Results for 'research ethics'

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  1. International Research Ethics Education.J. Millum, B. Sina & R. Glass - 2015 - Journal of the American Medical Association 313 (5):461-62.
    This paper assesses the state of research ethics in low- and middle-income countries and the achievements of the Fogarty International Center's bioethics training program since 2000. The vision of FIC for the next decade of research ethics education is encapsulated in four proposed goals: (1) Ensure sufficient expertise in ethics review by having someone with long-term training on every high-workload REC; (2) Develop LMIC capacity to conduct original research on critical ethical issues by supporting (...)
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  2. Introduction: The Fogarty International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development Program in Historical Context.Joseph Millum, Christine Grady, Gerald Keusch & Barbara Sina - 2013 - Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: An International Journal 8 (5):3-16.
    In response to the increasing need for research ethics expertise in low and middle income countries (LMICs), the NIH's Fogarty International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development Program has provided grants for the development of training programs in international research ethics for LMIC professionals since 2000. This collection of papers draws upon the combined expertise of Fogarty grantees, trainees, and other experts to assess the state of research ethics in LMICs, and the (...)
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  3. Introduction: International Research Ethics Education.J. Millum - 2014 - Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: An International Journal 9 (2):1-2.
    NIH's fogarty international Center has provided grants for the development of training programs in international research ethics for low- and middle-income (LMIC) professionals since 2000. Drawing on 12 years of research ethics training experience, a group of Fogarty grantees, trainees, and other ethics experts sought to map the current capacity and need for research ethics in LMICs, analyze the lessons learned about teaching bioethics, and chart a way forward for research ethics (...)
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  4. Research Ethics: Ethics and Methods in Surgical Trials.C. Ashton, N. Wray, A. Jarman, J. Kolman & D. Wenner - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (9):579-583.
    This paper focuses on invasive therapeutic procedures, defined as procedures requiring the introduction of hands, instruments, or devices into the body via incisions or punctures of the skin or mucous membranes performed with the intent of changing the natural history of a human disease or condition for the better. Ethical and methodological concerns have been expressed about studies designed to evaluate the effects of invasive therapeutic procedures. Can such studies meet the same standards demanded of those, for example, evaluating pharmaceutical (...)
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  5. Should Research Ethics Encourage the Production of Cost-Effective Interventions?Govind Persad - 2016 - In Daniel Strech & Marcel Mertz (eds.), Ethics and Governance of Biomedical Research: Theory and Practice. Springer. pp. 13-28.
    This project considers whether and how research ethics can contribute to the provision of cost-effective medical interventions. Clinical research ethics represents an underexplored context for the promotion of cost-effectiveness. In particular, although scholars have recently argued that research on less-expensive, less-effective interventions can be ethical, there has been little or no discussion of whether ethical considerations justify curtailing research on more expensive, more effective interventions. Yet considering cost-effectiveness at the research stage can help (...)
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  6. Political Activism and Research Ethics.Ben Jones - 2020 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (2):233-248.
    Those who care about and engage in politics frequently fall victim to cognitive bias. Concerns that such bias impacts scholarship recently have prompted debates—notably, in philosophy and psychology—on the proper relationship between research and politics. One proposal emerging from these debates is that researchers studying politics have a professional duty to avoid political activism because it risks biasing their work. While sympathetic to the motivations behind this proposal, I suggest several reasons to reject a blanket duty to avoid activism: (...)
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  7. The Role of Research Ethics Committees in Making Decisions About Risk.Allison Ross & Nafsika Athanassoulis - 2014 - HEC Forum 26 (3):203-224.
    Most medical research and a substantial amount of non-medical research, especially that involving human participants, is governed by some kind of research ethics committee (REC) following the recommendations of the Declaration of Helsinki for the protection of human participants. The role of RECs is usually seen as twofold: firstly, to make some kind of calculation of the risks and benefits of the proposed research, and secondly, to ensure that participants give informed consent. The extent to (...)
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  8.  52
    Emergency Care Research Ethics in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.Joseph Millum, Blythe Beecroft, Timothy C. Hardcastle, Jon Mark Hirshon, Adnan A. Hyder, Jennifer A. Newberry & Carla Saenz - 2019 - BMJ Global Health 4:e001260.
