Results for 'EC'

33 found
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  1.  73
    Knowledge and Attitude of Ethics Committee (EC) Members on Bioethics and Structure & Function of EC in Bangladesh: A Pilot Study.Shamima Parvin Lasker, Arif Hossain & M. A. Shakoor - 2019 - In Saiful Islam (ed.), Policy Brief. Dhaka: Directorate General of Health Services. pp. 1-8.
    Having scandalous unethical research practices in the mid and late 20th century, study protocols of biomedical research reviewed by the Ethics Committee (EC) has become the accepted (...)
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  2. Superdupersizing the Mind: Extended Cognition and the Persistence of Cognitive Bloat.Sean Allen-Hermanson - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 164 (3):791-806.
    Extended Cognition (EC) hypothesizes that there are parts of the world outside the head serving as cognitive vehicles. One criticism of this controversial view is the problem (...)
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  3. Gradability and Knowledge.Blome-Tillmann Michael - 2017 - In Jonathan Ichikawa (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Epistemic Contextualism. London: Routledge. pp. 348--357.
    Epistemic contextualism (‘EC’), the view that the truth-values of knowledge attributions may vary with the context of ascription, has a variety of different linguistic implementations. On (...)one of the implementations most popular in the early days of EC, the predicateknows pfunctions semantically similarly to gradable adjectives such asflat’, ‘tall’, orempty’. In recent work Jason Stanley and John Hawthorne have presented powerful arguments against such implementations of EC. In this article I briefly systematize the contextualist analogy to gradable adjectives, present Stanleys argument against the analogy, and offer a contextualist response that abandons the analogy in favor of modeling the semantics ofknows palong the lines of quantifier expressions. I then present Hawthornes objection to the views presented, and finally conclude by outlining an argument to the effect thatknows pis an automatic indexical and as such to be expected to function differently from many other indexicals that the term has been compared to in the literature. I finally point out that no analogy should be expected to be perfect, and that no harm is done by postulating some unique behavior ofknows p’. (shrink)
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  4. Contextualism and the Epistemological Enterprise.Michael Blome-Tillmann - 2007 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 107 (1pt3):387-394.
    Epistemic contextualism (EC) is primarily a semantic view, viz. the view thatknowledge’-ascriptions can change their contents with the conversational context. To be more precise, EC (...)is the view that the predicateknowhas an unstable Kaplan character, i.e. a character that does not map all contexts on the same content. According to EC, ‘knowis thus an indexical expression. Notwithstanding this purely linguistic characterisation of EC, contextualists have traditionally argued that their views have considerable philosophical impact, this being due to the alleged fact that their linguistic views aboutknowprovide the resources for a resolution of sceptical puzzles. In this paper I will address an objection to EC claiming that, as a linguistic view about the termknow’, EC cannot be of any epistemological significance. (shrink)
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  5. Modal Knowledge and Counterfactual Knowledge.Sonia Roca-Royes - 2011 - Logique Et Analyse 54 (216):537-552.
    The paper compares the suitability of two different epistemologies of counterfactuals—(EC) and (W)—to elucidate modal knowledge. I argue that, while both of them explain the data (...) on our knowledge of counterfactuals, only (W)—Williamsons epistemologyis compatible with all counterpossibles being true. This is something on which Williamsons counterfactual-based account of modal knowledge relies. A first problem is, therefore, that, in the absence of further, disambiguating data, Williamsons choice of (W) is objectionably biased. A second, deeper problem is that (W) cannot satisfactorily elucidate modal knowledge. Third, from a naturalistic perspective, the nature of this second problem favours (EC) against (W). (shrink)
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  6. The Extensionality of Parthood and Composition.Achille C. Varzi - 2008 - Philosophical Quarterly 58 (230):108-133.
    I focus on three mereological principles: the Extensionality of Parthood (EP), the Uniqueness of Composition (UC), and the Extensionality of Composition (EC). These principles are not equivalent. (...)
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  7. Extended Cognition, The New MechanistsMutual Manipulability Criterion, and The Challenge of Trivial Extendedness.Beate Krickel - 2020 - Mind and Language 35 (4):539–561.
    Many authors have turned their attention to the notion of constitution to determine whether the hypothesis of extended cognition (EC) is true. One common strategy is to (...)
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  8. Contextualism, SubjectSensitive Invariantism, and the Interaction ofKnowledge’‐Ascriptions with Modal and Temporal Operators.Michael Blome-Tillmann - 2009 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79 (2):315-331.
