dimensional figure, an ordered line segment of positive and negative integers [3]. However, one-dimensionality leads to some difficulties once the structure of opposed terms extends to more complex sets. An alternative algebraic semantics is proposed to solve the problem of dimensionality in a systematic way, namely: partition (or bitstring) semantics. Finally, an alternative geometry yields a new and unique pattern of (...)
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  36.  39
    Computational Dynamics of Natural Information Morphology, Discretely Continuous.Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic - 2017 - Philosophies 2 (4):23.
    This paper presents a theoretical study of the binary oppositions underlying the mechanisms of natural computation understood as dynamical processes on natural information morphologies. Of special interest are the oppositions of discrete vs. continuous, structure vs. process, and differentiation vs. integration. The framework used is that of computing nature, where all natural processes at different levels of organisation are computations over informational structures. The interactions at different levels of granularity/organisation in nature, and the character of the phenomena that (...)
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  37. On the Integration of Populism into the Democratic Public Sphere.Gheorghe-Ilie Farte - 2017 - Argumentum. Journal of the Seminar of Discursive Logic, Argumentation Theory and Rhetoric 15 (2):87-109.
    The central thesis of this article is that populism is a side effect of liberal democracy and a reliable indicator of the relationship between liberal democracy and its polar opposite ‒ illiberal majoritarianism. As long as liberal democracy prevails over illiberal majoritarianism, populism remains dormant. Populism rises and becomes conspicuous only if certain manifestations of illiberal majoritarianism or illiberal elitism reach a critical point in terms of number and impact. More exactly, populism becomes active when there are too few reasonable (...)
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  38. What is Wrong with Nimbys? Renewable Energy, Landscape Impacts and Incommensurable Values.Anne Schwenkenbecher - 2017 - Environmental Values 26 (6):711-732.
    Local opposition to infrastructure projects implementing renewable energy (RE) such as wind farms is often strong even if state-wide support for RE is strikingly high. The slogan “Not In My BackYard” (NIMBY) has become synonymous for this kind of protest. This paper revisits the question of what is wrong with NIMBYs about RE projects and how to best address them. I will argue that local opponents to wind farm (and other RE) developments do not necessarily fail to contribute their fair (...)
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  39.  56
    The Cause of Cosmic Rotation in Aristotle’s Metaphysics Xii 6-7.John Proios - 2020 - Ancient Philosophy 40 (2):349-367.
    In Metaphysics Λ.6-7 Aristotle argues that an unmoved substance causes the outermost sphere to rotate. His argument has puzzled and divided commentators from ancient Greece to the present. I offer a novel defense of Aristotle's argument by highlighting the logic of classification that Aristotle deploys. The core of Aristotle's argument is the identification of the unmoved substance on the 'table of opposites' as simple and purely actual. With this identification in place, Aristotle argues that the outermost sphere activates its capacity (...)
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  40. Human Enhancement and the Giftedness of Life.Michael Hauskeller - 2011 - Philosophical Papers 40 (1):55-79.
    Michael Sandel's opposition to the project of human enhancement is based on an argument that centres on the notion of giftedness. Sandel claims that by trying to ?make better people? we fall prey to, and encourage, an attitude of mastery and thus lose, or diminish, our appreciation of the giftedness of life. Sandel's position and the underlying argument have been much criticised. In this paper I will try to make sense of Sandel's reasoning and give an account of giftedness that (...)
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  41. The Implicit Logic of Hesiod's Cosmogony.Mitchell Miller - 1983 - Independent Journal of Philosophy:131-142.
    A close examination of the implicit logic that guides Hesiod's account of the genesis of the cosmos in the Theogony 116-133, with special attention to his choice of Chaos as the first born and to the logical relations between opposites and between whole and parts as these emerge within, as the structuring principles of, Hesiod's ordering of the births of cosmic elements.
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  42. Philosophical Foundations of the Death and Anti-Death Discussion.Jeremy Horne - 2017 - Death And Anti-Death Set of Anthologies 15:72.
    Perhaps there has been no greater opportunity than in this “VOLUME FIFTEEN of our Death And Anti-Death set of anthologies” to write about how might think about life and how to avoid death. There are two reasons to discuss “life”, the first being enhancing our understanding of who we are and why we may be here in the Universe. The second is more practical: how humans meet the physical challenges brought about by the way they have interacted with their environment. (...)
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  43. On the Possible Foreign Policy of the Post-Putin Russia: The Case of Alexei Navalny’s Viewpoints on Foreign Affairs.Artem Patalakh - 2018 - Central European Journal of International and Security Studies 12 (1):9-31.