    A large proportion of the total global burden of disease is caused by emergency medical conditions. Emergency care research is essential to improving emergency medicine but this research can raise some distinctive ethical challenges, especially with regard to (1) standard of care and risk–benefit assessment; (2) blurring of the roles of clinician and researcher; (3) enrolment of populations with intersecting vulnerabilities; (4) fair participant selection; (5) quality of consent; and (6) community engagement. Despite the importance of research (...)
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  9. An Ethics Framework for Big Data in Health and Research.Vicki Xafis, G. Owen Schaefer, Markus K. Labude, Iain Brassington, Angela Ballantyne, Hannah Yeefen Lim, Wendy Lipworth, Tamra Lysaght, Cameron Stewart, Shirley Sun, Graeme T. Laurie & E. Shyong Tai - 2019 - Asian Bioethics Review 11 (3):227-254.
    Ethical decision-making frameworks assist in identifying the issues at stake in a particular setting and thinking through, in a methodical manner, the ethical issues that require consideration as well as the values that need to be considered and promoted. Decisions made about the use, sharing, and re-use of big data are complex and laden with values. This paper sets out an Ethics Framework for Big Data in Health and Research developed by a working group convened by the Science, (...)
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  10. Pandemic Ethics: The Case for Risky Research.Richard Yetter Chappell & Peter Singer - 2020 - Research Ethics 16 (3-4):1-8.
    There is too much that we do not know about COVID-19. The longer we take to find it out, the more lives will be lost. In this paper, we will defend a principle of risk parity: if it is permissible...
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  11. The Regulation of Animal Research and the Emergence of Animal Ethics: A Conceptual History. [REVIEW]Bernard E. Rollin - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (4):285-304.
    The history of the regulation of animal research is essentially the history of the emergence of meaningful social ethics for animals in society. Initially, animal ethics concerned itself solely with cruelty, but this was seen as inadequate to late 20th-century concerns about animal use. The new social ethic for animals was quite different, and its conceptual bases are explored in this paper. The Animal Welfare Act of 1966 represented a very minimal and in many ways incoherent attempt (...)
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  12.  52
    Review of Tom L. Beauchamp and David DeGrazia PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL RESEARCH ETHICS[REVIEW]Nathan Nobis - forthcoming - Bioethics.
    . . Tom Beauchamp and David DeGrazia's principles do improve upon the 3Rs which don’t mention the need for benefits from animal experimentation, the need to compare these benefits to animal harms, and provide no hard limits on experimentation. -/- However, they present their principles as “useful” for people engaged in animal research and as a “philosophically sound” (p. 4) framework for a new ethic for animal research. Regrettably, I have doubts about both these overall claims and so (...)
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  13. Race Research and the Ethics of Belief.Jonny Anomaly - 2017 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 14 (2):287-297.
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  14. Ethics in Robotics Research: CERNA Recommendations.Alexei Grinbaum & Raja Chatila - 2017 - IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine (99):1-8.
    This article summarizes the recommendations concerning robotics as issued by the Commission for the Ethics of Research in Information Sciences and Technologies (CERNA), the French advisory commission for the ethics of information and communication technology (ICT) research. Robotics has numerous applications in which its role can be overwhelming and may lead to unexpected consequences. In this rapidly evolving technological environment, CERNA does not set novel ethical standards but seeks to make ethical deliberation inseparable from scientific activity. (...)
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  15.  67
    The Ethics of International Research with Abandoned Children.J. Millum - 2007 - Science 318:1874-75.
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  16. Diversion Effects, Incentive Effects, and the Goals of Research Ethics Promulgations.Danielle M. Wenner - 2015 - Journal of Law and the Biosciences.
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  17. Special Section: Moving Forward in Animal Research Ethics Guest Editorial Reassessing Animal Research Ethics.David DeGrazia - 2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (4):385-389.
    Animal research has long been a source of biomedical aspirations and moral concern. Examples of both hope and concern are abundant today. In recent months, as is common practice, monkeys have served as test subjects in promising preclinical trials for an Ebola vaccine or treatment 1 , 2 , 3 and in controversial maternal deprivation studies. 4 The unresolved tension between the noble aspirations of animal research and the ethical controversies it often generates motivates the present issue of (...)