    Jason Stanley has argued recently that Epistemic Contextualism and SubjectSensitive Invariantism are explanatorily on a par with regard to certain data arising from modal and temporal (...)embeddings ofknowledge’‐ascriptions. This paper argues against Stanley that EC has a clear advantage over SSI in the discussed field and introduces a new type of linguistic datum strongly suggesting the falsity of SSI. (shrink)
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  9. Harm or Mere Inconvenience? Denying Women Emergency Contraception.Carolyn McLeod - 2010 - Hypatia 25 (1):11-30.
    This paper addresses the likely impact on women of being denied emergency contraception (EC) by pharmacists who conscientiously refuse to provide it. A common viewdefended by (...)Elizabeth Fenton and Loren Lomasky, among othersis that these refusals inconvenience rather than harm women so long as the women can easily get EC somewhere else nearby. I argue from a feminist perspective that the refusals harm women even when they can easily get EC somewhere else nearby. (shrink)
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  10. The Structure of Essentialist Explanations of Necessity.Michael Wallner - 2020 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 9 (1):4-13.
    Fine, Lowe and Hale accept the view that necessity is to be explained by essences: Necessarily p iff, and because, there is some x whose essence ensures (...)
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  11. The Mere Considerability of Animals.Mylan Engel Jr - 2001 - Acta Analytica 16:89-108.
    Singer and Regan predicate their arguments -- for ethical vegetarianism, against animal experimentation, and for an end to animal exploitation generally -- on the equal considerability premise (EC). (...)According to (EC), we owe humans and sentient nonhumans exactly the same degree of moral considerability. While Singer's and Regan's conclusions follow from (EC), many philosophers reject their arguments because they find (EC)'s implications morally repugnant and intuitively unacceptable. Like most people, you probably reject (EC). Never the less, you're already committed to the mere considerability premise -- the premise that sentient nonhuman animals deserve some moral consideration, although not as much consideration as that owed humans. I argue that the mere considerability premise entails that vegetarianism is morally obligatory in most contexts and that animal experimentation is almost always wrong. Since you accept the mere considerability premise, you are already rationally committed to the immorality of eating meat and the wrongfulness of most animal experimentation. Hence, moral consistency requires that you stop eating meat and stop purchasing products tested on animals. (shrink)
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  12.  43
    Embodied Appearance Properties and Subjectivity.Miguel Angel Sebastian - 2018 - Adaptive Behavior 26 (Special Issue: Spotlight on 4E C):1-12.
    The traditional approach in cognitive sciences holds that cognition is a matter of manipulating abstract symbols followingcertain rules. According to this view, the body is merely an (...)
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  13.  47
    Subsidies for the Ship Industry of South Korea: Comment on 2005 WTO Panel's Decision.Kiyoung Kim - 2005 - 인권과 정의 350:72-91.
    WTO는 2005. 3. 7. EC 제소의 선박산업에 대한 보조금지급에 관한 한국과 EC 간의 通商紛爭에 하여 패널결정을 선고하였으며, 양국의 항소포기로 인하여 4. 12. 분쟁해결기구가 결정을 채택하고 (...)
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  14. Emotional Creativity: A Meta-Analysis and Integrative Review.Martin Kuška, Radek Trnka, Josef Mana & Tomas Nikolai - 2020 - Creativity Research Journal 32.
    Emotional creativity (EC) is a pattern of cognitive abilities and personality traits related to originality and appropriateness in emotional experience. EC has been found to be related (...)
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  15. Formulação de Ração Para Ovinos.Emanuel Isaque Cordeiro da Silva - manuscript
    Formulação de Ração para Ovinos -/- Belo Jardim 2021 Formulação de Ração para Ovinos Copyright © 2021 -/- Todos os direitos reservados -/- Impresso no Brasil / Printed in Brazil -/- (...)
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  16. Basic Ecclesial Community and Economics of Compassion.Willard Enrique R. Macaraan - 2013 - Journal of Dharma 38 (2):147-166.
    The current appeal of non-standard economic alternatives is backgrounded against the vulnerability of mainstream capitalism to meltdown and crisis as shown in recent times. There is (...)an increasing number of governments, institutions, and civil societies (NGOs) that have been advocating economic systems, structures, or dynamics that would promote the good of the human person (dignity, personhood, values, and worth). People have started to realize that doing economics is not always within the realm of rationalized judgments and mathematized calculations (highly impersonal) but must look after the human person, at all costs. This paper attempts to contribute to this agendum by employing an interdisciplinary dialogue between theology and economics; drawing a moral-cultural framework towards a compassion-based economics. Together with the positive traits of todays economic alternatives and the salient features of Jesuspraxis of compassion, this paper would offer fourteen (14) criteria as basis for what could be the most feasible base/locus for an economics of compassion. Eventually, what has been considered as the suitable base/locus is the Basic Ecclesial Communities (BECs). Hence, a BEC-based Economics of Compassion or BEC-EC. (shrink)
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  17.  75
    Stanley's Three Flaws.Stefan Riedener - 2010 - Swiss Philosophical Preprints.