    The study delves into the foreign policy plans of Alexei Navalny, the Russian politician who is currently commonly regarded as the most prominent opposition leader and the sole plausible alternative to Vladimir Putin. Drawing on his interviews, public speeches, media publications and electoral manifestos, the author analyses his foreign policy views alongside three topics, that is, Russia’s policies towards disputed lands and states in the post-Soviet area (Crimea, Donbas, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Transnistria), the country’s foreign policy orientation and priorities (especially (...)
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  44.  47
    On Classical Set-Compatibility.Luis Felipe Bartolo Alegre - 2020 - El Jardín de Senderos Que Se Bifurcan y Confluyen: Filosofía, Lógica y Matemáticas.
    In this paper, I generalise the logical concept of compatibility into a broader set-theoretical one. The basic idea is that two sets are incompatible if they produce at least one pair of opposite objects under some operation. I formalise opposition as an operation ′ ∶ E → E, where E is the set of opposable elements of our universe U, and I propose some models. From this, I define a relation ℘U × ℘U × ℘U^℘U, which has (mutual) logical compatibility (...)
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  45. Ideological Diversity, Hostility, and Discrimination in Philosophy.Uwe Peters, Nathan Honeycutt, Andreas De Block & Lee Jussim - 2020 - Philosophical Psychology 33 (4):511-548.
    Members of the field of philosophy have, just as other people, political convictions or, as psychologists call them, ideologies. How are different ideologies distributed and perceived in the field? Using the familiar distinction between the political left and right, we surveyed an international sample of 794 subjects in philosophy. We found that survey participants clearly leaned left (75%), while right-leaning individuals (14%) and moderates (11%) were underrepresented. Moreover, and strikingly, across the political spectrum, from very left-leaning individuals and moderates to (...)
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  46.  45
    Quasi-Concepts of Logic.Fabien Schang - forthcoming - In Alexandre Costa Leite (ed.), Abstract Consequence and Logics - Essays in Honor of Edelcio G. de Souza" edited by A. Costa-Leite. Londres, Royaume-Uni: pp. 245-266.
    A analysis of some concepts of logic is proposed, around the work of Edelcio de Souza. Two of his related issues will be emphasized, namely: opposition, and quasi-truth. After a review of opposition between logical systems [2], its extension to many-valuedness is considered following a special semantics including partial operators [13]. Following this semantic framework, the concepts of antilogic and counterlogic are translated into opposition-forming operators [15] and specified as special cases of contradictoriness and contrariety. Then quasi-truth [5] is introduced (...)
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  47.  28
    Логические Посылки Научного Метода Галена.Andrey Shcheglov - 2018 - Schole 12 (1):147-166.
    The article is devoted to the analysis of the evident scientific method of Galen, which establishes the necessity of correct diagnosis of diseases, determination of true symptoms and causes of diseases, which results in the choice of the exact method of treatment. The article focuses on how Galen seeks to achieve reliable knowledge based on an undeniable logical necessity. Logical reliability is contrasted with “dialectical”, that is, probabilistic judgments, often leading to the opposite of what was originally asserted in them. (...)
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  48.  46
    ROMANTICISM IN WS RENDRA's SURAT CINTA.Andi Kaharuddin - 2021 - Psychology and Education 58 (1):5670-5680.
    Poetry is a literary work of two different worlds, the ideal world and the factual world. This research describes the ideal world and the factual world, gap/opposition or equivalent. The method is descriptive qualitative. The research results showed an equivalent and opposition in the poetry of Surat Cinta (love letter) by WS Rendra. The equivalent is seen in the aspects of romance leading to: (1) passion, (2) love, (3) remembered and thought in the heart, (4) restless, (5) worried, and (6) (...)
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  49.  87
    Hryhorij Skovoroda's Metaphilosophy.Ihor Karivets' - forthcoming - Humanitarian Visions.
    In this article the heritage of Hryhorij Skovoroda is considered from the metaphilosophical point of view. This point of view is useful because it allows seeing some syncretism as unity of philosophy, theology, religion, myth, and poetry in the heritage of Hryhorij Skovoroda. Therefore, the author stresses that when we analyze the Hryhorij Skovoroda’s heritage it is wrong to divide it into such parts as philosophy, theology, religion, myth, and poetry. This division doesn’t lead to the whole understanding of Hryhorij (...)
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  50. Disagreement as Evidence: The Epistemology of Controversy.David Christensen - 2009 - Philosophy Compass 4 (5):756-767.
    How much should your confidence in your beliefs be shaken when you learn that others – perhaps 'epistemic peers' who seem as well-qualified as you are – hold beliefs contrary to yours? This article describes motivations that push different philosophers towards opposite answers to this question. It identifies a key theoretical principle that divides current writers on the epistemology of disagreement. It then examines arguments bearing on that principle, and on the wider issue. It ends by describing some outstanding questions (...)
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