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  18. A Research Program for Empirically Informed Ethics.Markus Christen & Mark Alfano - 2013 - In Empirically Informed Ethics. Springer. pp. 3-27.
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  19. Health Research Priority Setting: The Duties of Individual Funders.Leah Pierson & Joseph Millum - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (11):6-17.
    The vast majority of health research resources are used to study conditions that affect a small, advantaged portion of the global population. This distribution has been widely criticized as inequitable and threatens to exacerbate health disparities. However, there has been little systematic work on what individual health research funders ought to do in response. In this article, we analyze the general and special duties of research funders to the different populations that might benefit from health research. (...)
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  20. Listening to Children : Children, Ethics and Social Research.Priscilla Alderson - 1995
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  21.  25
    Return of Positive Test Results to Participants in Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevalence Studies: Research Ethics and Responsibilities.Joshua Grubbs, Joseph Millum, Cornelis A. Rietmeijer & Peter H. Kilmarx - 2021 - Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
    Background: In prevalence studies of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), investigators often provide syndromic management for symptomatic participants, but may not provide specific treatment for asymptomatic individuals with positive laboratory test results due to the delays between sample collection and availability of results as well as logistical constraints in recontacting study participants. Methods: To characterize the extent of this issue, 80 prevalence studies from the World Health Organization’s Report on global sexually transmitted infection surveillance, 2018, were reviewed. Studies were classified as (...)
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  22.  99
    Precision Medicine and Big Data: The Application of an Ethics Framework for Big Data in Health and Research.G. Owen Schaefer, E. Shyong Tai & Shirley Sun - 2019 - Asian Bioethics Review 11 (3):275-288.
    As opposed to a ‘one size fits all’ approach, precision medicine uses relevant biological, medical, behavioural and environmental information about a person to further personalize their healthcare. This could mean better prediction of someone’s disease risk and more effective diagnosis and treatment if they have a condition. Big data allows for far more precision and tailoring than was ever before possible by linking together diverse datasets to reveal hitherto-unknown correlations and causal pathways. But it also raises ethical issues relating to (...)
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  23. Ethics Surrounding Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research.Joseph Nkang Ogar - 2019 - International Social Mentality and Researcher Thinkers Journal 5 (22).
    Since their discovery in the early 1990s, Stem Cell has brought the prospect of radically improving treatments for a host of diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease, cancers and many among other diseases that currently render patients and scientists helpless to combat. With the advent of medical and scientific research, comes the inevitable emergence of ethical controversy that often accompanied major scientific and medical development. The use of Stem Cell is no different. Those who seek to curtail the use (...)
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  24.  93
    Privacy, Ethics, and Institutional Research.Alan Rubel - 2019 - New Directions in Institutional Research 2019 (183):5-16.
    Despite widespread agreement that privacy in the context of education is important, it can be difficult to pin down precisely why and to what extent it is important, and it is challenging to determine how privacy is related to other important values. But that task is crucial. Absent a clear sense of what privacy is, it will be difficult to understand the scope of privacy protections in codes of ethics. Moreover, privacy will inevitably conflict with other values, and understanding (...)
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  25. Reviving Nuclear Ethics: A Renewed Research Agenda for the Twenty-First Century.Thomas E. Doyle - 2010 - Ethics and International Affairs 24 (3):287-308.
    Since the end of the Cold War, international ethicists have focused largely on issues outside the traditional scope of security studies. The nuclear ethics literature needs to be revived and reoriented to address the new and evolving 21st century nuclear threats and policy responses.
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  26. The Ethics of Border Guarding: A First Exploration and a Research Agenda for the Future.Peter Olsthoorn - 2018 - Ethics and Education 13 (2):157-171.
    Although the notion of universal human rights allows for the idea that states (and supranational organizations such as the European Union) can, or even should, control and impose restrictions on migration, both notions clearly do not sit well together. The ensuing tension manifests itself in our ambivalent attitude towards migration, but also affects the border guards who have to implement national and supranational policies on migration. Little has been written on the ethics that has to guide these border guards (...)
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  27. How Payment For Research Participation Can Be Coercive.Joseph Millum & Michael Garnett - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (9):21-31.