    In this essay, I shall briefly present Epistemic Contextualism (EC), Invariantism and Interest- Relative Invariantism (IRI) (section 2). Then I will discuss three theses of Jason Stanley (...)s Knowledge and Practical Interests (Oxford 2005). I argue that Stanleys case against Contextualism is based on a misconception of its semantic nature, that there is a disadvantage for Interest-Relative Invariantism in terms of the sceptical paradox and that Stanleys explanation of intuitions can be interpreted in favour of Contextualism (sections 3.1. - 3.3.). (shrink)
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  18. Explanation, Confirmation, and Hempel's Paradox.William Roche - 2017 - In Kevin McCain & Ted Poston (eds.), Best explanations: New essays on inference to the best explanation. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 219-241.
    Hempels Converse Consequence Condition (CCC), Entailment Condition (EC), and Special Consequence Condition (SCC) have some prima facie plausibility when taken individually. Hempel, though, shows that they (...)have no plausibility when taken together, for together they entail that E confirms H for any propositions E and H. This isHempels paradox”. It turns out that Hempels argument would fail if one or more of CCC, EC, and SCC were modified in terms of explanation. This opens up the possibility that Hempels paradox can be solved by modifying one or more of CCC, EC, and SCC in terms of explanation. I explore this possibility by modifying CCC and SCC in terms of explanation and considering whether CCC and SCC so modified are correct. I also relate that possibility to Inference to the Best Explanation. (shrink)
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  19. Heavy Metals Contamination in Greenhouse Soils and Vegetables in Guanzhong, China.Ling Liu - 2014 - Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences 4:80-88.
    This study used a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) and atomic fluorescence spec-trophotometer (AFS) to detect the concentrations of chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), hy-drargyrum (...) (Hg) and arsenic (As) in soils and three genotypes of vegetables in greenhouse, as well as analyzed the physical and chemical properties of soils, including soil pH, soil organic matter (OM), basic nutrients, electrical conductivity (EC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in Guan- zhong areas, Shaanxi province, China. The results showed that comparing to subsoil, the sampled topsoil is enriched in Cr, Cd, Pb, As and Hg. Cd (0.83 - 3.17 mg·kg-1) and Hg (0.40 - 1.44 mg·kg-1) are exceeding the limited value stated inthe 2006 Greenhouse Vegetable Producing Environmental Quality Evaluation Standardsof 0.40 mg·kg-1 and 0.35 mg·kg-1 respectively. However, Nanzhuang greenhouse soil is within the limits. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) of soil in Sanyuan (8.10) is the highest and in Dongzhang (4.23) is the lowest. The contents of Pb (0.201 - 0.376 mg·kg-1) were exceeding the limited value (0.20 mg·kg-1) in vegetables species, and Cd (0.0363 - 0.0572 mg·kg-1) in some place were also exceeding the limited value (0.05 mg·kg-1). Greenhouse soils were becoming acidified year after year; the ratios of N, P and K in soil were seriously imbalanced. According to the impacting factors, OM, pH, available P, EC and CEC have obviously effected the accumulation of Cr and Hg. However, there was not enough evidence for the effects of available nitrogen and available potassium. (shrink)
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  20.  90
    DO CHANGES TO THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION SHAREHOLDER RIGHTS DIRECTIVE ON CORPORATE PAY ALTER SHAREHOLDERSMORAL RESPONSIBILITES?Magdalena Smith - manuscript
    This paper looks at the specific proposed amendments to European directive 2007/36/EC and 2013/34/EU, and evaluates as to how such amendments alter shareholdersmoral (...)responsibilities. To be responsible is here simply to be understood as being under an obligation, where an obligation is a requirement on an agent to either act or refrain from acting in a given way. In order to determine whether changes to the proposed directives alter shareholdersmoral responsibilities the following analysis argues that we need to look at three factors: whether such changes do in fact alter the subject matter of shareholdersobligations, a closer look at the agent i.e. shareholders to whom the obligation is to apply and thirdly whether they do actually apply. (shrink)
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  21.  77
    L'humaine mesure ou l'institution des registres catégoriels de l'humain et du non humain.Cormier Stéphane - 2019 - Article in Monographica « The Human Measure. Perpectives on Humanism », Rivista di Filosofia/A Review of Philosophy, « Etica E Politica - Ethics and Politics », Online and Open Access Philosophical Journal, Edizioni Università di Trieste, Italia/Italy, Gu.