    The idea that payment for research participation can be coercive appears widespread among research ethics committee members, researchers, and regulatory bodies. Yet analysis of the concept of coercion by philosophers and bioethicists has mostly concluded that payment does not coerce, because coercion necessarily involves threats, not offers. In this article we aim to resolve this disagreement by distinguishing between two distinct but overlapping concepts of coercion. Consent-undermining coercion marks out certain actions as impermissible and certain agreements as (...)
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  28. Big Data Ethics in Research.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The main problems faced by scientists in working with Big Data sets, highlighting the main ethical issues, taking into account the legislation of the European Union. After a brief Introduction to Big Data, the Technology section presents specific research applications. There is an approach to the main philosophical issues in Philosophical Aspects, and Legal Aspects with specific ethical issues in the EU Regulation on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the (...)
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  29. Direct Reprogramming and Ethics in Stem Cell Research.W. Malcolm Byrnes - 2008 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 8 (2):277-290.
    The recent successful conversion of adult cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells through direct reprogramming opens a new chapter in the study of disease and the development of regenerative medicine. It also provides a historic opportunity to turn away from the ethically problematic use of embryonic stem cells isolated through the destruction of human embryos. Moreover, because iPS cells are patient specific, they render therapeutic cloning unnecessary. To maximize therapeutic benefit, adult stem cell research will need to be (...)
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  30. Consent and the Ethical Duty to Participate in Health Data Research.Angela Ballantyne & G. Owen Schaefer - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (6):392-396.
    The predominant view is that a study using health data is observational research and should require individual consent unless it can be shown that gaining consent is impractical. But recent arguments have been made that citizens have an ethical obligation to share their health information for research purposes. In our view, this obligation is sufficient ground to expand the circumstances where secondary use research with identifiable health information is permitted without explicit subject consent. As such, for some (...)
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  31. Stemming the Tide of Normalisation: An Expanded Feminist Analysis of the Ethics and Social Impact of Embryonic Stem Cell Research.Shelley Tremain - 2006 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (1-2):33-42.
    Feminists have indicated the inadequacies of bioethical debates about human embryonic stem cell research, which have for the most part revolved around concerns about the moral status of the human embryo. Feminists have argued, for instance, that inquiry concerning the ethics and politics of human embryonic stem cell research should consider the relations of social power in which the research is embedded. My argument is that this feminist work on stem cells is itself inadequate, however, insofar (...)
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  32. Islamic Ethics and the Implications for Business.Gillian Rice - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 18 (4):345 - 358.
    As global business operations expand, managers need more knowledge of foreign cultures, in particular, information on the ethics of doing business across borders. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to share the Islamic perspective on business ethics, little known in the west, which may stimulate further thinking and debate on the relationships between ethics and business, and to provide some knowledge of Islamic philosophy in order to help managers do business in Muslim cultures. The case of (...)
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  33. Research Participants’ Perceptions and Views on Consent for Biobank Research: A Review of Empirical Data and Ethical Analysis.Flavio D'Abramo, Jan Schildmann & Jochen Vollmann - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):60.
    Appropriate information and consent has been one of the most intensely discussed topics within the context of biobank research. In parallel to the normative debate, many socio-empirical studies have been conducted to gather experiences, preferences and views of patients, healthy research participants and further stakeholders. However, there is scarcity of literature which connects the normative debate about justifications for different consent models with findings gained in empirical research. In this paper we discuss findings of a limited review (...)
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  34. The Ethics of Child Participation in Significantly Risky Non-Therapeutic Research.Tom Burns - manuscript
    The principles which can justify significantly risky nontherapeutic research on children are a combination of: (1) direct or indirect benefits to the child participants now and/or in the future (and these benefits need not necessarily be medical, they can also be socioeconomic or otherwise non-medical); (2) a high standard of informed consent that fundamentally focuses on the child participant's understanding (and capacity for understanding) of relevant features of informed consent. Researchers, parents and guardians, as well as child participants themselves, (...)
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  35. The Obligation to Participate in Biomedical Research.G. Owen Schaefer, Ezekiel J. Emanuel & Alan Wertheimer - 2009 - Journal of the American Medical Association 302 (1):67-72.
    The current prevailing view is that participation in biomedical research is above and beyond the call of duty. While some commentators have offered reasons against this, we propose a novel public goods argument for an obligation to participate in biomedical research. Biomedical knowledge is a public good, available to any individual even if that individual does not contribute to it. Participation in research is a critical way to support an important public good. Consequently, all have a duty (...)
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  36. Clinical Research: Should Patients Pay to Play?Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Steven Joffe, Christine Grady, David Wendler & Govind Persad - 2015 - Science Translational Medicine 7 (298):298ps16.
    We argue that charging people to participate in research is likely to undermine the fundamental ethical bases of clinical research, especially the principles of social value, scientific validity, and fair subject selection.
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  37. Addressing the 'Global Basic Structure' in the Ethics of International Health Research Involving Human Subjects.Janet Borgerson - 2005 - Journal of Philosophical Research 30 (9999):235-249.
    The context of international health research involving human subjects, and this should appear obvious, is the human community. As such, basic questions of how human beings should be treated by other human beings, particularly in situations of unequal power – e.g., in the form of control, choice, or opportunity – lay at the foundations of related ethical discourse when ethics are discussed at all. I trace a narrative that follows upon a recent revision process of international guidelines for (...)
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  38.  39
    The Ethics of Biomedical Military Research: Therapy, Prevention, Enhancement, and Risk.Alexandre Erler & Vincent C. Müller - forthcoming - In Daniel Messelken & David Winkler (eds.), Health care in contexts of risk, uncertainty, and hybridity. Berlin: Springer. pp. 1-20.
    What proper role should considerations of risk, particularly to research subjects, play when it comes to conducting research on human enhancement in the military context? We introduce the currently visible military enhancement techniques (1) and the standard discussion of risk for these (2), in particular what we refer to as the ‘Assumption’, which states that the demands for risk-avoidance are higher for enhancement than for therapy. We challenge the Assumption through the introduction of three categories of enhancements (3): (...)
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  39. Empirical Ethics, Context-Sensitivity, and Contextualism.Albert Musschenga - 2005 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (5):467 – 490.
    In medical ethics, business ethics, and some branches of political philosophy (multi-culturalism, issues of just allocation, and equitable distribution) the literature increasingly combines insights from ethics and the social sciences. Some authors in medical ethics even speak of a new phase in the history of ethics, hailing "empirical ethics" as a logical next step in the development of practical ethics after the turn to "applied ethics." The name empirical ethics is ill-chosen (...)
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  40.  37
    Challenges of Macro-Ethics: Bioethics and the Transformation of Knowledge Production. [REVIEW]Hub Zwart - 2008 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 5 (4):283-293.
    One interesting aspect of the Hwang-case has been the way in which this affair was assessed by academic journals such as Nature. Initially, Hwang’s success was regarded as evidence for the detrimental effects of research ethics, slowing down the pace of research in Western countries. Eventually, however, Hwang’s debacle was seen as evidence for the importance of ethics in the life sciences. Ironically, it was concluded that the West maintains its prominence in science (as a global (...)
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  41. Care After Research: A Framework for NHS RECs.Neema Sofaer, Penney Lewis & Hugh Davies - 2012 - Health Research Authority.
    Care after research is for participants after they have finished the study. Often it is NHS-provided healthcare for the medical condition that the study addresses. Sometimes it includes the study intervention, whether funded and supplied by the study sponsor, NHS or other party. The NHS has the primary responsibility for care after research. However, researchers are responsible at least for explaining and justifying what will happen to participants once they have finished. RECs are responsible for considering the arrangements. (...)
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  42.  21
    Working with Research Integrity—Guidance for Research Performing Organisations: The Bonn PRINTEGER Statement.Mira Zöller, Hub Zwart, Knut Vie, Krista Varantola, Marta Tazewell, Margit Sutrop, Thomas Saretzki, Sarah Rijcke, Barend Meulen, Inge Lerouge, Matthias Kaiser, Jacques Janssen, Ingrid Jacobsen, Serge Horbach, Bert Heinrichs, Gloria Fuster, Carlo Casonato, Henriette Bout, Giles Birchley, Sharon Bailey, Frank Anthun & Ellen-Marie Forsberg - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (4):1023-1034.
    This document presents the Bonn PRINTEGER Consensus Statement: Working with Research Integrity—Guidance for research performing organisations. The aim of the statement is to complement existing instruments by focusing specifically on institutional responsibilities for strengthening integrity. It takes into account the daily challenges and organisational contexts of most researchers. The statement intends to make research integrity challenges recognisable from the work-floor perspective, providing concrete advice on organisational measures to strengthen integrity. The statement, which was concluded February 7th 2018, (...)