    Which do we conceptualize like Human in opposition to non Human ? The institution oflarge sharesorThe Great Divide”, in terms of categories between the Human (...) one and the non Human one, is far from to be always established in various times and Human spaces, such as we generally think it. This apparently natural institution, even expresses, appears after examination much less obviates that we thought it traditionally. For this reason, it constitutes an object of intellectual investigations of choice for many traditional knowledge such anthropology, the history, philosophy, theology, but also for the whole of contemporary sciences. Because, this category institution questions the identity even the EC what we indicate like human, and consequently, like non human. Indeed, about what and which precisely speak us when it is question of Human or the Human ones, about humanity in generic term? What do we seek to describe and qualify under the registers of Human and non Human? Which are the non Human, of the binarism category ones presupposed which institute the registers of conceptual dualism Human/humanity/inhumanity? What do we seek to think in the idea of onebeyond the human one”, which the latter institutes a differentialism between the beings or entities or contrary, seeks with the indifférencier as in certain news of anthropology who challenges any anthropocentrée & humanistic design? Most traditional definitions tend to affirm that this we claim to conceptualize & to subsume under the concept ofHumanconstitutes something like a certain exception in the order of the alive one. What is it exactly of this allegedhuman exception”? What does it recover precisely? In addition, to answer the interrogation: “That are the non Human ones and which is the human ones? ”, does not have anything manifesto apart from this we can crudely observe and who allows us to or not retain, more or less, certain features of appearance and the behavior. We could also answer in a provocative and relativistic way: “With each one its Human and its non Human, its humanity and its nonhumanity”, according to the configurations which we institute to return account of the whole of the interactions that we let us have or not with our multiple, material & immaterial, visible & invisible environments! There thus do not exist standards which would tend in manner more or less final and universal to govern the uses category of Human and of the Human one. For these reasons, the challenge of our short communication will be to expose presupposed and reasons of such an interest category, conceptual and descriptive fundamentally Human for the non Human one which gives an account of the multiple forms of the institution of human the versus the nonhuman one, while founding, in addition, a whole range of beings or of entities going from the one with the other, thus questioning the imaginary and real bases of our multidimensional assignments in category terms, of identity, anybody, cognitive faculties, various heritages, sensitivity, etc. (shrink)
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  22. How to Be a Compatibilist in Metaphysics: The Epistemic Strategy.Massimiliano Carrara & Vittorio Morato - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy:1-25.
    Conflicts between our best philosophical theories (BPTs) and our common beliefs are widespread. For example, if eliminativism is our BPT, then our BPT conflicts with common beliefs (...)
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  23. Morally Embedded Selves and Embedded Compatibilism.Guy Pinku - 2012 - Philosophica 85:67-89.
    The principal argument suggested here is that we are all morally embedded selves: We have no control over the abilities that make us moral agents nor can (...)
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  24.  50
    Fontenelle a Vznik Novověké Koncepce Pokroku Na Přelomu Sedmnáctého a Osmnáctého Století.Dagmar Zajíčková - 2014 - Teorie Vědy / Theory of Science 36 (4):397-419.
    Článek ukazuje pohled na utváření novověké koncepce pokroku v dílech Bernarda Le Boviera de Fontenelle. Idea pokroku byla poprvé přesně zformulována právě ve Fontenellových pracích. Podnětem pro (...)
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  25. Realismo E Antirealismo Nella Relazione di Arte E Esperienza Religiosa.Daniele Bertini - 2011 - In Massimo IIritano & Sergio Sorrentino (eds.), Arte e esperienza religiosa. Fredericiana.
    My starting assumption concerns the default view in western aestethics. My claim is that the view can be characterized in the following manner: while the arts and (...)
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  26. Secession, Law, and Rights: The Case of the Former Yugoslavia.Daniel Kofman - 2000 - Human Rights Review 1 (2):9-26.
    A common theme from certain circles during the Yugoslav wars was that the seceding republics lacked a right to secede, but that if a right were accorded (...)
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  27. Is It Possible to Provide Evidence of Insufficient Evidence? The Precautionary Principle at the WTO.Elisa Vecchione - 2012 - Chicago Journal of International Law 13 (1).
    This Article aims to demonstrate that the WTO jurisprudence on science-related trade disputes has become imbued with a specific vision of science that has prevented any (...)possible application of the precautionary principle. This situation is due both to the WTOs specific dispute settlement procedures and to the substantive nature of precautionary measures. Indeed, such measuresfoundation oninsufficient scientific evidencedramatically undermines the probative value of science in WTO adjudication and creates a seeming contradiction: The system requires defendants to provide legal evidence of the absence of sufficient scientific evidence. The reasoning of