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  43. ETHICS FOR RESEARCH PAPERS.EDITOR Ijaet - 2011 - IJAET.
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  44. Code-Consistent Ethics Review: Defence of a Hybrid Account.G. Owen Schaefer - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (7):494-495.
    It is generally unquestioned that human subjects research review boards should assess the ethical acceptability of protocols. It says so right on the tin, after all: they are explicitly called research ethics committees in the UK. But it is precisely those sorts of unchallenged assumptions that should, from time to time, be assessed and critiqued, in case they are in fact unfounded. John Stuart Mill's objection to suppressers of dissent is instructive here: “If the opinion is right, (...)
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  45. Ethics of the Health-Related Internet of Things: A Narrative Review.Brent Mittelstadt - 2017 - Ethics and Information Technology 19 (3):1-19.
    The internet of things is increasingly spreading into the domain of medical and social care. Internet-enabled devices for monitoring and managing the health and well-being of users outside of traditional medical institutions have rapidly become common tools to support healthcare. Health-related internet of things (H-IoT) technologies increasingly play a key role in health management, for purposes including disease prevention, real-time tele-monitoring of patient’s functions, testing of treatments, fitness and well-being monitoring, medication dispensation, and health research data collection. H-IoT promises (...)
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  46.  41
    Clarifying How to Deploy the Public Interest Criterion in Consent Waivers for Health Data and Tissue Research.G. Owen Schaefer, Graeme Laurie, Sumytra Menon, Alastair V. Campbell & Teck Chuan Voo - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-10.
    Background Several jurisdictions, including Singapore, Australia, New Zealand and most recently Ireland, have a public interest or public good criterion for granting waivers of consent in biomedical research using secondary health data or tissue. However, the concept of the public interest is not well defined in this context, which creates difficulties for institutions, institutional review boards and regulators trying to implement the criterion. Main text This paper clarifies how the public interest criterion can be defensibly deployed. We first explain (...)
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  47. Responsible Research for the Construction of Maximally Humanlike Automata: The Paradox of Unattainable Informed Consent.Lantz Fleming Miller - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (4):297-305.
    Since the Nuremberg Code and the first Declaration of Helsinki, globally there has been increasing adoption and adherence to procedures for ensuring that human subjects in research are as well informed as possible of the study’s reasons and risks and voluntarily consent to serving as subject. To do otherwise is essentially viewed as violation of the human research subject’s legal and moral rights. However, with the recent philosophical concerns about responsible robotics, the limits and ambiguities of research-subjects (...)
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  48. The Ethics of Historic Preservation.Erich Hatala Matthes - 2016 - Philosophy Compass 11 (12):786-794.
    This article draws together research from various sub-disciplines of philosophy to offer an overview of recent philosophical work on the ethics of historic preservation. I discuss how philosophers writing about art, culture, and the environment have appealed to historical significance in crafting arguments about the preservation of objects, practices, and places. By demonstrating how it relates to core themes in moral and political philosophy, I argue that historic preservation is essentially concerned with ethical issues.
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  49.  81
    Sharing the Benefits of Research Fairly: Two Approaches.Joseph Millum - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (4):219-223.
    Research projects sponsored by rich countries or companies and carried out in developing countries are often described as exploitative. One important debate about the prevention of exploitation in research centres on whether and how clinical research in developing countries should be responsive to local health problems. This paper analyses the responsiveness debate and draws out more general lessons for how policy makers can prevent exploitation in various research contexts. There are two independent ways to do this (...)
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  50. Ethics for Fish.Eliot Michaelson & Andrew Reisner - 2018 - In Anne Barnhill, Mark Budolfson & Tyler Doggett (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Food Ethics. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 189-208.
    In this chapter we discuss some of the central ethical issues specific to eating and harvesting fish. We survey recent research on fish intelligence and cognition and discuss possible considerations that are distinctive to questions about the ethics of eating fish as opposed to terrestrial and avian mammals. We conclude that those features that are distinctive to the harvesting and consumption of fish, including means of capture and the central role that fishing plays in many communities, do not (...)
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